Production of flour confectionery products

Brief information about the development of the production of flour confectionery products in the USSR.

Among the very extensive range of confectionery products a significant place in the. its share is a group of flour confectionery. In the pre-war years and in the years of the post-war Stalin five-year plan, this group accounted for over 30% of the production of the entire confectionery industry.

For flour confectionery products are products made mainly from flour with added sugar, fat, milk, eggs and other food and flavoring substances. The range of these products is very diverse. Depending on the type of raw materials used, the technological process of their manufacture and the equipment used, all flour confectionery products can be divided into the following main groups: cookies, gingerbread, waffles, cakes and pies, cupcakes, as well as closely adjacent to these groups and also produced at confectioneries - cakes.
Production of biscuits, cakes and other baked confectionery has long been known. was the production of honey cakes are especially common. In pre-revolutionary Russia, all these products are normally produced artisanal hand. Machine production of cookies, cakes and even more so, almost non-existent.
Only in 1890, simultaneously in Kiev and Zhitomir, was the mechanized production of biscuits organized.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution, the reconstruction of the entire confectionery industry and its flour confectionery production was carried out. In the first five-year plan (1927 — 1932), specialized factories were created, the most powerful equipment was concentrated on them, the cadres of old production workers were united, a significant number of young specialists were included in the production, laboratories and research institutions were organized. Rationalization and mechanization of the technological process are widely carried out. New socialist forms of work (socialist competition and shock), the creation of a strong resource base allowed industry to finish the first five-year plan in two and a half years.
Unlimited raw material opportunities, the creation of a base of Soviet engineering, the extensive training of new personnel, the introduction of the work methods of the best Stakhanovists made it possible to increase
production at old enterprises, to expand them through the commissioning of new units and put a number of new factories into operation (Odessa, Kharkov, Chernigov). In 1938, the range of flour confectionery products was: 45,2% cookies, 26,5% gingerbread, 15% cakes and cakes, 4% biscuits and other 9,3% products.
In the post-war period of the Stalin five-year plan (1946-1950 years.) Reduction of the pre-war level of production of flour confectionery products, and was scheduled to bring production in BC 1950 110 1940% of the production of
During this period, the pre-war assortment was restored and the quality of flour confectionery was improved. Work has been done to increase the number of small-scale products, i.e. packs and boxes, and to mechanize labor-intensive processes; especially in terms of packaging, as well as the introduction of new types of products into production (flaky cookies, rolls, etc.).
In subsequent years, further growth in the production of flour confectionery products will be reflected in an increase in production at existing factories, the construction of new factories, and the further mechanization and automation of the technological process.
                                                  Nutritional value of flour confectionery products
Flour confectionery products, being a food product, possess, along with good taste, high nutritional value and high calorie content, which is 3750 Cal / kg for fat biscuits, and for high-grade shortbread (sugar) biscuits reaches 4900 Cal / kg
The chemical composition of cookies (in%)
Water 6-8  
Protein substances 8-11
Sugar substances 8-25    
Starch and other nitrogen-free substances 48-62
Fat 7-17 
Minerals 0,61 - 1,45
On average, the chemical composition of cookies corresponds to the average composition of the human diet, being a product with a high content of fats and carbohydrates. This combination is necessary in cases where the body needs to be given concentrated food to quickly recover consumed energy. That is why baking and biscuits are widely used in the army and in distant expeditions.
The taste of cookies is determined by its valuable components: sugar, butter, milk, eggs and flavoring substances. In the course of technological processing, these companies undergo very complex physicochemical changes that entail a further improvement in the taste of the finished products. All this, taken together, gives good taste to the products.
                                                    Requirements for the main types of raw materials
In the production of flour confectionery products, the main types of raw materials are flour, sugar, fat, dairy and egg products and leavening agents.
Confectionery industry uses mostly wheat and a small amount of corn (corn-) flour.
When presenting requirements for the quality of wheat flour, it is based on the influence of the flour on the technological process, the production process and the quality of the products produced.
