Production of sweets and halva

candy Manufacturing

Candies are a diverse assortment group of confectionery products made on a sugar basis and characterized by a variety of composition, appearance and taste. Calorie chocolates range from 3800 to 5970 kcal. The proportion of candy in the total production of confectionery is 12 — 15%.

Unlike caramel, sweets are mostly soft, delicate, which is why they are sometimes called soft sweets. However, there are certain types of candy that have a solid texture.
According to the method of manufacture and finishing of candy can be divided into three main groups:
  1.  Uncoated;
  2. Glazed - candies coated with the surface completely or partially with icing. Chocolate, lipstick, caramel mass and other types of glaze can be used as a glaze.The surface of the glazed and unglazed candies can be rolled in whole or in part with cocoa powder, granulated sugar, chocolate semolina and other semi-finished products; chocolate candy with fillings of various shapes and embossed patterns on the surface.
According to the external design can be wrapped candy and nezavernutye and stacked in the capsule.
Candies can be made from one candy mass or from several types of candy masses - these are the so-called combined, or multi-layered, candies.
The inside of the glazed candies and the molded unglazed candies are called bodies. The bodies are made of various candy masses. Candy masses are prepared from a variety of raw materials: sugar, molasses, fruit and berry preparations, milk, fats, nuts and fat-containing kernels, cocoa beans, egg whites, gelling agents, flavoring and aromatic substances. Depending on the type of candy mass, the body of sweets is fondant, fruit, whipped, nut, marzipan, milk, liqueur, cream, roasted, caramel-based, alcohol-based berries and candied fruits.
Due to the diversity of the main types of candy mass and the possibility of combining them, the assortment of candies is very large. A wide range of sweets and a variety of processed raw materials determine the diversity of technological processes. The main processes for the production of candy are:
 cooking candy mass;
 molding chocolates (production buildings);
 enrobing chocolates;
 wrapping, packaging and packing.
               Preparation candy masses
Preparation of a lipstick. Lipstick is a plastic heterogeneous mass consisting of three phases: solid, liquid and gaseous. Since the amount of gaseous phase in lipstick is small, some authors believe that it consists of two phases — solid and liquid.
The solid phase is the smallest sucrose crystals. The liquid phase is a saturated solution of sugars. The composition of the liquid phase includes sucrose, glucose, fructose, as well as maltose and dextrins, if the lipstick is prepared with the addition of molasses. The gaseous phase is the smallest air bubbles in the lipstick. Such a structure of lipstick is formed as a result of a certain technological processing of sugar, in which sugar is transferred from a crystalline state to a fine-crystalline state, which makes lipstick dissolve easily and “melt”. Unlike sugar, lipstick contains from 9 to 12% moisture.
The main raw material for the production of lipstick is granulated sugar. Starch syrup is used as an anti-crystallizer. There are two main types of lipstick: sugar, or simple, lipstick and milk, made from sugar and milk.
Sugar and milk lipstick are semi-finished products. In the manufacture of fondant candies, various flavoring and aromatic substances are added to sugar lipstick: fruit and berry supplies, cakes, roasted grated nuts, cocoa powder, condensed milk, food acids, wines, essences, as well as food colors. Butter, grated nuts, cocoa powder, wine and essences are added to milk pomade. Additives affect the taste of lipstick, and in some cases, the structure of lipstick and allow
to produce various grades of fondant chocolates. The share of fondant chocolates in the total generation of candy is about 70%.
Sugar lipstick. Process of preparation of sugar fondant consists of the following steps:
  1.  dissolving the sugar in water;
  2.  ruse pomadnogo syrup;
  3.  cooling syrup;
  4.  churning lipstick.40
The dissolution of sugar in water and the preparation of sugar solution for lipstick is performed in open cooking boilers with a steam jacket or in coppers with coil heating (dissutators) used for cooking caramel syrup.
In medium-sized and large enterprises, a sugar solution is prepared in four-section or six-section solvents and other aggregates used for continuous cooking of caramel syrup. To dissolve sugar, take no more than 25% water by weight of sugar. The solution is boiled to a moisture content of 18 — 20%. The finished solution is pumped to the digester brewing unit (Fig. 40) by pump. When the sugar solution has to be pumped over a long distance, crystallization of the syrup is possible while moving through the pipelines. In these cases, it is necessary to add molasses to the dissator after the sugar has dissolved. Molasses is added from 5 to 10% by weight of sugar. The remaining amount of molasses (about 5%) is introduced into the brewing pot of the baking machine before discharging the syrup into the collection container for feeding into the brewing column. In the absence of molasses, it is replaced with invert syrup.
