Chocolate and cocoa

Other fats related with cocoa butter

Cocoa fat from the cocoa bean shell. As we have noted, in the normal extraction of cocoa butter from whole cocoa beans the amount of cocoa fat envelope of 0,74% of the total amount of cocoa butter.

When solvent extraction of cocoa fat obtained has nothing to do with cocoa butter. It is very soft, often contain a lot of fatty acids and poor flavor. It should not be used as an ingredient in amounts greater than the content of cocoa butter from whole cocoa beans.

Detection of cocoa fat from the shell in cocoa butter. The Blue-Value test is described, based on the detection of behenic acid tryptamide, which is present only in the shell. The analyzed cocoa butter after extraction with an alkaline solution is dissolved in pure cyclohexane and the ultraviolet spectrum of the resulting solution is measured. A very high content of unsaponifiable cocoa fat from the cocoa shell should be noticeable (the analysis of this cocoa fat is shown in Table 3.6).

3.6 Table. Properties fat cocoa shell



By [8]

The range of other sources

Acidity (oleic acid)




Iodine number




saponification number







refraction coefficient

Индекс Индекс Zeiss Zeiss butter butter

(40 ° С) 47,3-57,2

(40 ° С) 54-61

Melting point (complete)

28,5 ° C

38-50 ° С

The melting point (fatty acids)

50,6-51,5 ° С

Fats, cocoa butter related

Assuming that the addition of an equivalent 5% fat is acceptable, whether the raw material is sufficient to provide the needs of production?

Fats described below contain as palm oil, symmetric triglycerides inherent fats, cocoa butter equivalent. Some of them are used in admixture with the primary ingredient - palm oil stearin.

Illipe oil. It is a natural fat, on the properties very similar to cocoa butter. This hard fat is extracted from the seeds of plant species on the island of Borneo Bkogea (illipe - is the commercial name). its melting point slightly higher than that of cocoa butter (complete melting is achieved at 37-38 ° C). illipe oil changes several properties containing its chocolate and other conditions require tempering in the formulation of chocolate. When you add in the chocolate 5-10% illipe oil organoleptically detect its presence is impossible.

In view of the similarity of the glyceride composition illipe butter with cocoa butter may be mixed in any proportion without the formation of eutectic mixtures. This is especially useful if you want to increase the softening point of chocolate in countries with hot climates.

Properties illipe oil. The term "butter illipe" unites fats produced from various oilseeds, in particular:

- from Indian nuts ollipe (they are also called “true illipe”) plants Bassia longifolia;

- from Indian nuts Mourak tree Bassia longifolia family Sapotaceae; fats have different melting points, but they are often mixed and sold as illip oil;

- from the Indonesian nuts Siak (Sumatra Island) of the trees Palaquium oleosum and P. oblongifolium, which also belong to the Sapotaceae family;

- from Illipe nuts from the Indonesian islands Sumatra and Borneo; they are given by certain species of Shorea of ​​the family Dipterocarpaceae. These are large forest trees that serve as a source of industrial wood, known as meranti (seraya). In the northern part of the island of Borneo, these nuts are called tengkawangy and in Sarawak - engkabang. The dried core is exported, denoting in the name of the product its origin, size and color, for example “big black pontianak”.

Nuts are usually not disrupted, and collected after falling off the trees in a bamboo basket and a few weeks immersed in water until the outer shell will be revealed. They are then dried in the sun to achieve a moisture content of not more than 6%, and in this condition extraction export. Fat from nuts illipe characterized by a pale green color, but it occurs on the market and in refined, bleached form.

Comparative characteristics for the composition of fatty acids and glyceride components according to are presented in table. 3.7, and in table. 3.8 summarized physical and chemical indicators (according to various sources).

The most significant difference between the oil of an ellipse and cocoa butter is the supercooling threshold, that is, the temperature at which crystalline crystals begin to form in slowly-cooled, liquid-regulated fat. When using fat in a chocolate ellipipe, tempering should be carried out at higher temperatures and with longer stirring, otherwise the effect of forming unstable "grains" occurs and during the storage period the risk of formation of a fat coating increases. The peak of oil use in the ellipse occurred at the end of the 1920-x-beginning of the 1930-ies, and because of a lack of knowledge about its specific characteristics, this had rather disappointing consequences.

Illipe butter as cocoa butter, is very resistant to oxidation processes.

Shea butter is obtained from the seeds of an African tree, Butyrospermumparkii, which grows in savannas from Ivory Coast to Nigeria. This is mainly wild

3.7 Table. Fatty acids and glyceride component

^ Illipe oil „„,

Fatty acids „. Cocoa oil, %

the island of Borneo,%








































3.8 Table. Physical and chemical characteristics of the oil illipe from Borneo and

cocoa butter

Butter illipe

Cocoa butter

the island of Borneo

The melting point of beginning

34-36 ° С

31,8-33,5 ° С

The point of complete melting

37,5-39 ° С

32,8-35,0 ° С

solidification point

28-32 ° С

27-29,5 ° С

The refractive index at 40 ° C 1,456-1,457


Индекс Zeiss butter

45-47 °

46-47,5 °

saponification number



Iodine number



The content of unsaponifiable




Specific heat



(Temperature range 4-24 ° C)

Latent heat of fusion (from room 32 cap / g

31-33 cal / g


tuschee tree, and for ripening and fruiting requires 15-20 years, it has not yet been cultured.

Collect fruits passes irregularly and depends on the price of harvests of other crops. Nevertheless, the grease is good addition to fats, cocoa butter equivalent.

Mango butter and Sal. Trees, which are sources of fat data (Mangifera indica and Shorea robustà), grow in India and given the proper cultivation, you can get a significant amount of these oils.

Fats, prevents the formation of fatty plaque. Fatty plaque - a discoloration of the product (especially dark chocolate enrobed products with a high content of fat in the center of where the fat is melted at lower temperatures and is in a relatively free state). A typical example - a coconut filling. Sometimes fatty plaque is formed and milk chocolate.

At higher storage temperatures (21-24 ° C) polymorphs chocolate are melted, spread over the surface and recrystallize to form a whitish plaque. The liquid fat from the center of the product diffuses into the glaze and cause a similar effect. As we have noted in the description of the polymorphs of cocoa butter, causes and ways to prevent plaque will be discussed below.

Addition of certain fats in chocolate can significantly slow the formation of plaque. The most famous of such fats - is clarified butter that is used as an ingredient in countries where the use of cocoa butter fat substitutes is prohibited. Adding about 4% of the oil in the chocolate provides the maximum protection and minimum required amount thereof - 2%.

Ghee is dehydrated butter without clots, and independently of the production methods for the termination of its lipolytic activity preferably within 15 minutes to be heated 95 ° C. To a marked softening of the chocolate results in the addition of 4% of the oil, but many manufacturers prefer to add 2%, keeping the loose texture of the products.

An extensive study of the relative value of various anti-plaque additives presented in [14]. Of the twenty-tested supplements only three were truly effective: ghee (dehydrated butter), biskvitin (Biscuitine, peanut butter, plus hard fat) and hardened peanut butter (Special 36)


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