Studies conducted at the All-Union Confectionery Research Institute (VKNII) showed that the quality of products is influenced by the grade and color of flour, the quantity and quality of gluten, as well as the size of flour grinding. Flour, Grade II, either in content of bran or in color, cannot be recommended for making flour confectionery. The quality of flour products of grade II is markedly different from the products of flour I and the highest grades. From flour grade II products are obtained in dark color with a dense and coarse structure. It is advisable to produce products from flour of the highest and I grades obtained from the grain of light red wheat. Prolonged varieties of cookies should be made from flour with an average gluten content of low quality. Long cookies made of flour with gluten of strong and medium quality, during baking is deformed, and the surface of the cookie becomes pockmarked and blistered.
Sand (sugar) varieties of cookies must be produced from. flour with gluten of medium and low quality, regardless of its quantity. Shortbread biscuits from flour with strong gluten are inferior to flour products with medium and low quality gluten by swelling, porosity and lifting during baking.
Krupnota flour grinding significantly affects the quality of sand (sugar) varieties of cookies. Shortbread shortbread biscuits have better brittleness, porosity and rise compared with samples of products made from soft flour more finely ground. In addition, when using coarse flour in the sand (sugar) cookies, there is a more pronounced flavor effect, i.e.
in other words, the presence of fat is more pronounced in these products, which should probably be attributed to a different distribution of fat in the test.
Such a positive effect of coarse flour is not observed in the production of cookies of long varieties, and in the production of gingerbread coarse flour has a negative effect on the rise and porosity of products. For raw gingerbread should be used flour with a strong quality of gluten, and for custard gingerbread - flour with a weak quality of gluten. Plain biscuits should be made from flour containing 32 — 42% crude gluten of moderate quality.
From the works of Slavina it follows that in order to get fatty biscuits (dry biscuits), preference should be given to flour with a low gluten content of about 30%, since the products obtained from this flour had good porosity and a delicate structure. From flour with a high gluten content, a stamped dough of a distorted forma is obtained, and with a reduced gluten content, a little bound dough is obtained.
Flour with 38 — 40% strong gluten content should be used for cakes such as puffs, baba, as well as products derived from custard semi-finished product, which should ensure the formation of an elastic, well resistant to tearing test.
For shortbread pastry cakes, as well as dessert biscuits, low to medium quality flour is used with a gluten content from 30 to 35%.
As for the other indicators of flour consumed for flour confectionery, such as: smell, taste, crunch, moisture, ash, admixtures of flour from other grains and sprouted grains, as well as infestation by granary pests, they must satisfy the existing OSG on appropriate grade of wheat flour.
A very important kind of raw material for flour confectionery products is sugar.
Requirements for sugar sand, coincide with the standard (no impurities, a low percentage of moisture, etc.).
The size of the crystals of granulated sugar, which goes directly to the dough, affects the quality of the products.
The work showed that the sand (sugar) should be used cookie icing sugar, flour passing through the sieve № 46-49, since large crystals and powder sand saxapnogo remain insoluble during the dough, which is reflected on the surface condition of the liver.
Coarse powdered sugar and fine granulated sugar can be used for cookies made from protracted dough, since the moisture of the protracted dough (25 — 27%) and the subsequent baking of cookies create conditions for the sugar to completely dissolve
Fats occupy a prominent place in the range of raw flour confectionery. Fats increase the friability of biscuits, give it a nice breakable color and a specific taste of the muffin, as well as help preserve freshness. These qualities are manifested depending on the quality and quantity of fat and the method of its introduction into the dough.
Recently, instead of fat from cow's milk, a number of products have been widely used in the food industry, successfully replacing this fat. These include lard, margarine, compounds and hydrogenated fats.
Fats for flour confectionery should be plastic, as they form films in the dough, while liquid fats form spherical droplets. Films better cover the surface of the dough cells and retain air in the dough than spherical droplets. If we consider lard under a microscope, then it can be seen that its mass consists of crystals of solid fractions of fat, surrounded by liquid. These crystals are not connected to each other and move independently of one another. Thus, lard has a structure of a plastic-viscous body.