The sugar and molasses solution from the 1 digester is drained by gravity into the 2 collector with a strainer (1,0 hole diameter — 1,5 mm) and fed to the cooking column using a double-plunger 3 pump. The amount of syrup is regulated by the rocker mechanism.
The 4 hob column consists of. a steam cylinder, inside of which there are two copper coils, and a closed 5 box for venting the extra pair. The ends of the coils are placed in the steam collection box. Under the ends of the coils, there are two funnels with pipes to drain the boiled fondant syrup to the fritter machines. Angled thermometers are inserted inside the funnels, which are used to determine the temperature of boiling syrup. The vapor pressure in the column is supported by 5 — 6 ATI. Cooked fudge syrup with a temperature of 118 — 120 ° C and humidity of 9 — 12% from the steam collection column flows by gravity into the funnels of auger lipstick machines. The unit has two lipstick machines.
Auger lipstick machines with cooled and uncooled augers. The machine with the uncooled auger (see fig. 40) consists of two cylinders 6 and 7, interconnected by a cylinder of smaller diameter 8 with openings in the upper part, closed by a cover. The 6 and 7 cylinders have a water jacket that serves to cool the lipstick in the process of churning. Cooling water is fed to the cylinders through the 9 pipe, to which the 10 pipe is connected, which serves to supply the steam needed to warm up the cylinder before starting the machine, as well as when the lipstick is cured.
Inside the cylinders, the screw rotates, driven by the electric motor through the V-belt transmission. The screw is a shaft with blades mounted on it. The blades are mounted on the shaft in such a way that each pair of blades is rotated with respect to the previous pair at an angle 28 ° 30, so that the blades form an auger. The auger makes 250 rpm. With the help of a fan, the air necessary for better cooling of the syrup and saturating the lipstick with air is supplied to the cylinder.
In the auger lipstick machine, the cooling and churning of the syrup occurs. The syrup from the funnel enters the cylinder with a rotating auger, moving with the help of the auger blades along the cylinder, gradually cooled and strayed, being saturated with air. Knocked lipstick with a temperature 67 — 72 ° C goes out continuously through the cylinder bore and is discharged into receivers or tempering machines. The machine described, due to insufficient cooling of the mass, does not provide lipstick of good quality.
 Fondant Engineered Machine (Fig. 41), from kotoThe swarm is cooled not only by the cylinder, but also by the screw shaft, due to which the churning temperature is significantly reduced and favorable conditions are created for the formation of small crystals.
Depending on the size of the cylinder, the lipstick machines have a capacity from 500 to 1000 kg / h. Currently, such machines are installed in a number of factories of the Soviet Union.41
                   Fig. 41. Fondant machine with cooled screw:
                    1 - machine body, 2 - drum with blades, 3 - funnel, 4 - water jacket, 5 - electric motor.
Dairy lipstick. Milk pomade prepared on whole or skim milk with the addition of butter or without the addition of oil, depending on the recipe. On 1, part of the sugar is added from 1 to 2 parts of milk. Molasses are used as an anti-crystallizer, but in smaller quantities than in the manufacture of sugar lipstick.
When boiling a syrup with a large amount of milk, for example on an 1 portion of the sugar 2 portion of whole milk, molasses may not be added at all. First, dissolve the sugar in the milk in an open cooking vessel with a steam jacket. For this purpose
milk is heated to a temperature of 60 — 80 ° C with continuous stirring and add butter and molasses according to the recipe. The obtained milk-sugar solution is boiled in a vacuum apparatus of periodic action with a capacity of 150 l with a vacuum of 500 — 600 mm Hg. Art. to the solids content 88 — 90%, which corresponds to the final temperature of boiling 80 — 90 ° C. Then the mass is cooled and knocked down in a screw-type whisk or a periodic-type whisk (universal kneader with a water jacket).
Milk syrup can be boiled in a universal cooker and in a brewing column. However, when boiling in the brewing column as a result of the high temperature of boiling (116 — 120 ° C), the syrup darkens somewhat. This syrup can not be used to make light varieties of milk fondant.
In addition to light-colored milk lipstick, there is dark-colored milk lipstick, or so-called creme brulee lipstick. Such lipstick is obtained as a result of prolonged boiling of the syrup at high temperature.
The process of making creme brulee lipstick is as follows. First, milk syrup is prepared, and, depending on the recipe for 1, part of the sugar is added 1 or 1,5 parts of milk, butter and molasses. Milk syrup is pumped into an open cooking pot with a mixer with a capacity of 150 l and boiled under stirring to a moisture content of 4 — 6%, which corresponds to the final temperature of boiling 128 — 130 ° C. As a result of the high temperature, the sugars and protein substances decompose to form complex organic compounds - melanoidinov, which give lipstick a specific taste and aroma and dark brown color. After boiling to the indicated humidity, the mass is diluted with a milk syrup and boiled to a moisture content of 9 — 12%, i.e., to moisture of fondant syrup.
