Recipe is the main component of the technology of flour confectionery products. The purpose of the recipe is to regulate the ratio of raw materials, providing a certain structure of the product with the characteristic quality and taste properties.
To determine the required prescription set, it is necessary to determine the consumption of raw materials at each phase, taking into account the loss of dry substances in the manufacture of semi-finished products at this phase.
Recipes establish the regulatory consumption of raw materials for the manufacture of each type of product, which makes it possible to take into account the consumption of raw materials for all manufactured products during its production.
When calculating the cost and determining the price of products, the recipe is the main integral document that determines the cost of consumed raw materials per unit of production. Depending on the technological process of manufacturing products, formulations can be simple (one or two phases) and complex (multiphase). Simple recipes include recipes for cookies, biscuits, cracker, etc., for complex recipes for cakes, cakes and waffles.
Only those phases of production are calculated in which the composition of the raw materials is changed. This is due to the fact that the phases of the technological process may not coincide with the phases taken to calculate the recipes. Thus, in the production of cookies, there are several main phases of the technological process: kneading dough, forming dough pieces, baking, cooling cookies. However, all the raw materials necessary for making cookies are loaded during dough kneading and at subsequent phases of production (molding and baking) are not added. Therefore, this recipe is calculated as a single phase.
In tab. 10 is a single-phase recipe for Yunost butter cookies.
|Raw||Mass fraction of solids in|
|Feed consumption, kg|
|downloading||naї 1 tonnes of finished products|
|actually||in dry matter||actually||in dry matter|
|Wheat Flour Higherfirst grade||85,5||100,0||85,5||411,6||351,92|
In the production of cakes, pastries, etc., the technological phases are due to the introduction of new recipe components or a change in previously introduced ones. Thus, the production of cakes has the following phases: the preparation of baked semi-finished product, finishing semi-finished product, syrup for promochka. In addition to raw materials, going to the dough kneading, a different set of raw materials defined in each individual case is introduced at each phase.
Such formulations are calculated as the multi-phase (see Table. 11).
To calculate the recipes, you must have the following source data:
consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products (in kg) for loading according to the phases of production. These data are obtained by laboratory in the development of technology products with the subsequent production inspection, during which they clarify the ratio of raw materials and semi-finished products;
mass fraction of dry substances in the raw materials, which is approved by the parent organization and is mandatory when calculating recipes; Table 11
|Raw materials and semi-finished products||Consumption 1 tonnes of finished products, kg||Consumption of semi-finished products for 75 kg of cakes without loss in the phase of finishing and making cakes||Losses in the phase of finishing semi-finished products and cooking cakes|
|Consumption of semi-finished products! taking into account the finishing of semi-finished products and cooking cakes|
|387,00||1000-387 75-X; X = 29,00||4,3||1,25||29,00 + = 1,25 30,25|
X = 10,00
|4,3||0,43||9,97 + = 0,43 10,40|
X = 23,00
|4,3||0,99||23,00 + = 0,90 23,99|
|Syrup for promochka||133,00||1000-133|
X = 10,00
|4,3||0,43||9,97 + = 0,43 10,40|
X = 3,00
|4,3||0,13||3,00 + = 0,13 3,13|
mass fraction of dry substances in semi-finished and finished products. These data are obtained experimentally when developing a technology or a new type of product;
norms of loss of dry substances (in terms of dry substances) in the manufacture of 1 t semi-finished and finished products ^ which are established by experience. The parent organization approves the norms of dry matter loss for finished products;
norms of returnable waste, which are established empirically and approved by a higher organization (necessary for the calculation of working recipes).
Calculation of single-phase formulations
Consumption of raw materials in the dry substances to the load G (in kg) was obtained from the formula for each raw material
C = AB / 100, (1)
where A - the mass fraction of solids (see Table 10, Count 1..), kg; B - Consumption of raw materials to download (see Table 10, Count 2..), Kg.
To determine the output of products to load P (in%) it is necessary to subtract the loss of raw materials in solids from the total solids of the raw materials to the loading, since the amount of raw materials] in solids used for the preparation decreases, for example, , cookies.
P = 100-X ;. (2)
Yield in dry product Substances P (in kg) amount of dry substance ƩWith the amount
P =ƩCP / 100. (3)
Yield products F in nature (in kg) to the load determined from the expression
F = (P * 100) / (100-W) (4)
where W - moisture content of the product.
