The main ingredients in the manufacture of chocolate is cocoa nibs, cocoa, sugar, other sweeteners, cocoa butter, butter (ghee), milk powder, baby milk and emulsifiers. Vyshepechislennyh Some of the ingredients are described in detail in various parts of the book, but the basic properties are shown below.
Cocoa nibs, cocoa tertoe
The description of these components has already been described on the website. Conventional techniques of processing milk and certain types of dark chocolate is a low-temperature roasting.
Cocoa beans are used as raw materials for the production of milk and dark chocolate are in most cases "mass" or "conventional" type varieties Forastero. In the production of premium grade dark chocolate typically used species cocoa Trinitario (sometimes Criollo), wherein the formulations and processes used by various companies are different.
"Melkomolotaya" or "aroma", cocoa nibs differ in their properties, and many processors buy cocoa beans with the mark indicating a rather limited area of their habitat.
Mention should be made of the imported cocoa mass, that is generated within the local cocoa cultivation. Unfortunately, the quality is often quite low, the state of pollution and processor does not perform real control of quality beans used for the production of cocoa. The quality of the cocoa beans themselves fairly easy check, and you can refuse delivery if necessary.
Methods for the removal of unwanted odor and aftertaste of cocoa liquor described in many papers and used quite successfully, although some off-flavors intractable.
Sahar and podslastiteli
In the production of chocolate use a high quality sugar. It should be dry and free of invert sugars. The color of the sugar is less important than, for example, in the production of sweets. In the market there is some sort of yellowish sugar which is quite suitable for the production of chocolate.
The washed raw sugar sometimes include dietetic chocolate composition, but it usually contains a certain proportion of invert sugars and water, which causes problems in the milling step (this cm. Below). If the crystals are completely refined sugars are easy to fault, the moisture and invert sugar leads to the formation of "layers" that are detrimental impact on the consistency of chocolate and create difficulties in conching and glazing.
As a partial sugar substitutes used anhydrous dextrose and corn syrup (glucose syrup). For this purpose, suitable anhydrous dextrose (dextrose not hydrate). Anhydrous corn syrup hygroscopic and can cause difficulties due to absorption of moisture in the refining process.
Both of these substances reduce sweet taste and are advantageous from an economic point of view. Substances which do not contain sugar (sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol) is used as a sweetener in dietetic chocolate composition (cm. Below).
The properties of cocoa butter are already described on the website. Its physical properties are of great importance, and should be used cocoa butter to taste and aromatic characteristics of the average intensity for the production of milk chocolate. In step molding and formation of the texture are also important flowability and compression characteristics. Some oils including refined, may have a poor texture.
In the manufacture of chocolate are the basic components of whole milk powder (CMS) and skimmed milk powder (COM). Some countries allow the use of whey (usually demineralised). Milk baby will be described below. Milk fat (butter or ghee) was obtained from unsalted butter by dehydration or removing the clot and used together with COM to reduce the cost of milk chocolate.
Milk fat is effective against the formation of plaque on dark chocolate, and in some cases, it is used to replace the cocoa butter in the composition of milk chocolate or dark (because of the lower cost).
The most common emulsifier is lecithin, helps to reduce the viscosity and increase the shelf life of cocoa butter. Some other emulsifiers have been considered.
At present, regulations of some countries permit the addition of the small amounts of chocolate (5%) other fat. Such fats are called "equivalent", and they must have the same physical and chemical properties as cocoa butter (except fragrance).
The taste and flavor of chocolate, especially dark, depends on the mixture cocoa beans. In the production of milk chocolate milk is of great importance caramelization. Taste aromatic characteristics of chocolate l Formationcomfort as using vanillin, cinnamon, cassia oil, essential oils, almond, orange and lemon, various resins and balsams, and synthetic flavorings.
The development flavoring properties should engage experts claimroduction chocolate and confectionery products, but it should be noted once again that no skill can not eliminate the bad taste caused as a result of poor treatment or poor quality cocoa beans. В a number of countries there are provisions prohibiting the use of "additives, imitatingtheir the taste of chocolate, milk or butter.
The term "processing" refers to the process of re-processing of chocolate bars and confectionery. Chocolate products of irregular shape (marriage processed into paste, syrup, chips and used as an ingredient for the production of new batches of chocolate. This practice is a protest by the EU experts and PharmacopoeiaSince it opens up the possibility of the use of fillers instead of fillings or chocolate substitutes their ingredients. chocolate processing techniques will be described below.