Compounds (a mixture of animal and vegetable fats, or a mixture of vegetable oils) have an advantage over tselnogidrirovannymi fats in that they retain the plasticity at higher temperatures.
An equally important factor affecting the quality of the products is the persistence of fats against rancidity. According to some researchers, the most persistent fat for flour confectionery products should be considered fully hydrogenated vegetable fats. Lard has the ability to give the liver a more delicate structure, while margarine and whole hydrated fats, yielding lard in this respect, are more resistant to rancidity.
In the Central Laboratory of Factory "Zh", a study was conducted of the influence of the physical properties of the hydrogrow on the quality of the sand (sugar) cookies. It was found that the best quality of cookies is obtained when using a hydropier with a melting point of 36 °.
From whole-hydrated fats, the best quality of cookies is obtained if these fats at room temperature consist of a mixture of solid and liquid fragments that is noticeable by eye. Good quality cookies are obtained when working on compounds with a certain ratio of solid and liquid fractions.
Thus, it is necessary to apply the compounds and tselnogidrirovannye fats that give high-quality products for pastry products.
Dairy and egg products, chemical leavening agents, yeast and other raw materials used in the manufacture of pastry products, must meet the requirements of existing OST.
                                         Storage of raw materials and its preparation for production
                                                    Warehouse of raw materials and storage conditions
In the production of flour confectionery products main raw material is flour; so the warehouse must be adapted mainly for the storage of flour, highlighting for other raw materials, such as perishable, a special cooling chamber. It would be more expedient to build a warehouse of several isolated rooms, providing each installation for air conditioning.
Flour storage must maintain the relative room humidity 60 — 65% and temperature 15 — 18 °. Under these conditions, the equilibrium moisture content of the flour reaches 12,3 — 13%. With a higher moisture content of flour, the processes of “breathing” of flour are enhanced, when the monosaccharides of flour are more intensively oxidized by atmospheric oxygen with release of carbon dioxide, water and heat. Thus, the increased moisture of the flour leads to the warming of the flour with the release of moisture, as a result of which the flour becomes stale and caked into lumps. Breathing flour is accompanied by loss of flour, which significantly increases during storage of the product with high humidity.
If wet flour is stored in a warm, dark and poorly ventilated warehouse, then it can be infected with pests, most often a flour mite (Asarus farinae), beetle (Tenebrio molitor), weevil (Calandra granaria) and, especially, moth (Ephestia kuhniella). Flour pest control measures are the same as for the chocolate fire (see the section "Chocolate and cocoa production").
Flour should be stored in a warehouse at temperature 15 — 18 ° and relative humidity of air 60 — 65%. This requirement is mainly due to the fact that the flour should have a temperature closest to the optimum temperature of the kneading. In addition, under these conditions, the flour entering the warehouse with high humidity acquires a lower humidity, which eliminates the possibility of self-heating of the flour. In winter conditions, for heating flour in bags from 5 to 15 °, according to practical observations, it takes at least 8 days at the temperature of the warehouse 15 — 18 °. It follows from this that at least eight-day cellar flour should be stored in the warehouse.
When calculating the area of ​​feed stock typically take into account the rules store each type of raw material per unit area in tons storage limit, t. E. Permissible storage supply of a raw material, expressed in days, and finally, the daily requirement workshop or factory in each raw form.
Table. 1 gives practical norms of raw material load (weight of raw materials net) excluding the width of passages between the stacks.