Having determined the product yield in nature and in dry substances for loading, it is possible to calculate the consumption of raw materials for 1 t of finished products. To do this, we find the coefficient K, which shows how many times 1 t is greater than the yield of finished products in kind per load, i.e. how many times it is necessary to increase the consumption of each type of raw material in kind stipulated in the recipe for loading,
K = 100 / F. (5)
Then each type of raw material (see tab. 10, graph 2) is multiplied by the coefficient K and we get the amount of each type of raw material in kind required to produce 1 tons of finished products.
M = VC kg. (6)
Then define the feed rate on a dry matter m 1 products by converting the amount of each type of raw material in kind, necessary to obtain the finished product 1 m, the percentage content of dry solids.
D = MA / 100, kg. (7)
product yield of dry matter is determined as well as the yield of products to the load
A =ƩDR / 100. (8)
Output of products in the graph corresponds to 4 1000 kg.
Example. Calculate a single phase formulation "Youth" cookies (see. Table. 10).
The mass fraction of dry substances (see tab. 10, graph 1) and the consumption of raw materials for loading in kind (see tab. 10, graph 2) are known.
feed flow to the load in the dry substance is obtained for each type of raw material by formula (1).
C = (134,00 99,85 *) / = 100 133,80 кг,
where 134,00 - consumption of sugar for loading in kind, kg; 99,85 - mass fraction of solids in the sugar-sand%.
Similarly, we calculate the consumption of other types of raw materials in dry substances per load (see tab. 10, graph 3).
After that, we calculate the total consumption of raw materials for loading in kind and in dry substances.
To determine the output of the products to the loading, it is necessary to subtract the loss of raw materials in dry substances from the total content of dry substances of the raw materials, since the amount of raw materials in dry substances decreases by this amount during the production process.
The rate of loss in dry matter for butter biscuit "Youth" is set at 4,8%. Consequently, 100 kg of dry matter of raw material losses will be 4,8 kg.
products Out of this amount of raw materials determined by the formula
P = 100 - 4,8 = 95,2 kg.
In this example, the total amount of dry raw materials is (see. Table. 10, Count 3) 241,17 kg.
The yield of products from this amount of raw materials in solids is found by the formula (3)
P = (241,17 * 95,2) / 100 = 229,59 kg.
To determine the output of products in nature to load increase the yield of products in dry substances on the load on the amount of moisture provided in the products. In the recipe for cookies "Youth" the moisture content of the products is 5,5%, therefore, 229,59 kg of dry substances of the product make up 94,5% of the mass of finished products in kind. Thus, the yield of products in kind at the load (it is. Table 10, column 2) is determined by the formula (4)
F = (229,59 * 100) / 94,5 = 242,95 kg
Having determined the output of products for loading in kind and in dry substances, we calculate the consumption of raw materials for 1 tons of finished products (see tab. 10, graphs 4 and 5). To do this, we find the coefficient that shows how many times 1 t is greater than the yield of finished products in kind per load (242,95 kg), i.e., how many times it is necessary to increase the consumption of each type of raw material in kind provided in the recipe for loading.
Factor found by the formula (5)
K = 1000 / 242,95 = 4,116073
Then, by multiplying each vidsyrya (see Table. 10, gRafa 2) on the resulting ratio, we get the number of each raw material in a nature required for the manufacture of finished products 1 m.
So, for 1 tons of biscuits necessary
M = 134,00 * 4,116073 = 551,55 kg of sugar.
Just define consumption and other raw materials.
After that, we determine the consumption of raw materials in dry substances on 1 tons of products (see tab. 10, graph 5) by recalculating the amount of each type of raw materials in kind needed to produce 1 tons of finished products for the mass fraction of dry substances in it.
So, the amount of granulated sugar in dry substances required to produce 1 tons of products, we find by the formula (7)
D = 551,55-99,85 / 100 = 550,72 kg.
After calculating the total amount of raw materials required for the preparation of 1 tons of products, we determine the yield of products by dry matter as well as the output of products for loading by the formula (8).
L = 992,65- 95,2 / 100 = 945,00 kg.
The calculation of multiphase formulations
Pre-empirically set the proportion of semi-finished products on 1 tons of products in kind. For example, if baked semi-finished products (biscuit, sandy, etc.) and finishing semi-finished products (creams, toppings, syrup for decoying, etc.) are used to make cakes, then the quantity of each semi-finished product needed to produce 1 tons of finished products is determined. . : In the event that some types of raw materials are used for finishing products (powdered sugar, candied fruits, nuts, etc.), they are also included in the proportion of semi-finished products.
Then calculate the consumption of raw materials on 1 t of each semi-finished product, taking into account losses and humidity according to the method given for a single-phase formulation. When using semi-finished products, the calculation of raw materials for 1 t of semi-finished products is not made, but they use previously approved recipes for them.