Fondant syrup is cooled and knocked down in a continuous or batch shot machine.
At present, in large enterprises, the process of making creme brulee lipstick is transferred to the stream and basically consists of the following. In the syrup cauldron, the sugar syrup is brewed with the moisture content 10 — 12%. The resulting syrup is pumped into a mixer with steam heating and a mechanical stirrer. Condensed milk with a moisture content 24 — 26% is loaded into the mixer according to the recipe.
In the mixer with continuous stirring, the mass is heated for one hour at a vapor pressure 1 - 1,5 ati. As a result of prolonged heating, the prescription mixture acquires a brown color, which is explained by the formation of melanoidins. The finished syrup has a moisture content of 15 — 16%, content
reducing substances 6 — 8% and temperature 90 — 98 ° C. In some factories, for ease of pumping, the syrup is diluted with hot water to a moisture content of 19 — 22%.
The syrup is pumped into the collection at the cooking column of the fondant unit. The collection has filters from a pressed grid of the same section as for the preparation of sugar lipstick. Syrup from the collection using a plunger pump is continuously fed into the coil of the cooking column. The vapor pressure in the brewing column is maintained at the level of 2,5 — 3,0 ati, with greater pressure there will be a strong burning of milk on the walls of the coil. From the coil, the syrup enters the steam trap, where steam is separated from the boiling syrup. From the steam trap the syrup with moisture 9 — 12% flows by gravity into the auger lipstick machine.
Physical and chemical properties of lipstick. Lipstick is a heterogeneous mass. The presence in the lipstick of solid and liquid phase, as well as the smallest air bubbles has a great influence on the properties of lipstick. The quality of lipstick depends on the ratio of the solid and liquid phases, the composition of the liquid phase, and the size of the crystals of the solid phase. Air has no significant effect on the structure of the lipstick, as in the manufacture of lipstick in the manner described above, the amount of air does not exceed 2% of the volume of lipstick. However, with the introduction of frothers while churning lipstick, its pomp increases significantly.
The amount of molasses relative to the weight of sugar in the lipstick formulation has a significant effect on the content of the liquid phase and the amount of solids in the liquid phase. Lipstick, cooked with a different amount of molasses, but containing the same amount of solids, contains a different amount of liquid phase. The more molasses in the formulation, the more liquid phase is contained. Lipstick made with 10% molasses and having 87% solids, contains 51 to 55% liquid phase with 74 to 75% solids content. Lipstick with 25% molasses and with the same amount of solids contains from 56 to 64% liquid phase with a solids content from 77 to 80% .. Increasing the amount of liquid phase makes lipstick less plastic. By reducing the amount of moisture in the lipstick and increasing the amount of molasses plasticity lipstick increases. With an increase in the amount of molasses in the lipstick, the viscosity of the liquid phase increases. Lipstick cooked on invert sugar has a less viscous liquid phase, with the result that this lipstick is more tender.
Size of the crystals of the solid phase depends on temperature churning fondant syrup and the amount of anti-crystallizer - molasses. So, fondant syrups prepared with 10% molasses and a dry matter content of 86,5 to 92% and knocked down at a temperature of 40 ° C, give lipstick having from 84 to 100% crystals less than 10 microns in size and up to 16% crystals up to 30 mk. The same syrup, knocked down at a temperature of 55 ° C, contains from 72 to 91% crystals less than 10 microns in size and from 9 to 28% crystals from 10 to 40 microns and more.
Syrup, shot down at a temperature of 70 ° C, contains only 67 — 87% crystals up to 10 microns and 13 — 33% crystals from 10 up to 40 microns and more. This shows that the lower the temperature of the syrup when churning, the smaller the size of the crystals in the lipstick.
By increasing the amount of molasses in the formulation of lipstick of fine crystals increases.
Fondant syrups with a solids content from 87 to 90%, prepared with 25% molasses and knocked down at 40 ° C, give lipstick with a content of small crystals (up to 10 micron) from 94 to 100%. The same syrup, shot down at 55 ° C, gives lipstick with a content of 85 to 97% fine crystals, and shot down at 70 ° C gives a lipstick with a content of fine crystals from 80 to 91%, whereas syrup with 10% molasses, whipped down at the same temperature, it gives lipstick with 67 — 87% fine crystals.
Invert sugar, like molasses, contributes to the formation of small crystals.