Table 1
Type of raw materials Character


Weight (kg) Tons pa 1 m2 floor space
1 2 3 4
Wheat flour          Bag 80 1,206
Granulated sugar          Bag 100 1,480
baking soda    Fanernaya barrel 50 1,246
Salt    Bag 100 1,380
Raisins   Box 20 1,304
tartaric acid          Barrel 250 1,389
Wax    lump 40 1,025
Cocoa powder Box 50 0,770
Kremortartar Barrel 100 0,905
Anise and cumin     Bag 30 0,449
Eggs    Box 1440 piece. 0,675
Margarine                    Barrel 160 0,889
fresh Milk                       Know 37 l 0,302
flow Barrel 250 1,322
ammonium jïdkïy                     Bottle 20 0,170
heating oil Barrel 50 0,625
Butter        Box 30 1,210
Honey     Barrel 200 1,600
coconut oil                    Barrel 160 0,889
Sunflower oil Barrel 250 0,781
Essentsiya         Bottle 2 l 0,139
lactic acid      Barrel 380 1,028
The area of ​​the aisles is in small warehouses 40%, in medium-sized warehouses - 30% and in large warehouses: - 15 — 20% to the total floor area. The height of the warehouse depends mainly on the authorized labor protection or technically convenient height of laying of raw materials, which is usually 2 — 2,5 m. Therefore, the total height of the warehouse may not exceed 3 — 3,5 m.
All raw materials are generally stored on small wooden trellis racks (2 X 1,5 m), raised above floor level at 15-20 cm for easy cleaning of the floor under the shelves and better air flow.
Raw materials are stored at a distance of at least 0,5 — 1 m from the walls of the room. Bags of flour are stacked in piles and eight rows but in height and in sections of five bags (fives) or three bags (tees) in a stack. In the near future, bulk storage of flour in reinforced concrete or metal silos should be most widely used, which will facilitate the fight against flour pests. For drying and aeration, the flour is poured from one silo to another or in the same silo from the lower layers to the upper one.
For the reception of raw materials at a warehouse, it is necessary to have covered platforms located at a height of 1,25 — 1,50 m from the ground for the convenience of unloading raw materials from wagons or from auto-cushion vehicles.
Intra-warehouse transportation is carried out on hand or motorized trolleys, so the floors in warehouses must be covered with concrete, ceramics or metal tiles, which are little exposed to wear; In addition, such floors are impermeable to rodents, they are easy to clean and can be cleaned. Modern warehouses are equipped with stationary or mobile conveyors, stackers, etc.
The warehouse should be well lit (naturally and artificially) and have adequate ventilation for sufficient exchange of air. Usually, the raw materials warehouse is located in close proximity to the production room (prescription room), and for new buildings it is designed directly in the room itself, in order to more conveniently transport the raw materials.
   Preparation of raw materials for production
The recipe-kneading station has especially high sanitary requirements; in particular, the supply of raw materials in primary packaging (bags, barrels, boxes) is not allowed, as this would severely pollute the prescription room. Why was it? to properly organize the production of a completely separate station for the preparation of raw materials for production, including its transportation to the prescription one.
Flour. Wheat flour passes the following preparatory stages before loading it into a kneading machine: sifting and releasing from ferro-impurities, aeration during transportation, as well as mixing different sorts of flour and starch according to the recipe and transporting the mixture to a kneader.
For mixing wheat flour with corn (maize) or starch, as well as mixing flours with different gluten properties can be set specific mukosmesiteli. Performance mixer for flour - to 10 t / h of flour.
For sifting flour, three types of machines are most commonly used. A simple, cheap m convenient is a brush sifting machine. At 90 rpm the twin brush machine can sift flour to 6 t / h. With all its advantages, the brushing machine has the disadvantage that the bristles sometimes fall out of the nest and get into the flour, and from the flour can get into the dough.
In recent years, is often used for Burato prosevaniya flour. Performance Burat is, depending on its value from before 1 5 t / h of flour. Also Burato often used sotryasatelnye flat screens, such as those available in the mill rossevah. These machines are the most convenient because of its small size, high efficiency (up to 6 tons of flour per hour) and reliability in the sense of dropping out impurities.
Even with thorough turning and shaking the flour bags over the sifting machine, some of the flour remains in the sackcloth; therefore, they prefer to use the bagging machine for this. Machine productivity reaches two bags per minute when serviced by one worker. Waste when punching out bags (flour pasture, up to 0,45% of flour weight) is contaminated with dust and burlap fibers and therefore is not allowed by sanitary inspection into the food production. They are used to cook the paste at the factory itself or go to animal feed.
