Chocolate and cocoa

Crushing and exemption from the cocoa bean shell

akaobean cocoa consists of a kernel enclosed in a brownish-red shell (cocoa shell), which after roasting is easyseparated.
The core has a honeycomb structure and may be a pressure sensitive SPLIT on particles of different sizes, referred to in the production of grist.
When crushing roasted beans are released from the cocoa shells and the core are shredded to spin the different sizes. Obtained after crushing of grit size is divided into seven rooms. The first number corresponds to the largest, and the seventh - the smallest grit.
One end of the bean is cocoa germ 1 mm in diameter and about 4 mm.
In Table. 8 provides data on the percentage ratios between the core, shell and sprout in different types of cocoa beans, in Table 9-the average chemical composition of individual parts after roasting.
Table 8

variety bean Weight in g beans 100 Core shell Sprout
Arriba 148 88,4 11,6 0,8-0,9
Porto-Cable 142 86,6 13,4 0,8-0,9
Ceylon 138 90,9 9,1 0,8-0,9
Caracas 130 86,6 13,4 0,8-0,9
Trinidad 125 88,7 11,3 0,8-0,9
Grenada 107 87 13 0,8-0,9
Accra 103 87,9 12,1 0,8-0,9
The average 87,75 11, 4 0,85

As can be seen from Table. 9, the shell contains up to 17% of fiber, and therefore in a chocolate shell production of cocoa beans is not used.

Part of the cocoa bean moisture Protein substances Caffeine theobromine Fat Starch Fibre Other nitrogen-free substances Ash
Core 2,72 12,12 0,4 1,04 50,12 9,07 2,64 19,57 3,32
shell 3,8 13,1 0,1 1,3 3,4 2,8 16,7 8,1
Sprout 5,2 24,4 3 3,5 2,9 6,5

Sprout different high hardness, and grinding is poorly as well as the cocoa bean shell must be separated. In the milling process, and should not be used in chocolate production.
Crushing and Screening Machine
Crushing and screening machine, common in our factories (fig.), Separates the skin from the nucleus and the nucleus divides to grits of various sizes.
Roasted and cooled cocoa beans are served in 7 receiver. From the beans enter the bucket elevator 1, which lifts them to the top of the machine. Upon leaving the elevator beans pass through the magnetic field produced by the magnet 2, retaining ferroprimesi and an inclined junction site receives a crushing mechanism 3, which consists of a pair of grooved rollers, and in the latest models of the two-disc.
The gap between the grinding rollers or discs can be adjusted. Issuing from the crushing mechanism mixture of grains and core shell particles, is supplied to frame planar sieve 4, suspended on springs to the frame and having a reciprocating movement in a horizontal plane. Bolts are located in places of fastening, allow you to adjust the slope of the screen frame, the bottom of which consists of tightly adjacent to each other sections sieves with gradually increasing along the mesh sizes of the product.
To improve the screening along the screen frame arranged strokes, which make reciprocating motion, loosening and razraenivaya chipped core and shell. Most often in these machines has seven sieve sections with dimensions 0,75 cells; 1,5; 3; 4,5; 6; 7 and 8 mm.
Whole beans or the particle size of more than 8 mm coming (gathering) at the end of 5 screen in a separate channel and thence transmitted to the auger bucket elevator, which takes them to re-crushing.
The product passing through the screen is divided into seven fractions. Each fraction is a mixture of grains of core and shell particles with dimensions corresponding to the above dimensions of the sieve cells. Passing through the sieve, each fraction falls on a tray 6 under a screen that has a slope towards the vertical shafts 9. Entering the mine, each faction, pouring over inclined trays, moves down. The 10 fan installed at the top of the machine sucks in air, which, passing through the shafts, carries away the shell particles (they are much lighter than the grits). Particles of the nucleus continue to fall downward and come out of the mouth of the U in the collection. Under the body of the machine, the 8 triere was mounted to separate the shoots. There are seven mines in the crushing and sorting machine. Each fraction of the grains enters a separate, specially designed mine. All the mines are located on the front of the machine, directly behind the lattice partitions and are provided with shutters allowing to increase or reduce the holes through which air is sucked.
Using existing fixtures air velocity in each mine adjustable to together with the sheath is not carried away nibs.
Airflow at the outlet of the fan shaft is directed 10, and the shell contained therein fall into the channel C. Loss shell is made possible because the air velocity is much slower, since the cross section increases. To K through the channel does not pass through air, there is set revolving 11, which makes it possible to unload the shell from the channel, but prevents the penetration of air into the machine.
Since the air blown by the fan out of the machine, yet still may be grains or particles of the shell core for the exit of the machine air is directed into the cyclone, a baghouse, or in which there is contained therein trapping solid particles.
If the output shaft of the air together with the shell accidentally will blow core particles, they slow down due to air velocity falls in the extended part of the machine R. Hence core particles are carried screw S.
As seen from Table. 10, three grits fractions, the largest in size, can be obtained in an amount 65-70%.
Table 10