After that, we determine the consumption of raw materials for the preparation of each semi-finished product in the quantity established for the production of 1 tons of finished products. The calculation is as follows. Suppose you need to use 1 kg of a biscuit cake mix to make 400 t of any biscuit cake. To calculate the consumption of raw materials for the preparation of such an amount of semi-finished product, a coefficient is determined that shows how many times 400 kg is less than 1000 kg, i.e. 1000 / 400 = 2,5. After that, the quantity of each type of raw material, provided in the recipe for 1 t biscuit semi-finished product, divided by 2,5. Just count the amount of raw materials for the preparation of other semi-finished products.
The results show what amount of each type of raw material must be spent for the manufacture of semi-finished products in the proportion provided by the recipe for the production of 1 tons of finished products. However, to obtain products it is not enough to get a semi-finished product, but it is necessary to carry out the final finishing operation on products. This operation involves additional losses that must be taken into account when determining the total consumption of raw materials for 1 tons of finished products. To this end, the amount of each type of raw material, determined by the sum of the phases, is increased by the amount of raw material loss at the finishing stage. The loss of raw materials during the finishing of products is established empirically.
In this way, multiphase formulations are calculated for products whose production does not produce scraps. Sometimes products are produced, during the production of which scraps from one semi-finished product or the entire product are formed.
Calculation of the working recipe
Working recipes are prepared at each enterprise depending on the required range and taking into account the capacity of enterprises. This applies particularly to such products as cakes and pastries, muffins and butter biscuits.
The recipe is based on the recipe for an It product, approved by a higher organization. It should be borne in mind that in approved multiphase formulations the consumption of semi-finished products for 1 tons of products is shown without taking into account the losses of raw materials formed at the finishing and preparation stages of the product.
Calculation of the working piece on the cake recipe, in the manufacture of which are not formed trimming (piece cakes "Biscuit-fondant"). The mass of one cake 75 g. It is necessary to calculate the consumption of raw materials for the manufacture of 1000 cakes, whose mass is 75 kg. Losses in the finishing of semi-finished products and the preparation of cakes are 4,3%.
First, the number of semi-finished products is calculated for the production of 75 kg of cakes, excluding losses in the finishing of semi-finished products and the preparation of cakes (see the table 11).
Then proceed to the determination of consumption of raw materials to semi-finished products (Table. 12).
The consumption of raw materials for each semi-finished product is determined by making up the proportions of consumption of each type of raw material for 1 tons of semi-finished products and the required amount of semi-finished products for 75 kg of products. Then determine the total consumption of raw materials for the preparation of 75 kg (1000 pieces) cakes (table. 13).
Calculation of working on the formulation threaded cakes, in the manufacture of which the scraps from the whole product are formed (cut cakes "Biscuit-fruit"). The mass of one cake 75 g. It is necessary to calculate the consumption of raw materials for the manufacture of 1000 cakes, the mass of which is 75 g. Loss during the finishing of the semi-finished product and the preparation of cakes make 4,3%.
|Raw materials for each semi-finished product||Consumption of raw materials for 1 tons of semi-finished products, kg||The consumption of raw materials for the preparation of semi-finished products on 1000 cakes (75 kg)|
|Wheat Flourand||389,37||1000-389,37 (x = 11,78)|
|Sugar||341,88||1000-341,88 (x = 10,34) 30,25-x|
|Egg yolk (raw)||341,88||1000-341,88 (x = 10,34) 30,25-x|
|Egg Protein (Crude)||512,80||1000-512,80 (x = 15,51) 30,25-x|
|Essentsiya||2,28||1000-2,28 (x = 0,07) 30,25-x|
|citric acid||1,52||1000-1,52 (x = 0,05) 30,25-x|
|Sugar||99,00||1000-99,00 (x = 1,03) 10,40-x|
|fruit jelly||997,00||1000-997 (x = 10,37) 10,40-x|