Sifted flour enters the production of a system consisting of augers and elevators. As a result of such transportation, the flour is loosened and mixed with air, thereby improving the quality of the flour and eliminating the possibility of the appearance of stale smell or taste. In the case when the flour comes to the enterprise with a stale smell, flour aeration favors the elimination of this defect in the flour.
Great attention should be paid to flour bins or silos for storing flour, metal or wood, which usually have a capacity from 1,5 to 15 tons of flour. The number of bins must match the number of sorts of flour used in production, as well as the quality of flour used for a particular type of product. In order for the flour not to be caked during storage, it is necessary to supply the bins with special devices for its mixing.
The system of augers flour is fed to the automatic flour scales, suspended on the track, passing along the line of loading devices above the kneading machines. Scales are driven manually or with electric winch cable. Upon reaching the set weight by means of an electrical contact, the motor is turned off, which drives the auger, which supplies flour to the scales. The weighed amount of flour is transported in the same scales to the place of loading. A tarpaulin sleeve is dipped into the hopper or directly into the kneader, and the flour is poured by gravity out of the weights through the hole closed by the flap. It should be noted that even under the conditions of complete mechanization of the transportation of flour, its spray makes up 0,025% by weight of the flour consumed in production. Therefore, it is necessary to try to reduce the height of the fall of flour from autoweights into kneaders, as this is the main cause of the spray of flour.
The flour system (augers and chutes) should be easily accessible for inspection, repair and cleaning, therefore, easy and quick to disassemble. But with such a device flour system flour is sprayed through the cracks, and therefore the question of a reliable method of isolation of the system is essential, and it should be solved soon. General cleaning of all flour equipment is associated with the opening of the entire system. Usually, room disinfection and thorough mechanical cleaning of the flour system are timed to the same time.
In order to avoid ferro-impurities getting into the kneading machine at various points of the flour system, install-magnets. It is best to place them under the sifting machine, at the top of the elevator and under the auger, which feeds flour into the autoweight. Cleaning of magnets, as a rule, should be done at least two or three times a shift.
Sugar. A large amount of granulated sugar used in the production of flour confectionery products is ground into icing sugar. Part of the sugar is used for kneading dough varieties of dough, for cooking invert, sterilizing yeast, etc.
Sugar should be passed through a metal sieve with a diameter of cells not more than 4 mm. After sifting, the granulated sugar should not be transported to the prescription bag in a Meshkovaya container, since the sugar is again contaminated by the pile from the bags, which leads to losses during repeated sifting. Can be recommended for the transportation of granulated sugar and powder the same installation as for flour. Sugar or powder after sifting in burate is fed through an elevator to the upper floor and goes directly to the prescription room in a small capacity bunker (1 —1,5 t) raised above the floor so that you can install weights under it. On the scales placed a box for a plumb of sand or powder in the quantity required by the recipe for one batch (50 — 120 kg). Since raw or cold granulated sugar and powder can accumulate on the chains and buckets of the elevator, you should pay attention to air conditioning, heating of raw materials, as well as prevent raw sand in grinding and follow the rules for regular maintenance of equipment and cleaning transporting devices. Recently in the food industry began to use pneumatic transportation of bulk materials. Thanks to the pump, which creates a moderate vacuum in the piping system, the granular material is sucked through a nozzle into the pipe and moves in a stream of moving air through the cyclone to its destination. This type of transport eliminates dispersion, is easy to maintain and therefore should be widely distributed in our enterprises.
Starches, soy flour and chips. The preparation of these types of raw materials, their sifting through the appropriate sieves and transportation is similar to the operations for the preparation of granulated sugar and flour.
Fats and oils. Production requires that the fat entering the kneading machines has a certain consistency close to its melting point. The work carried out in the central laboratory of the Bolshevik factory showed that shortbread cookies prepared on fats heated to their initial melting point have the best quality as
surface taste, swelling and porosity compared to cookies prepared on the unmelted and melted fat.
