Production of flour confectionery products

MCI Additives - Lingering Cookies

long cookies

Of wheat dough product having a layered structure.

formulation example

Raw Solids,% Consumption of raw materials for 1 t finished

production, kg

actually in dry matter
Wheat Flour 85,50 704,70 602,52
Corn starch 87,00 52,82 45,95
Sugar 99,85 183,21 182,94
invert syrup 70,00 14,10 9,87
Margarine 84,00 91,61 76,95
Cow milk Pasteur 11,50 110,35 12,69
Melange 27,00 31,07 8,39
Powder vanilla 99,85 3,53 3,52
Salt 96,50 5,25 5,07
Soda drinking 50,00 7,04 3,52
Ugleammoniynaya salt 1,11
flavor According to the recommendations
Total OK. 1205 951,42
Log out 94,00 1000,00 940,00

Technological process

Technological long cookies production process includes the following basic steps:

1) preparation of raw materials and semi-finished products for production;

2) preparation of a mixture of free-flowing components;

3) preparation of the emulsion;

4) dough preparation;

5) rolling the dough;

6) forming the dough;

7) baking products;

8) cooling;

9) packaging, packaging and storage of cookies.

Features of use of food additives

in the production of long cookies

In the production of long cookies The following supplements: flavors, fragrance and flavor enhancers, emulsifiers, preservatives, antioxidants, humectants, disintegrants, sodium reductant metabisul- fit, enzymes, dyes sometimes.


The prolonged use cookies flavors of baked milk, cream. Vanilla flavor brings cookies more sweet and pleasant taste, and effectively hides the smell of fat and creates a creamy flavor.


The dyes in the production of long cookies are rarely used.


The prolonged use of cookies grades 0,7% soda and food 0,08% ugleammoniynoy salt. When replacing ugleammoniynoy salt on ammonium carbonate should take him about 30% less.


To obtain lingering cookies of standard quality, flour with a protein content of less than 10% or a sodium metabisulphite reducing agent (sodium pyrosulfite, E223) should be used. Often it is incorrectly called "pyrosulfate". The restorer has a significant effect on the properties of the test. Introduction 30 g of this substance per 100 kg of flour allows for 10% and more to reduce the amount of water in the dough and significantly reduce the duration of batch. In addition, the dough is removed after rolling and the rolling conditions are improved. The amount of metabisulphite used can vary from 0,025 to 0,05% to the weight of flour. The dosage depends on the content and strength of raw gluten. The use of flour bleach may require an increase in the dosage of metabisulphite. Sodium metabisulfite acts as a typical reducing agent, rupturing part of the disulfide bridges and converting them into SH groups. The result is a relaxation of the gluten-free carcass of flour.

Sodium metabisulfite is added to the dough mixer to form a solution. Action metabisulfite manifested instantly. It can even be added at the end of kneading and receive with acceptable results.

The health risks of sodium metabisulfite are mainly related to the negative effects of its decomposition products. It should be noted, however, that in wine and processed fruit and vegetable products, its content is much higher than in cookies. Studies of the residual amount of sulphite hazardous to health in biscuits using sodium metabisulphite showed that only 0,2% of it remains in the form of sulphite, 30% is oxidized to sulphate, 60% is combined with the organic components of flour and 10% is volatilized. The amount of pyrosulfite Na2S203Added to the dough, is difficult to determine, it is difficult to detect even if it is used at all.

Sodium metabisulfite Potassium metabisulfite can be replaced, but this is impractical. Since the molecular weight of the potassium salt of higher and higher should be its dosage in the dough and the amount of harmful sulfite is not reduced. There are studies on the replacement of sodium metabisulfite L-cysteine. To achieve the same effect required cysteine ​​three times, and it costs much more metabisulfite.

Enzymes Flour has recently been characterized by such a high content of proteins that it is increasingly used the enzyme preparation of proteinase to change the properties of gluten in the dough. The mechanism of action of the enzyme is different from the mechanism of action of sodium metabisulfite. While sodium metabisulfite weakens gluten by breaking off bisulfide bonds, the enzyme achieves the same goal by breaking down protein molecules. Unlike metabisulphite, proteinase does not act immediately. Usually, when using this enzyme, it is necessary to observe a time for not less than one hour for the reaction to take place. At the same time there is a danger of airing, so the dough must be carefully closed and its temperature maintained around 40 “C. The enzyme is completely destroyed during baking, so it can not have a harmful effect on health, and its presence in the product is not required to be indicated on the label. With an overdose of the drug, the dough becomes very crumbly, acquiring a plastic consistency, the biscuits from such a dough rise very poorly.

The action of the protease is significantly reduced by adding a fat 7 100 kg per kg of flour, to inhibit enzyme activity and sugar. As a rule, the content of fat and sugar in the dough for a long cookies is small enough for the effective operation of the protease.

