Production of flour confectionery products

Rolling and shaping the dough

Protracted dough after mixing is subjected to multiple rolling, t. E. The conversion of shapeless dough pieces in the dough sheet by passing through a two-roll machine prokatochnuyu.
During multiple lingering rolling the dough under the influence of mechanical impact tests shear deformation and compressive strain. Because of this test appear in longitudinal and transverse stresses accompanied by lengthening and broadening of the formation test.
When rolling the dough in the same alternating directions, without turning the dough through the angle 90 °, most of the longitudinal stresses arise, which leads to the dough lengthening. Punching such a layer of dough can lead to a shortening of dough pieces in length. When the dough layer is subjected to rolling with the correct alternation of dough turns at an angle of 90 °, stresses arising in this case are distributed evenly over the dough layer and the test deformation will occur equally in the length and width of the stamped dough pieces, without visible shape distortion.
Rolling helps reduce viscosity and increase the ductility of the test. When rolling occurs even distribution of air, entrained dough during mixing, and excess air is removed, so that the dough acquires a finely porous structure. Multiple layered rolled dough contributes to obtaining that imparts characteristic structure prolonged liver minutes swelling and increased brittleness of products. The characteristic luster, appearing on the surface of products, to a large extent is the result of repeated practice.
According to the technological instructions used five successive rolling phases and maturing protracted formation of the test:

Rolling, maturing and molding dough

1) pre-rolling,  2) first maturing,  3) first front rolling,  4) second maturing,
5) second front rolling.
The dough after kneading with pieces weighing no more than 35 kg is first rolled on the 5 preparatory double roll machine (counting rolling in one direction for 1 times), of which the first 3 times with a gradual decrease in the gap between the rollers (90, 70, 50 mm). Then the dough is folded in half and skipped another 2 times (80 and 60 mm), and then settled on the table for 2 — 2,5 h and again rolled 4 times (first face rolling). Before rolling, the layer is turned at an angle 90 ° against the direction of the first rolling and is passed through the rolls with a gradual reduction of the gap, and after the first rolling, the dough is doubled.
Laminated dough is subjected to a second stand for 30 minutes and then rolled again on the front 5 two-roll machine. After the first rolling in dough formation surface evenly sprinkled cutting test and before the fourth rolling dough folded in half. This circuit and rollings vylezhek refers to the dough made according to a recipe of flour.
Rolling the dough and maturing of the lower grades of flour simplified. Thus, the dough is cooked according to a recipe of flour
I grade, rolled 3 times in the preparatory two-roll machine, one hour be aged, and then re-rolled 5 times. The dough, prepared according to a recipe of flour
Grade II, rolled 2 times, be aged 30 minutes and then rolled 5 times.
Studies have shown that the best condition for processing the dough after kneading is sevenfold rolling of the dough using at least two turns of the dough at an angle of 90 °.
When a fourteen rolling an increase in viscosity and a reduction of plasticity of the test, accompanied by a deterioration of the quality of products.
Most dough biscuit and the best quality is obtained by rolling the dough with a temperature close to the temperature of mixing, it is possible to carry out in a continuous prolonged kneading dough.
Wafer dough after mixing aged in the table or in the trolley at least one hour, during which takes place the dough fermentation, accompanied by loosening it.
After maturing the dough subjected to rolling. Rolling, and then made the dough molding drums stamping machines, light type, t. E. On the same machines as for protracted test.
Dough pieces weighing 25 — 30 kg are rolled on a double-roll 2 machine with the gap between the 35 and 25 rolls mm. Then trimming is added to the dough and re-rolled with a gap between the rollers 30 — 35 mm. After that, the dough is folded in half, turned at an angle of 90 ° and rolled through the gap 35 mm. The dough layer is again folded, turned at an angle of 90 ° and passed through the rolls.
During rolling, the dough for the cracker "Table" is poured by a previously prepared mixture of flour and fat in the ratio 1,7: 1.
Sugar dough has a high plasticity and under pressure, tested in a dough making machine, easily forms a dough tape during the first rolling. Repeated rolling of sugar dough leads to a decrease in ductility and to the "tightening" of the dough. Therefore, multiple rolling sugar dough is not applicable. A single rolling of this dough is used when molding it on die-makers. When a rotary machine is used to form a sugar dough, the dough is not pre-rolled.
The thickness of the sugar dough ribbon leaving the twin-roll machine is usually 25 — 30 mm.
When rolling the dough is important that it is not applied in excess and do not overload the rollers. This is achieved by varying the speed of work-eat-roll or testovyzhimnoy machine.
After the face rolling, the dough is rolled on grinding rolls, the purpose of which is to gradually reduce the thickness of the dough tape before forming it on the die. The speed of the test tape between the first and second pairs of grinding rolls is adjusted so that the test tape does not run on the second pair of rolls and at the same time is not stretched. In the first case, the dough tape will have an uneven density, and in the second, it will break (sugar) or overly stretch (lingering), which will distort the shape of the dough pieces.
The thickness of the dough tape after the first pair of grinding rolls for the long and sugar dough 7 — 10 mm and after the second pair of rolls 2,5 — 4 mm.
The test strip, coming under the stamp must be slack, free, and even with some fold. This applies in particular to a prolonged test, which seeks to restore its original shape. The test strip, will go under the stamp in the form of tension, will give the dough pieces with a distorted form.
In the rolling process, dough trimmings are added to the fresh dough, which come from the die for recycling. You should strive to ensure that the temperature difference between the dough and the scraps is small. The addition of pieces of sugar dough with a difference in temperature between them and fresh dough in 6 — 7 ° C causes dough to stick to the extruder rolls.
dough scraps and temperature must be above room temperature. Not recommended podpylivat flour dough sheet, especially sugar dough during rolling, as this leads to the formation of a rough surface of cookies. As a last resort, when there is an urgent need for this due to the increased humidity test, causing the dough from sticking to the rollers, should be used
beskleykovinvuyu flour, for example corn, barley or starch.
For the test used two roll rolling Reverse-nye machines in which the rolls rotate in one direction or another, which is achieved by using a special cuttings or electric switches.
Shaft machine is used for rolling dough immediately after mixing, and in this case it is called harvesting. When the double roller machine is used for the subsequent rolling scraps, it is usually referred to as the front. Differences in the design of these machines are not available. The front double roller machine is in line with shtampmashinoy.
To replace sugar test a two-roll machines sometimes used testovyzhimnuyu machine, which consists of two corrugated Spreading steel shaft on which is located a funnel. The dough loaded into the funnel, under the influence of its weight and thanks to the corrugations, is captured by the shafts and injected into the box under the shafts. In the bottom of the box are inserted steel slats with a cut in the form of a continuous slit or with a smaller cutout, but with a different contour. The dough is squeezed through a slot or notches in the form of a continuous test tape or a series of narrow bands that come directly under the grinding rolls of the stamp. The test press machine usually makes a single unit with a stamper.

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