The main semi-finished confectionery production is chocolate glaze. Traditionally, cocoa butter has been used to produce chocolate icing.
In recent decades, cocoa butter equivalents and cocoa butter substitutes of lauric and non-lauric types are widely used. During the crisis, there was a sharp transition to cocoa butter substitutes of lauric type (cocoa butter substitutes).
Cocoa butter substitutes differ in their chemical composition (fatty acid, triglyceride) and, accordingly, the physical and application properties (hardness and melting crystallization rate, stability during storage), which ultimately affects the quality confectionery coating.
Cocoa butter replacers (MKP) produced on vegetable oils (palm and its fractions, soybean, sunflower, canola and others.) Rich in palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The similarity of the fatty acid composition of cocoa butter substitutes of this group, and cocoa butter causes their good compatibility (up to 20%), which makes it possible to use in the production of cocoa powder glazes of all types, as well as cocoa grated, gives the product a distinctive chocolate taste.
Cocoa butter substitutes (surrogates) are produced on coconut and palm kernel oils. The fatty acid composition of surrogates and cocoa butter is completely different, so their miscibility is limited (up to 5%). In practice, for the production of glazes, they can only be used together with cocoa powder of low fat content (10-12%). Cocoa butter and cocoa butter substitutes of lauric type have also various stable forms of crystals: cocoa butter - b-form (V), surrogate, cocoa butter b-form (IV). The content of cocoa butter in the fat phase more than 5% leads to the appearance of a "fatty" graying and the formation of a eutectic mixture, as a result of which a softening effect is observed, characterized by a lesser hardness of the obtained mixture compared to the initial fats. That is why when switching to lauric fats, all equipment must be thoroughly cleaned and do not allow the introduction of non-lauric fats.
Cocoa butter substitutes, unlike cocoa butter non-lauric type substitutes, almost do not contain trans-isomers of fatty acids (Table 1), but practically on 100% consist of saturated fatty acids, which, like trans-isomers, are more difficult to digest by the human body in comparison With unsaturated fatty acids. In connection with this, according to international standards, when labeling confectionery products that contain fats along with trans-isomers of fatty acids, information is also given about the content of saturated fatty acids. This information will become mandatory on the Russian market after the adoption of technical regulations for confectionery products. Therefore, the world producers of cocoa butter substitutes create a new generation of non-lauric ZMK with a lower content of trans-isomers.
Given the recent trends of the modern market, the domestic company "EFKO" presented in May 2010 years ZMK "Ekolad 1602-36 TF», produced by partial hydrogenation and fractionation with a low content of trans-isomers to 10% (Table. 1).
Cocoa butter replacers of lauric group contain up to 80% of fatty acids with a chain length of not more than 14 carbon atoms (mainly lauric acid - up to 50%). Due to this fatty acid composition, lauric fats have a fast crystallization rate (Table 2), a sharp melting profile, a lack of selasticity during melting. Along with this, due to lauric acid, the fats of this group give confectionery products the most unpleasant defects - soap scent and taste. That is why when choosing ZMK decisive factor should be organoleptic indicators of glaze and their safety.
Soap smack and smell are caused by hydrolytic processes under the action of fat-splitting enzymes. By their nature, fats are prone to splitting and decay, as this is the only way to establish thermodynamic equilibrium. As a result, hydrolysis of fats is a natural process that leads to the accumulation of free fatty acids, which is expressed by the growth of the acid number. Surrogates of cocoa butter have a low iodine number, which indicates a low content of unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore surrogates are not subject to oxidative processes.
With the accumulation of low molecular weight acids - oil and cord - there are specific unpleasant taste and smell, with the accumulation of lauric acid - a soapy taste.
The most common fats containing lauric acid, cocoa butter substitutes are (lauric acid with at least 40%), coconut oil and palm kernel oil (from before 40 50%), milk fat (from before 2 6%). Only a small amount of free lauric acid is sufficient that the product purchased soapy taste.
To prevent the hydrolysis of fats and oils, two factors should be avoided: the presence of unbound moisture and the presence of lipases, since they activate hydrolysis. Enzyme lipase is resistant. Its inactivation occurs at a temperature of + 88 ... + 93 ° C, but a number of studies have established that in dry powders these organisms can survive at temperatures above + 104 ° С.
The activity of enzymes and microorganisms to a greater extent by the presence of moisture, namely, water activity, its availability for microbial growth, of oxidizing, enzymatic or other processes.
When water activity below 0,9 bacteria growth is unlikely. Mould and yeast are inhibited for the exponent of the 0,88 0,8 to the exception of certain osmophilic yeast, which retain their activity at a lower water activity (up to 0,6).
The most common enzymes (amylase, peroxidase and fenoksidaza) with a water activity less 0,85 are inactive. In contrast, the lipase is still active at rates below the 0,3 and even water activity component 0,1. In such circumstances, it shows extraordinary resistance to thermal breakdown.
All of lipase in the production of fats totally destroyed during production. Pollution fat lipase-producing microorganisms (yeast, mold and bacteria) in the manufacture of confectionery products is prevented by maintaining an environment corresponding to hygienic standards, as well as the choice of raw materials free of lipase activity and is characterized by good bacteriological conditions.
All substitutes of cocoa butter, offered "EFKO" Russian company and supplied by foreign manufacturers, there are no free lipase, so they are characterized by long life and never be the cause hydrolysis.
The source of the lipase in the confectionery industry can be cocoa powder, milk powder, nuts, egg products. Applicants for the production of raw fermented cocoa beans are characterized by a rather high content of microorganisms. Roasting not always destroys microorganisms to an acceptable amount, but the subsequent operations of compression and alkalizing cocoa cake becomes substantially pure microbiologically sense.
Infestation cocoa powder lipase may occur when infected with microorganisms that can accumulate in air ducts and conveying equipment companies producing cocoa powder. If in some places accumulate moisture or condensation, mold grows very quickly, forming pockets of spores that affect all products.
As a result of fungal or bactericidal activity of the cocoa powder may contain the active lipolytic enzymes. In studies of natural and alkalizovanny cocoa powders of different manufacturers (see Table. 3) in a sample containing mold, marked by the maximum lipase activity that may affect the shelf life of the finished glaze.
Thus, substitutes of cocoa and cocoa butter substitutes of oil have their own technology and consumer advantages and disadvantages (tabl.4).
Currently, the price for a non-lauric cocoa butter substitutes and lauric type is almost at the same level, and for certain types of non-lauric type MKP - slightly below the lauric type, but crucial aspect when selecting the type of MKP for confectionery manufacturers other than price shall be:
1) kind of confection and the mass fraction of moisture in it;
2) to ensure microbiological purity of raw materials and production;
3) technical equipment of production, the state of the cooling tunnels;
4) content in the cocoa butter substitute trans and saturated fatty acids;
5) light stability and resistance to "bloom" during storage.
List of sources used:
1. Minifay BU "Chocolate, sweets, candies and other confectionery" / Minifay BU .; translated from the English under the total. scientific. Ed. TV Savenkova. - SPb .: Occupation, 2005
2. Zubchenko AV "Physico-chemical basis of confectionery technology", Voronezh, 2001. - 389 with.
3. Miroshnikov RM "Fats alternative to cocoa butter in the Russian market." Food industry, 2003, No 3, p. 66-68.