Fats other than cocoa butter, but which can be with or mixed with chocolate in a small amount, called fat, cocoa butter substitutes (CBS, Cocoa Butter Substitutes).
Before some manufacturers to dilute cocoa butter to the detriment of the reputation of its products and used the cheap oil. Such fats have been three major disadvantages:
1) they formed eutectic mixtures with cocoa butter with a lower melting point, which made the chocolate soft at normal temperatures, and too soft in summer;
2) they increased the polymorphic effect and made it difficult to properly temper the chocolate, making it very susceptible to discoloration and plaque formation;
3) processes of microbiological and oxidative spoilage could develop in them, which led to rancidity of products and the development of foreign aromas.
Such fats are derived from coconut, palm kernel and other vegetable oils and nut, and their composition significantly differs from that of cocoa butter. These fats can be divided into two groups based on lauric and non-lauric acid based.
Fats - cocoa butter substitutes based on lauric acid, have different physical properties, but have a triglyceride structure making them incompatible with cocoa oil (glycerides of short chain fatty acids). For the preparation of the fat mixture as enrobing chocolate ingredient should be used cocoa powder with low fat content.
These fats are derived mainly from palm kernel oil. Features of separated physically from him stearin similar to those of cocoa butter stearin and stearin exceed hydrogenated or hardened palm kernel oil, which is still used as an ingredient in the confectionery industry.
Fat substitutes of cocoa butter based on lauric acid characterized by stability, good shelf life, very good texture and flavor. They do not require conditioning as cocoa butter, respond well to compression and molding, and, importantly, much cheaper than cocoa butter.
Disadvantages-fat cocoa butter substitutes are:
due to incompatibility with cocoa butter is used for all work with chocolate icing equipment before production based on lauric acid it needs a thorough washing and cleaning;
when interacting with the enzymes that break down fats (lipase), especially when in contact with moisture or confectionery with high content of moisture, the released free fatty acid (lauric acid) give strong soapy taste;
they are poorly compatible with milk fat.
Fats, cocoa butter substitutes based on non-lauric acids comprise fractions of hydrogenated vegetable fat (usually soy, cottonseed, peanut and corn oils). These selectively hydrogenated vegetable oil to form a type of "trans" acids, which increases the solid fat phase.
The length of the chains and the molecular weight of these compounds are similar to those of cocoa butter, and therefore 20-25% fat, cocoa butter substitutes based on non-lauric acid tolerant mixed with cocoa butter.
Many of these fats, cocoa butter substitutes based on non-lauric acids prepared therefrom Frosting mixture are less brittle than cocoa butter, the chocolate or fat, cocoa butter substitutes based on lauric acid. They have a waxy texture, they are difficult to molding and are often used for glazing cakes, pies and other baked goods, where such a texture is an advantage. Brittle same coating will be destroyed from the center.