We can recommend the installation of steam-heated tanks, in which fats are loaded directly from the barrels. After heating, the fat is melted and through the outlet fitting, equipped with a sieve, is poured into vessels corresponding in capacity to the quantities required by the recipe for one batch. Weighing is not necessary, you can be satisfied with measuring by volume. The melted fat cools to solidification temperature and is used for kneading in this form. It is possible to transport fat by means of a lifting machine or by pumping a pump. Ghee, ghee margarine, hydro-fat and vegetable oil can be melted without compromising their quality. Table margarine and butter cannot be melted, as they are divided into different fractions.
Flow and honey They are pre-processed in exactly the same way as fats, that is, they are heated, filtered and poured into tanks with a capacity of up to 500 l.
Milk powder, dry eggs. Milk and eggs are not recommended to be put into production as a powder, since in this case brown specks appear on the surface of the cookies after baking. From the dry raw material, an emulsion is obtained with a moisture content of 25 — 30%. For emulsification, you can use any mixer of small dimensions with a large (at least 100 per minute) speed. It should be noted that the water temperature should not exceed 50 °, since otherwise the coagulation of protein substances will occur and the dry product will remain undissolved. Prepared emulsion (filter through a sieve with a diameter of cells no more than 2 mm. Replacing natural eggs and milk with their canned food is usually made according to the equivalent of dry matter in them. When replacing one type of milk with another, it is necessary to take into account the amount of fat contained in it, so as not to violate the recipes.
Baking soda, ammonium carbonate, salt. Before use, these types of raw materials should be dissolved in water and filtered through a sieve with a mesh diameter of no more than 1,5 mm. The following solutions can be recommended: for 100 parts of water - salt 35, ammonium 25 and soda 10 parts. The water temperature should be no higher than 25 °.
The crystalline acid (citric and tartar) sift through a sieve with a diameter of cells not more than 3 mm, liquid acids are filtered through a cloth or sieve with a diameter of cells not more than 0,5 mm.
Fillings rub through a sieve with a diameter of cells no more than 3 mm. Thick blanks are preheated, diluted with sugar syrup or rubbed with sugar.
And out of th purified from impurities and washed on a screen or is passed through the washing machine.
Hazelnuts and almondsAdded to dough, purified from impurities, roasted and ground into Roller mills.
dried spices free from impurities and shells, then ground in a micromill and sieved through a sieve with a mesh diameter of not more than 1,5 mm.
Milk and water. Milk is not a constant type of raw material and is often replaced by a dry or condensed product, so you can prevent it from being consumed directly from cans that have been previously washed from the outside with hot water. The milk poured into the kneaders must be filtered through a sieve with a diameter of cells no more than 0,5 mm.
The water plant consists of a mixer, in which hot and cold water is mixed to the desired temperature, and a measuring device or water balance located on each machine or on a pair of kneading machines.
Particular attention in the preparation of raw materials for production should be given to sifting and straining operations, as well as monitoring the sanitary purity of raw materials.
Weighing and measuring system in the formulation or at the time of preparation of raw materials to production allows control of the production, to conduct a correct account and do not violate the established formula.
Therefore retsepturno-harvesting station should be adequately equipped with weight and measuring instruments.
     Preparation of semi-finished products
Invert and sour syrup. In the practice of flour confectionery production, not only invert sugar is used, but also sour sugar syrup. The difference in the preparation of these semi-finished products is that when cooking the invert, they try to invert the most sucrose possible, while this is not required when cooking sour sugar syrup. Invert is neutralized with bicarbonate soda, and in acidic syrup they try to leave free acid for further decomposition of sodium carbonate obtained from sodium bicarbonate under the action of the oven temperature tower and causing alkalinity of cookies;
The cooled and neutralized invert and sour sirop- before starting into production should be necessarily protsezheny, through a fine metal sieve with no more than 0,5 mm diameter cells
Methods of cooking invert are described in the section “Caramel production”.