Room (grit size) Yield in% semolina Dimensions in mm sieve openings
7 (the smallest) 1,75 0,75
6 5,19 1,5
5 4,39 3
4 22,74 4,5
3 31,34 6
2 17,59 7
1 17 8

Since most small fraction grits (№ 7) contains mostly very high percentage of shell, and the corresponding fraction of the shell contains a substantial admixture of semolina, it is often in the crushing and sorting machine for this fraction shaft for air separation is not provided, and passed through a sieve № 7 fraction is sent directly to an output channel.
This fines fraction can be used for adding to the raw mixture from which the lower preparing chocolates, or to add to all sorts of fillings.
Rostock, having a length of about 4 mm goes together with crumbs 4 number, which is set to sieve in 4,5 mm.
sprouts misses the nibs of different sizes, so after Trier is passed only grit number 4.
As shown in Fig. 17 car Trier is located at the bottom.
In some machines Trier is missing, then use a separate machine, the general form of which is shown in Fig. 18, cross-sectional view of the principal part-cylinder-triera shown in Fig. 19.
The entire inner surface of the rotating cylinder has a spherical recess forms in which easy-UCLA dyval grits and germs can not lie down and keep them.
Grains cocoa, moving along the cylinder to fall into one or another recess and start to move along the circumference

Fig. 19. Cross-section of Trier.

In the direction of the arrow. Accidentally carried along with the grain in this movement along the circumference of the shoots, passing by the wing of 1, they are touched by it and fall back down, while the grains of cocoa, well settled in the depression of the cylinder, freely pass by the wing. Further they rise (together with the cylinder much higher, up to a special brush 2, which sweeps the grains down into the chute 3, where they are gripped by the screw 4 and taken out of the car.) Sprouts that are being thrown down all the time by the wing of 1 are gradually shifted along the big cylinder Thus, in one of the boxes placed at the end of the cylinder, sprouts are collected, in another box - a cocoa shell, peeled from the shoots.
During the processing of cocoa beans, nibs formed on the wastes and (Have (Location losses and therefore the yield of semolina is unroasted beans 82,5-83%., Waste and loss on these portions are formed (in%).
Losses for sorting beans 0,5-1
moisture loss during frying 4
Waste and loss during roasting 0,5
Waste to a crushing and screening machine. . . 12,0
Total losses and waste. . . 17-17,5% of
weight of cocoa raw beans
Krupa 1-3 №, comprising about 70%, it refers to the higher grades and typically used for generating high-grade chocolate.
Kіrupka № 4-7 used to produce conventional varieties of chocolate I have chocolate.
Grit size corresponding to the hopper-fed mixers, where it is fed to mixing after grinding.
Grit is mixed not only in size, but in accordance with the varieties of beans, from which it is derived.

Table. 11 shows data analysis cocoa grits from said operation, from which it is seen that a large content of grits fractions and membrane germs slightly, and it reaches a small 22%.
According to the cocoa nibs from the first three fractions better cut, during pressing it enables to obtain a higher yield of cocoa butter.
Table 11

Number (size) of grits Sieve Size mm Core Cocoa shells sprouts Fat Ash The weight ratio of grit size
1 8 99,7 0,3 55,8 2,45 3
2 8 99,55 0,2 0,25 55,8 2,54 35,4
3 6 97,75 01.Ser 0,45 55,5 2,65 30
4 4,5 98 0,9 1,1 55,5 2,65 18,5
5 3 94,3 3,6 2,1 54,5 2,82 6,2
6 1,5 78 22 38,3 3,46 6,9
7 0,75
1-7 97,55 1,65 0,9 53,8 2,81 100.0

Different varieties of cocoa beans differ in flavor and aromatic advantages, and some sort - in its characteristic color. Therefore, mixing їv specific proportions of the various software beans can provide the best combination of flavoring and aromatic qualities of chocolate and cocoa. It has been observed that the addition of a certain amount of beans Accra beans Arriba reports chocolate delicate taste and aroma.
Adding beans to Accra certain amount of beans Java or Ceylon softens the taste of chocolate, and enhances the distinctive flavor of chocolate according to the beautiful light shade.

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