With increasing humidity of fondant syrup, the number of coarse-grained fractions increases, which is explained by a decrease in the viscosity of the syrup. The optimum moisture content of the fondant syrup, at which the smallest crystals are formed, varies within 8 — 14%.
Adding finished lipstick to the fudge syrup during the churning process significantly reduces the churning time, but at the same time the percentage of large crystals increases. So, if the fondant syrup is knocked off in a periodically operating lipstick machine for 20 minutes and gives 100% crystals less than 10 microns, then when 10% lipstick is added to the weight of the syrup, the churning time is reduced to 14 minutes, but the number of crystals smaller than 10 microns is reduced 80% only. The remaining 20% crystals range in size from 10 to 30 microns. Therefore, the introduction of the finished lipstick while churning the fondant syrup is not recommended, since it degrades the quality of the lipstick. The introduction of colloids, for example gelatin, egg white, which increase the opacity of the lipstick and reduce the size of the crystals, has a positive effect on the quality of the lipstick.
The solid and liquid phases in the lipstick that came out of the whipping machine are in unstable equilibrium, which depends mainly on the ongoing processes of sucrose crystallization from the liquid phase, due to the fact that a significant part of the sugar is still in the liquid phase as a supersaturated solution. Therefore, freshly battered lipstick does not have the plasticity necessary for molding by rolling and cutting, as well as by some other molding methods.
In order to make the lipstick plastic, convenient for forming by rolling out and cutting or pressing out - methods used in the manufacture of dessert varieties of sweets are used in standing lipstick. In the process of maturation ends the crystallization of sucrose and its separation from the liquid phase, and also there is a uniform distribution of the solid and liquid phases. As a result of standing, the viscosity of the lipstick decreases and the lipstick becomes plastic.
When molding lipstick by casting into starch or smearing, when the lipstick has to be heated to give it fluidity, maturation does not give the desired results, since redistribution occurs between the solid and the liquid phase during the warming up process. A great influence on the structure of the lipstick has a high heating temperature. At high temperatures of heating, partial dissolution of sucrose crystals in the liquid phase occurs, and subsequent cooling of the lipstick after molding from the liquid phase produces large sucrose crystals and even groups - drusen of crystals, visible as white spots inside and on the surface of candy boxes.
When warming up, there is also a loss of moisture, which makes lipstick more callous. So, if lipstick before warming up. has 12,96% humidity and 100% crystals less than 10 microns, then at a heating temperature of 70 ° C the humidity of a lipstick decreases to 12,36%, and the number of small crystals decreases to 88%, and at a heating temperature of 90 ° C the number of small crystals decreases to 70%. Therefore, in a production environment. It is necessary to warm the lipstick to a temperature not higher than 72 ° C.
Čerstvenie lipstick. Candy, made from lipstick, dries relatively quickly - stale. The non-glazed hulls are especially dry quickly (for 3 — 5 days).
The cherishing of lipstick is accompanied by the loss of moisture in the liquid phase, which causes the partial crystallization of sucrose and its transition into the solid phase. At the beginning of drying, white spots appear on the surface and inside the hulls, and then the whole body turns into a tightly cemented solid mass, unpleasant in taste.
To protect the lipstick from drying, various substances are added to the fondant during churning or warming to prevent the loss of moisture. Such substances include invert syrup, egg white, invertase enzyme, decomposing sucrose into invert sugar during storage of lipstick, due to which lipstick absorbs a small amount of moisture from the air and does not get stale.
The retention of moisture by fondant shells is promoted by the use of fruit puree and sorbitol - hexatomic alcohol obtained by the hydrolysis of glucose. Lipstick, prepared with 10% sorbitol, retains its freshness for a long time. In the practice of Soviet confectioneries, sorbitol has not yet been applied.
Preparation of fruit pulp. Fruit candy masses are amorphous masses capable of forming a jelly when cooled. They are made from gelling fruit puree and sugar with the addition of flavoring and aromatic substances.
Along with fruit puree, pectin and agar can be used to make certain types of fruit masses. Fruit masses are used for the manufacture of drainage, spread (multilayer) varieties of candy, as well as for the manufacture of dessert varieties of candy.
Until recently, the main raw material for the preparation of fruit candy masses was apricot puree, which has the property of boiling with sugar to 13 — 19% 'moisture, without forming jelly when boiling, as opposed to masses for apple marmalade, which is usually boiled down to 38— 40%. It is not possible to boil down the fruit mass to a lower moisture content, since premature gelation of the mass occurs during cooking.
