Cocoa butter - a natural fat cocoa beans, but in some countries this term is understood only natural fat obtained from cocoa well the separated grits hydraulic or screw pressing.
Control by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines cocoa butter as the "edible fat derived from the whole cocoa beans (Theobroma genus or close thereto) before or after roasting." The dictionaries you can find a very vague definition, and one even claimed that cocoa butter is obtained from the coconut palm, which is absolutely not true.
International discussions on the definition of cocoa butter have intensified following discussions in the Codex Alimentarius and EEC (Caobisco) commissions. At a Codex workshop in 1981 in the United States, Wake analyzed key points in the production of chocolate and cocoa powder products. In his opinion, all producers and consumers of cocoa products should adhere to the provisions developed by the Codex Commission. Cocoa beans are grown in different countries around the world, many of which are producers of cocoa butter and related products, and therefore different supply conditions need to be considered and more research done. Below we will briefly describe the results of recent observations.
Pretty high price of cocoa butter contributes to the development of more complex manufacturing processes. Since the first edition of this book, a host of new literature on this topic. We will not deal here with the legal aspects and pay attention to the different ways of extracting this unique fat.
It is likely that the target companies, which are engaged in the extraction of cocoa butter for their own needs, are different from the goals of those who produce it for sale or purchase. The content of this chapter is intended to help in the selection of appropriate policies in this area.
Cocoa butter is obtained during the initial pressing
This oil is defined as the fat obtained from cocoa beans of high quality by industrial purification from their shell with a mechanical (hydraulic) pressing without any subsequent refining (excluding filtering).
Cocoa butter obtained by compression screw
When the screw, screw extrusion or pressing before extraction is carried out some additional steps. To facilitate the separation of the cocoa nibs steamed, but the chemical composition of cocoa butter is identical to that obtained by mechanical pressing. For cocoa butter from whole cocoa beans and screw presses are used.
With such cocoa butter flavor somewhat different technologies o ^ addition, which is obtained by mechanical pressing, - if the raw cocoa beans are used, it may be very soft or even "floral". Often auger extrusion is used to produce the cocoa butter in non-standard (for example, immature), cocoa bean products and some compression, after which the cocoa butter typically subjected to refining.
Cocoa butter is obtained using the solvent (extraction)
This cocoa butter is obtained from cocoa cake after pressing or screw of cocoa and chocolate products precipitation; it should always be subject to refinement.
The term "cocoa butter", denoting a certain commercial product, is the subject of intense debate. Some experts argue that this product must be made from cocoa products (cocoa beans, cocoa nibs, cocoa liquor, cocoa cake) only by mechanical (hydraulic) pressing.
As for the extraction of whole cocoa beans, you must keep in mind the following. If the cocoa bean to share cocoa grit falls 88%, while the shell fraction - 12% and if cocoa butter content and cocoa fat in them after roasting is respectively 55 and 3%, then the calculated cocoa butter content in the whole cocoa bean be 48,76%. This figure includes cocoa butter from cocoa nibs (48,40%) and cocoa fat from the shells (0,36%), in connection with which the cocoa fat from the shell generally extracted cocoa butter from cocoa bean will be 0,74% . The composition of the cocoa fat envelope will be discussed further.
The presence of such a small amount of fat in the cocoa shell has no significant effect on the properties of cocoa butter from cocoa beans, and the evidence that fat from the cocoa shell is not suitable for food, there is still no. According to some experts, the shell, as the outer part of the cocoa bean is exposed to pollution and can not be used for sanitary and hygienic reasons. Besides, it can remain traces of chemical spraying. Some evidence of the latter are available, and the roasting of the chemicals are transferred to the entire cocoa bean.
There are also opponents of the inclusion of cocoa fat from the cocoa bean shell in the term "cocoa butter". At the same time in the production of low grade of chocolate and cocoa products use dust cocoa nibs (residual cocoa raw materials), which, being intermediate in the separation krupnodroblenoy cocoa grits contain from 40 to 45% cocoa butter, approximately equal to its content of whole cocoa bean.
Due to the great popularity of milk chocolate, the production of which requires a high consumption of cocoa butter in comparison with dark chocolate, many manufacturers give an oil from cocoa beans, guided by purely economic interests.
In practice generally used screw presses, and then to extract the remaining cocoa butter, cocoa cake is subjected to solvent treatment. When using the whole cocoa beans require light roast (although cost and without it). This produces cocoa butter with a touch of flavor, just like what is required for the production of milk chocolate.
Methods of extraction solvent used for producing cocoa butter and other edible fats, was first paired with some difficulty because of the bad use of solvents, which are left in the product their tracks. Over time, these difficulties were overcome, and cocoa butter, solvent extracted using currently in some countries is the conventional commercial product. In the extraction process used highly refined petroleum distillates.
Extraction with Solvent facilitates removal as cocoa butter and some resins and phosphate, and emitted cocoa butter and typically subjected to deodorization "degumizatsii". It is for this reason that thus obtained cocoa butter has bland taste. This cocoa butter is considered a softer and less "caustic" than cocoa butter obtained by pressing.
It should be noted that cocoa butter, solvent extracted can not be the only being added to chocolate, - normally, its share in the total mixture of oils 2-5%.
Processes of preparation and properties of such oils will be discussed further.
Cocoa oil extracted as a result of hydraulic pressing of cocoa liquor, vegetable fat is a pale yellow, brittle at temperatures below 20 ° C; pronounced melting point is about 35 ° C, and the softening starts at 30-32 ° C. In the liquid state the vegetable fat has a tendency to supercooling, which should be considered in the process of molding and enrobing chocolate.
Cocoa butter is composed of glycerides of stearic, palmitic and oleic fatty acid and a small proportion of linoleic acid. It has been found that the cocoa butter glycerides present therein in the following percentages:
Trisaturated fatty acid 2,5-3,0
Trinenasyschennye fatty acid (triolein) 1,0
Di-unsaturated fatty acids:
Monounsaturated fatty acids:
The structure of these diglycerides studied in many papers using modern methods of analysis. Cocoa butter is studied of various origins in operation, and the results are presented below
Table 3.1. The composition of cocoa butter triglycerides of the main growth areas cocoa beans.
There are many publications on cocoa butter studies. Basic physical and chemical properties according to various sources is almost the same, but modern methods of analysis have revealed some differences in the structure of glycerides, which resulted in further study of the physical properties, including the rate of crystallization, cooling curves, hardness (penetration) and compression. These properties according to various estimates vary considerably.