Chocolate and cocoa

Fats, cocoa butter substitutes

On the need for the production of cocoa butter as a standalone product for the chocolate industry and related price increases during periods of low yields we have said above. For many years, scientists are looking for suitable alternatives to cocoa butter, which are (at least partially) could be used for the manufacture of high quality chocolate or fully replace cocoa butter in the composition of the glaze.

Equivalent fats (CBE)

Equivalent fat - is a fat having all physicochemical properties of cocoa butter, but no glycerides obtained from cocoa beans. Compared with a cocoa butter fat can have other aromatic properties.

The first development in this area was the invention of Coberine by Unilever Co. together with one of the leading companies in the chocolate industry. This product was protected by a 1961 patent for fractionating palm oil from acetone solution. This fat has a composition of glycerides almost identical to cocoa butter, which allows it to be mixed with it in any proportion and used at any stage of chocolate production: melting, conditioning or cooling. The similarity of these fats is shown in table. 3.5 and on the cooling curves. In fig. the cooling curves demonstrate the eutectic effect when mixing cocoa butter with incompatible stearin, and the cooling curves prove not only the complete similarity of Coberin and cocoa butter, but also the absence of the eutectic effect at the mixing stage.

Accepted in some countries, regulations prohibit the use of this fat in the production of real chocolate, but in the UK small addition to chocolate Koberina practice for several years. When the UK joined the EU, it has been found to have an English chocolate to 5% fat equivalent (about 15% of the fat phase).

United Kingdom submitted a request to the EU for permission to be included in the appropriate definition of chocolate to 5% fat equivalent to cocoa butter. At the same time the United Kingdom has adopted a regulation (which entered into force in May of 1977) regarding the limitation of such an addition to 5%. A similar rule is valid in Ireland and Denmark.

EU Advisory Body is Caobisco, and if it reached a final decision regarding this addition, it is likely to be precisely defined type of added vegetable fat.

To explore this issue and make recommendations on fat analysis methods which could be used as 5% strength additives, Caobisco established a working group. United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark were against some of its initiatives, and research continued.

This issue was discussed in detail at the General Assembly of the International Association of Manufacturers of sugar confectionery (ISSMA) and the International Office of Cocoa and chocolate (IOSS) in May 1981 in the town of Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA, and in Brussels in September 1981 of

The problems associated with determining the amount of fat-replacer of cocoa butter in the mixture are complicated, but can be solved. This issue is described in detail in, where the definition of the equivalent of fat, this UES, is treated as follows:

The level of SOS type triglycerides (S is saturated fatty acids, O is oleic acid) is at least 65%.

Ratio glyceride second position occupied by unsaturated fatty acids is not less than 85%.

The total content of unsaturated fatty acids is no more than 45%.

Unsaturated fatty acids with two or more double bonds is not more than 5%.

Lauric acid content is not more than 1%.

fatty acid content of the "trans" is less than 2%.

After the Koberina appeared on the market and other equivalent fats. Their use is based on Codex Alimentarius will be discussed further.

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