Production of flour confectionery products

Maturing test. Moulding dough.

Maturing test.
Protracted dough immediately after kneading and rolling left for mature subject: pieces of dough are placed on a table, covered with a tarp and left to lie within a certain time. The sheet is used to save the test temperature and protect its surface from the formation of the crust, which worsens the condition of the surface of the pastry.
The dough on the table should not be aged thick plates, as this may lead to self-warming it, and as a result, premature decomposition of ammonium carbonate and decrease ductility test.
From practice it is known that the properties are improved by maturing protracted test. This dough is rolled more easily, the dough pieces after forming almost do not change its shape, and baked goods have a pleasant appearance and a uniform porosity in the fracture.
As a result of kneading and rolling, the dough is subjected to strong mechanical action of the blades of the kneader and rolls. When kneading, the integrity of gluten yarns is disrupted, and during rolling they undergo plastic deformation. During bonding, internal stresses in the test that occur during kneading and rolling are absorbed. As a result of hardening, the viscosity of the dough is reduced, and the plasticity, i.e., the ability of the dough to retain the shape imparted to it during molding, increases dramatically. The change in the properties of the dough as a result of baking has a positive effect on the quality of the cookie: the fragility, swelling and porosity of the articles increase.
Studies have established the possibility to achieve optimal plasticity of the dough without sticking it out, by some changing the technological regime of obtaining and processing the dough. Increasing the temperature of the dough during rolling increases the plasticity of the dough and reduces its viscosity. If we knead the dough at a temperature of about 40 ° C and roll it at a temperature close to the kneading temperature, then the dough will have the optimum plasticity - the same as if the dough was exposed to a two-hour vintage. These conditions can most accurately be performed with continuous kneading of the dough, when the dough with the optimum temperature is immediately transferred to rolling and does not have time to cool.
Moulding dough.
Molding test performed on a variety of machines and devices, depending on the structure and consistency of the dough.
The most common machine for forming the dough, especially prolonged, is the stamp machine percussion.
For molding and protracted galetnogo test applies shtampmashina light type whose purpose - rolling dough, cutting of the dough sheet blanks certain forms and laying them on the sheets or metal furnace conveyors.
Two pairs of polishing rolls firstly impart a certain thickness and width to the dough sheet. The cutting of the blanks from the test strip is carried out by a stamping mechanism, which consists of a matrix in the form of a glass with pointed edges and a punch moving within the matrix. The punch in the form of a plate with pins causes punctures on the surface of the cut out test billet and pushes it out of the die. Puncture piercings are necessary for the free exit of water vapor in the baking process, as otherwise blisters will form on the surface of the cookie. A small number of punctures in the test billets for the cracker promotes the formation of blisters on the surface of products, characteristic of this type of product.
Stamp mechanism for sugar dough characterized in that the surface of each punch has an engraved pattern or inscription. First punch strongly pressed against the surface of the dough and causes it drawing or inscription, then the matrix is ​​cut down dough pieces of different circuit.
Transfer to the sanded test tape rolls and rolls of stamps for the mechanism, and then carried to the stacking mechanism conveyor system.
Carved into dough pieces by a mechanism automatically in regular rows are arranged on the metal sheets or tape in samorasklad if workpiece directly receives trehlentochnuyu furnace.
Trim dough produced in the molding process, it is transmitted to the front-roll conveyor drive.
From the precise work of the forming mechanism, the quality of the products largely depends. Particular attention should be paid to adjusting the pressure of the punch so that a clear pattern is formed on the surface of the dough and at the same time, dough sealing will not result if the punch is pressed excessively. Adjustment is carried out by approaching the punch and the cushion under the punching mechanism. The cushion and the punching mechanism must be strictly parallel. Failure to comply with these conditions can lead to too deep cutting of the test tape and to cuts of the blade when the punch is heavily pressed or to carry away the test pieces together with the cuttings with low pressure.
Molding sugar test is now carried out on rotary machines. In addition, the rotary machine at a number of companies have started to be used for molding sand pastry. These machines are characterized by a simple design, small size, high performance and a lack of dynamic load during operation.
The rotary machine consists of a corrugated drum and a rotor, on the surface of which there are engraved grooves with outlines corresponding to the contour of the products. The dough from the funnel, located above the grooved drum and the rotor, is grasped by them during rotation and is pressed due to the drum corrugations into the rotor compartments. The knife, located between the corrugated drum and the rotor, is adjacent to the rotor and cleans the surface of it from the dough. From the cells of the rotor, the test blanks are extracted by the clamping drum of the receiving sheet at the moment of its contact with the rotor. The dough adheres to the canvas and is transferred to the stencil on the second conveyor belt, or directly to the oven tape.
When forming sugar and pastry on a rotating machine is necessary to bear in mind the following. The strength of adhesion test cells to the rotor should not exceed the force of adhesion between the dough particles are otherwise impossible to completely remove the dough from the cells of the rotor. The strength of adhesion of the test to the receiving web must exceed the strength of adhesion of the test to the rotor cells.
The position and condition of the blade during operation of the machine has great influence on the dough forming conditions. The knife should fit snugly to the rotor wall, since otherwise no test will complete purification of the rotor surface and the test layer formed between the blade and the rotor will cause premature release of the test cells of the rotor. The same considerations should not be allowed on the knife edge chipping and the dried residue test.
Filling the rotor cells with a test depends on the position of the knife and the distance between the corrugated drum and the rotor, which are usually adjusted depending on the grade and properties of the test. The higher the knife is placed, the weaker the pressure experienced by the test, which can lead to insufficient filling of the rotor cells, as a result of which the extraction of the test from the cells becomes impossible. With a very low knife position, due to the strong pressure experienced by the dough, the rotor cells are overwhelmed with the dough, and the clamping drum crushes the excess of the dough; As a result, barbs are formed around the molded dough and baked pastry.
Recently found a constructive solution to the protracted process of forming the dough rotary mechanism.
Mold prolonged dough directly from the test piece is not possible, since it has the ability to almost completely regain its shape after deformation. Therefore, rotational molding mechanism protracted test can be performed only after repeated rolling of dough and pre-prepared test strip.
The pre-prepared test tape is initially pressed by the 1 roll to the conveyor belt of 2, in order to increase the bonding strength of the dough to the conveyor and thereby eliminate the deformation of the test pieces. During the passage of the test tape and the molded dough on the conveyor, the internal stresses causing the dough to be reduced partially dissipate, so that the reduction of the test pieces along the length is already insignificant. Then, the test strip passes under the forming rotor, which cuts out the test billets from the tape. At the moment of forming the dough, the conveyor belt rests on a roller, covered with a soft cloth.
Shape of the rotor is a four-sided shaft, which reinforced matrix, bent from flat steel. The cutting edges of all the matrices are arranged on the shaft in a cylindrical surface. The diameter of the spinning rotor 135 mm. The body of each matrix is ​​welded bedplate, which carries the stencils with a picture and the inscription, as well as pins to pierce the molded dough
Whipped butter biscuit varieties is deposited on pressmashinah or Multidrop type machines. Molding machines ACF test is performed as follows. After the dough kneading machine enters the funnel, where the two grooved rollers, located under the hopper, rotating towards one another is captured and forced through the mouthpieces of various circuits.
Squeezed the dough separates from the specific shape mouthpieces movable table at the time of the test contact with him.

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