|Sugar||635,62||1000-635,62 (x = 15,25) 23,99-x|
|starch treacle||198,63||1000-198,63 (x = 4,76) 23,99-x|
|Powder vanilla||3,97||1000-3,97 (x = 0,09) 23,99-x|
|whole milk||794,52||1000-794,52 (x = 19,06) 23,99-x|
|Syrup for promochki|
|Sugar||513,07||1000-513,07 (x = 5,34) 10,40-x|
|Essence of rum||1,92||1000-1,92 (x = 0,02) 10,40-x|
|1000-47,95 (x = 0,50) 10,40-x|
|Fruit-n and t have to s|
|Raw||Semi-finished products, kg||Common|
|Syrup for promochki (10,40)||Fruk|
|Wheat flour||11,78|| || ||. -|| ||11,78|
|Citric acid Total||0,05|
|Semi-finished goods||The number of semi-finished products on 1 t cakes without trimmings and losses in the phase of decoration and preparation|
tovleniya cakes, kg
|The number of semi-finished products per 75 kg of cakes without trimmings and lossless in the finishing phase and during|
|The number of semi-finished products per 75 kg of cakes with scraps (10%), but without loss on the phase department|
cakes and cooking cakes, kg
|Losses in the phase of finishing semi-finished products and cooking cakes||The number of semi-finished products on 75 kg of cakes, taking into account losses in the phase of finishing and cooking pi|
|351,00||1000-351 75-x (x = 26,32)||26,32-100|
(X = 28,95)
|4,3||1,24||28,95 + 1,24 =|
|334,00||1000-334 75-x (x = 25,05)||25,05-100|
(X = 27,55)
|4,3||1,18||27,55 + 1,18 =|
|Syrup for promochki||81,00||1000-81 75-x (x = 6,07)||X 6,07-100-110 (x = 6,67)||4,3||0,28||6,67 + 0,28 =|
|They want||102,00||1000-102 75-x (x = 7,65)||X 7,65-100-110 (x = 8,41)||4,3||0,36||8,41 + 0,36 =|
(X = 9,90)
(X = 10,89)
|4,3||0,47||10,89 + = 0,47 11,36|
Raw materials for each semi-finished product
|Consumption of raw materials for 1 t semi-finished product, kg||The consumption of raw materials for the preparation of semi-finished products on 1000 cakes (75 kg) with trimming and taking into account the loss of raw materials in the phase of finishing and making cakes, kg|
|Sponge cake mix (layers)|
|Wheat Flour Extra Class|
|(X = 8,49)|
(X = 2,09)
(X = 10,48)
(X = 17,46)
(X = 0,10)
|Sugar jelly fruit||99,00|
|(X = 2,94)|
(X = 28,64)
Essence of rum
|(* = 3,56)|
(* = 0,13)
(* = 0,33)
|(X = 3,63)|
(X = 0,90)
(X = 0,03)
(X = 0,02)
(X = 0,09)
(X = 0,01)
|Semi-finished products, kg||Total amount, kg|
|Biscuit cake mix (30,19)||Filling|
|Wheat Flour Higherfirst grade||8,49|| || || || ||8,49|
|Potato starch||2,09|| || || || ||2,09|
First, it is necessary to calculate the number of semi-finished products for the manufacture of 75 kg (1000 units) cakes without scrap and without loss when finishing semi-finished products and making cakes. Then determine the number of semi-finished products with scraps, but without losses, and then calculate the number of semi-finished products with scraps and taking into account the losses in the finishing of semi-finished products and cooking cakes.
When calculating the amount of the formed scrap we take 10% in relation to the weight of semi-finished products (table. 14).
Then, the consumption of raw materials for semi-finished products and the total consumption of raw materials for the manufacture of 75 kg (1000 units) cakes (Table 15) are calculated.
After that, determine the total consumption of raw materials for the preparation of 75 kg (1000 pieces) cakes with cuts, which are used to prepare special cakes (Table 16).
Make up the proportion to determine the amount of round sponge cake per 75 kg of cakes
1000 - 387 (387 * 75) / 1000 =29,0
75 - x
Also count the number of other semi-finished products consumed on 1000 cakes. Then determine the loss (in kg) in the finishing of semi-finished products and cooking cakes. The data obtained is added to the previously received consumption of semi-finished products for the manufacture of 1000 cakes (75 kg).
In the development of products, when not all semi-finished products, but only one baked semi-finished product gives trimming, which is observed in the manufacture of cakes, the working recipe is calculated with the accrual of raw materials for trimming one semi-finished product.
When calculating the operating recipes produce flour flow adjustment depending on the moisture and sugar dosage. The dosage of flour recalculated taking into account its actual moisture formula
x = a (100 — b) / (100 — b ')
where x is the required amount of flour with regard to its actual humidity, kg; a - flour dosage according to the recipe, kg; b is the moisture content of the flour specified in the recipe,%; b1 - The actual moisture content of flour%.