Sterilized Dr. of Well and Well. Yeast is used in production not only as baking powder, but also (in the case of the use of chemical baking powder) to increase the nutritional value of products and for their more intense staining. In this case, the ability of yeast to ferment is superfluous;
Therefore, the yeast is sterilized to stop the proliferation of yeast cells, but in such a way as to preserve the activity of enzymes. For sterilization, the yeast is either heated to 80 — 90 °, or mixed in a continuation of 15 — 20 minutes in a high-speed kneader along with sugar, taken in the ratio 2; 1 to yeast.
The end of the yeast sterilization process is indicated by the absence of carbon dioxide bubbles on the surface of the yeast mixture after a short standing. Before use, the yeast mixture should be filtered through a metal sieve with a diameter of cells not exceeding 2 mm. Preparing a yeast mixture for future use is not recommended, regardless of the method of sterilization.
Preparation of egg melange. In the production of flour confectionery products are usually used a mixture of egg yolks ie proteins or the so-called egg melange. In exceptional cases, the production of fatty biscuits and wafers, used only the egg yolk as an emulsifier for the batter or dough biscuits fatty lubrication surface to impart gloss to keep the crust or dusting of salt or spices on the surface of products.
Egg white is used as a foaming agent, ie. For the manufacture of a special glaze to cover the cookies included in some varieties of the mixture.
Sanitary regulations require the installation of eggs, isolated from production premises, since the egg mass is a good environment for the development of molds and bacteria.
In our factories, eggs are pre-washed in a special bath with ammoniacal silver nitrate to sterilize eggshell, which is usually contaminated and contaminated with mold and bacteria. After that, manual rejection and selection of eggs is carried out, and the most attention should be paid to the fact that “grass-eggs” that have an unpleasant smell that does not disappear even during baking should not get into the melange. These eggs are in appearance difficult to distinguish from fresh eggs.
When hand-beating, the contents of every five eggs are poured into special cups, look at their quality and poured into "litrovki", the shell is thrown into a keg, into which a metal grid is inserted at some distance from the bottom. With this simple device, it is possible to dispose of almost completely personal protein remaining in the shell.
If the melange sealed in tin boxes is delivered to the factory in frozen form, then it is preliminarily subjected to thawing, placing the boxes in warm water with temperatures over 40 — 50 °, in order to avoid protein coagulation. When the contents of the box turn into a semi-liquid mass, the boxes are opened and the melange is poured into special measuring tanks.
The finished melange must be filtered through a metal sieve with a diameter of cells no more than 2 mm to release it from the “remnants of the shell and impurities, and then immediately put into production, as it very soon (after four to six hours) deteriorates. Sanitary legislation prohibits the addition to the melange of any preservatives, for example, benzoic acid. From 100 eggs in the shell when striking is obtained (in%):
melange 71-79
marriage of eggs 3-5
raw shell 15-20         
egg stack 3-4
All output is melange 74-83%;
egg composition (by weight) - 66% protein and egg yolks 34%.
Vanilla powder is prepared from crystalline vanillin and finely ground powdered sugar. Vanillin is dissolved in the ratio 1 • 1 in ethyl alcohol when heated. Alcohol solution of vanillin is mixed with powdered sugar at the rate of 3,7% relative to the weight of powdered sugar.
Zhzhenku used as a dye to tint products from golden yellow to dark brown in color and prepared as follows. Sugar, wetted with water in the ratio of 5: 1, is heated to a boil in an open kettle, on a hot fire, with thorough stirring. To avoid leakage during foaming, add 0,8% butter relative to sugar; after 30 — 40 minutes of boiling, hot water is added based on 5 parts of sugar 2 parts of water. Then the sugar syrup is passed through a sieve with a cell diameter of not more than 1,5 mm “The sugar in the baking tray should be 40%, moisture should be about 24%.
Coffee water extract. Ground coffee and water in the ratio 1: 6 are loaded into the open boiler. The mixture is brought to a boil and filtered through a sheet or gauze.

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