Previously used as a protease enzyme preparation Protosubtilin G10h. Dose Protosubtilin G10h on 100 kg flour is from 5 200 to g when proteolytic capacity 70 u / g. Currently available enzyme preparations and other proteolytic activities such as Neutrase 1,5 MG. Dosage him to 100 kg flour is 2-5 of

The enzyme preparation is typically added as an aqueous solution. Preparation of an aqueous solution G10h Protosubtilin follows.

Weigh the enzyme preparation is mixed with a small amount of water with a temperature-35 40 ° C until homogeneous (lump free) and then gradually added to the water solution concentration 10 g enzyme preparation in 1000 ml. Preparing a solution of the enzyme preparation in an amount providing it does not need more than one shift. Before use, the drug solution should be mixed.

To prepare the solution of the drug and its change during storage should be employed from non-corroding material utensil. When working with the enzyme preparations must be considered that at a temperature above 60 ° C the enzymes are inactivated.

When you knead the dough without prior emulsification of components necessary amount of concentrated product solution is diluted with water at a ratio of 1: 20 and contribute directly to the dough mixer.

When kneading dough on a ten percent aqueous emulsion of the drug solution was added to the emulsion at the end of its preparation. Water consumption for kneading dough is reduced by the corresponding amount of water introduced with the solution of the enzyme preparation.

Emulsifiers. The use of emulsifiers in the production of biscuits similar to their protracted use in the production of butter.

Additives that increase shelf life. In accordance with GOST 24901-89, the shelf life of protracted cookies at a temperature (18 ± 5) “C and a relative air humidity of no more than 75% is 3 months.

Protracted cookies refers to products with low water activity. Measured in VNIIKP water activity long cookies varied in the range of up to 0,55 0,68. Since the medium in the cookies is almost neutral, and the humidity is so low that can grow practically only mold and yeast, preservative action can only be expected from sorbic acid.

The moisture content of long cookies varies from 5,0 to 9,5%; Mass fraction of fat in terms of dry matter - from 6,0 to 28,0%. The activity of water in the lingering cookies is below 0,65, and the probability of microbiological damage is small. But oxidative processes, especially in biscuits with a fat content of more than 10,0%, and this are cookies of the highest and first grade, can go quite actively, leading to the appearance of a rancid aftertaste and thereby limiting the shelf life of products. Prevention of oxidative damage to long-lasting biscuits can be achieved using antioxidants of butyloxyanisole and butyloxytoluene in the ratio 1: 1. Their total dosage of 20 g per 1 kg of fat is sufficient to increase the shelf life of the product in 2-4 times. Antioxidants are administered as a solution in vegetable oil (see Appendix 16). With periodic mixing of the test, the calculated amount of antioxidant solution is added to the kneading machine together with the fat and sugar-sand. With continuous dough mixing, the estimated amount of antioxidant solution is added to the mixer to prepare the emulsion along with the fat.

Improvements in the quality of lingering cookies and increasing shelf life can be achieved using dietary fiber, wheat, citrus or other with certain characteristics. In the laboratory of SCP, a study was made of the effect of fiber addition on the properties of a long Crocket cookie. The fibers were added in an amount of 2% by weight of the dry flour substances, the amount of water for batching the dough was recalculated. Due to the reinforcement of fine fibers and the formation of a stable spatial framework, the structure is somewhat strengthened and the density of the biscuit increases. As a result of the structure of the test, the gas-retaining capacity and form-stability of the test pieces increase, which positively affects the shape and consistency of the finished cookie. Thanks to the use of food plant fibers, the mass fraction of cookie moisture had the maximum allowable value according to GOST. The output of "Croquet" as a result of the addition of fibers increased by 17,8 kg on 1 t of finished products. Fiber binding additional moisture prevents the biscuit from drying, reduces water activity, strengthens the texture of the product, increases the yield of products. As a result, the shelf life of cookies is prolonged, microbiological deterioration slows down, organoleptic parameters (shape, relief pattern, glossy surface without microcracks, golden color, taste, aroma) are improved, and the amount of scrap and crumb is reduced during transportation and storage.

Similar to fibers, the dough for cookies and finished products are affected by sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, Е466), which is also dietary fiber, it is a non-absorbable, non-digestible, soluble ballast. Here we are talking about the trademark CMC, characterized by increased water-holding capacity and characterized by viscosity 1% solution 7500-12000 сПз. E466 dosages are significantly lower than dietary fiber dosages: 20-100 g / 100 kg of dough, depending on the quality of the flour. When using CMC is required to increase the amount of water going to the dough. An additional amount of water is calculated based on the fact that the 1 part of the CMC requires an additional 50-80 of water. For example, if the dough is used for 0,2 XMC, then additionally add 0,2 kg x 50 - 80 = 10 - 16 l of water. E466 is mixed with a small amount of flour, which is used for kneading dough, then the remaining flour is mixed in. Further, the process is carried out in accordance with the technological instructions for this type of product.

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