The dosage of sugar can be changed depending on the quality of the flour and the temperature conditions of the dough. Tolerances are ± 8% sugar. When changing the dosage of sugar, you should change the dosage of flour in order to maintain the ratio of other types of raw materials and the content of dry substances in the recipe. With an increase in the dosage of sugar, respectively, reduce the amount of flour in terms of dry matter, and vice versa.
In the standard moisture content of flour (14,5%) 1 kg of sugar in terms of dry matter corresponds to 1,17 kg of flour, which can be seen from the calculation
1 (100 -0,15) / (100 -14,5) = 1,168 = 1,7 kg, where 0,15 - humidity sugar,%; 14,5 - standard humidity flour%.
Primary production records
At the confectionery enterprises, in addition to the usual accounting for the consumption of raw materials, monitoring of the implementation of the norms of raw materials consumption is carried out.
Such control, specific to the confectionery industry, is carried out in a special form 5-к.
The basis of control in the form of 5-K is the accounting data for the reporting period on the quantities of raw materials and semi-finished products received, on their balances at the beginning and end of the reporting period in kind and in work in progress. The unfinished production includes finished products not delivered to the finished goods warehouse at the end of the reporting period, as well as returnable waste of certain types of semi-finished products to be used in production.
On the basis of these data, the quantity of raw materials and purchased semi-finished products is obtained, spent in production to produce finished products delivered to the warehouse during the reporting period. These data are compared with the consumption rate of raw materials and semi-finished products.
The consumption rate is the maximum allowable amount of raw materials spent on the production of a unit of finished product. Norm is usually expressed in kilograms on 1 tons of finished products. The consumption rate of raw materials provides that the finished product must fully meet all the requirements of the State Standard or Technical Specifications.
The amount of consumed raw materials for the production of confectionery products depends on its quality indicators, primarily on the content of dry substances in raw materials. In this regard, to produce the same amount of finished products may require different amounts of raw materials containing unequal amounts of dry matter. This was the reason that in the confectionery industry the norms for the consumption of raw materials are established not only in physical terms, but also in dry substances. In formulations, the consumption of all types of raw materials in dry substances is summarized. This result - the consumption of dry substances of all types of raw materials - is one of the most important standardized indicators, i.e., in the formulations, both the tab of each type of raw material and the total consumption of dry substances in kilograms expended to produce 1 tons of finished products are normalized.
Prescription rates of application provides cost estimate by the given enterprise.
For process control, in addition to raw material consumption data, accounting data on the quantity of products delivered to the finished goods warehouse and in what form they are packaged are also used, since the type of packaging and wrapping affects the consumption rates of raw materials.
In addition, when compiling the form 5-K, data on the planned and actual solids content in the raw materials are used. Data on the actual content of solids comes from the laboratory of the enterprise on the basis of certificates and analyzes. The essence of controlling the consumption of raw materials in the form of 5-K is a comparison of the standard (planned) quantity of raw materials provided for the production of products delivered to the warehouse with its actual consumption. Such a comparison is carried out for each item of the planned and actually consumed raw materials both in physical terms and in terms of dry matter. When comparing, a smaller value is subtracted from a larger value.
report is usually for a month, quarter, year, but in some cases, if necessary make up for the day shift, and so on. d. Reports are prepared in the shop, the enterprise as a whole, if needed, and for a portion of, the change, the brigade and t. d.
Raw materials in the report are listed not arbitrarily, but according to a certain system (by groups). All raw materials are divided into twelve groups: sugary substances (sugar, molasses, honey, etc.), fruit preparations (mashed potatoes, jelly, supplies, etc.), fats (butter, vegetable, etc.), egg products, cocoa products (cocoa mass, cocoa butter, etc.), dairy products (whole milk, condensed, dried, etc.), food acids (citric, lactic), wine (brandy), nut kernels (almonds, cashews, peanuts), mealy (flour, starch, etc.), aromatic substances, food coloring.
The planned and actual consumption, as well as the results of the comparison of this consumption are summarized in groups separately in kind and calculated on the dry matter. Then summarize the results obtained by groups for these indicators. If the comparison yields savings of one or another raw material (the planned value is greater than the actual), then the minus sign is placed before the difference. If an overrun is obtained, then they put a plus sign. The summation of the results of the comparison, both by groups and by individual species, is performed algebraically, that is, taking into account the sign.
The main result of the form 5-K is the total value of savings or overspending of dry substances in all groups. According to this result, it is judged how the enterprise, the workshop, the brigade worked, the shift during the reporting period, whether the overall savings or the overrun of dry matter were achieved; In addition, the form 5-k shows how correctly (according to the recipes) the raw materials of each name or a group of its homogeneous species are consumed.