Candy masses can also be prepared from a mixture of various mashed potatoes, containing a sufficient amount of pectin, which has a gelling ability, for example, apricot, plum, apple. Currently, thanks to the use of sodium lactate and other buffer salts, fruit candy masses began to be prepared from a mixture of apple and apricot puree in the ratio 1: 1. At the same time, the mass is boiled down to the required moisture without premature jelly formation.
For the formation of candy jelly, as well as in the production of apple marmalade, requires a certain ratio of pectin, sugar and acid. The quality of candy jellies — the strength and speed of gelling — depends on the jelly-forming ability of mashed potatoes, included in the recipe of candy masses, on the ratio of sugar and mashed potatoes, on the moisture content of the mass, on the pH, and on the amount of sodium lactate added.
The ratio of amounts of sugar and puree, necessary for the formation of jelly of normal quality, depends on the amount of pectin contained in the puree, and mainly on its gel-forming ability. The more gelatinous ability of mashed potatoes, the more you need to enter sugar in the recipe of candy masses.
Studies show that with the use of the same puree, an increase in the sugar content in candy masses leads to a decrease in the strength of the jelly and accelerates its formation. This occurs, as suggested, as a result of increased dehydration of the solvate shells of pectin micelles.
In practice, it was believed that when working with apricot mashed potatoes, one should add on the 1 portion of mashed potatoes from 1,2 to 1,5 parts of sugar. In standardized candy formulations, the amount of sugar is 1,1 — 1,8 weight parts per 1 weight part puree, depending on the type of candy and the moisture content of the candy bodies.
When preparing the fruit pulp by adding sodium lactate with the same ratio taken puree and sugar.
According to the currently valid MOUTH, the moisture content of the fruit candy masses should be 16 — 19%. Studies show that with good quality apricot puree masses with moisture 22% give hulls with durability sufficient for further technological processing (blowing, glazing, etc.). Therefore, boiling to a minimum moisture content can only be used when using low-gelling puree. However, such a mass after gelling has a very high viscosity and the shells prepared from this mass are very tough and they are tight.
The optimal concentration of hydrogen ions, which ensures the formation of durable candy jelly, corresponds to a pH value close to 3,36. At the same time, the optimum strength of candy jelly is achieved at a moisture content of 22 — 24%.
Recently, in the production of fruit jelly mass, sodium lactate or other modifying salts are added to the prescription mixture (see “Production of marmalade and marshmallow”, chapter II). Introduction to the candy mass of sodium lactate allows you to increase the content of applesauce, as this increases the solubility of pectin and shifts gel formation in the region of lower temperatures. The temperature of jelly formation in apple puree, when sodium lactate is added, decreases from 95 to 65 — 70 ° С, which corresponds to the temperature of formation of apricot puree.
The addition of sodium lactate allows for bad gelling apricot puree mainly for taste, not for structure formation.
In the presence of sodium lactate, the pH of the fruit mass may increase, resulting in a reduction in invert sugar during cooking. However, an excessive increase in pH (above 3,5 — 4) leads to a drastic decrease in the number of reducing substances and to a partial crystallization (saccharification) of the mass during molding.
The dosage of sodium lactate or other modifier salts varies depending on the acidity of the mass. At optimum acidity of candy fruit masses (0,9 — 1,0% in citric acid), the dosage of sodium lactate (on a dry basis) should be 0,55% by weight of the mixture. Sodium lactate is introduced into the puree before adding sugar.
The process of preparation of fruit masses is as follows: fruit puree is subjected to secondary rubbing on a wiping machine and then loaded into the mixer. Sugar or sugar syrup is added to the mixer according to the recipe, after which the prescription mixture is boiled in open cooking vats with a capacity of 100 — 150 l or in continuously operating serpentine apparatuses up to temperature 110 — 115 ° C. 150 l with a vacuum 400 — 500 mm Hg. Art. The temperature of boiling in a vacuum apparatus 80 — 90 ° С.
Tastes and aromatic substances are added at the end of boiling, and during continuous cooking, the fruit mass is poured into a collection with a stirrer, to which flavoring and aromatic substances are added.
Fruit mass with agar (jelly mass). In addition to the puree, which has a jelly-forming ability, in the manufacture of fruit candy masses, an agaroid or an agaroid can be used as a gelling agent. The main gel-forming substance in such masses is agar, therefore the fruit puree may not contain pectin substances or may contain a small amount of them. For the preparation of such masses can be used any puree with good taste.
The process of making jelly masses is as follows: according to the recipe of mashed sugar with respect to 1: 1 is boiled down in an open cooking vat or a batch vacuum apparatus. As a result of boiling it turns out fruit mass with humidity up to 20 — 22%. In parallel with the preparation of the fruit mass, the agar syrup is brewed according to the following formula: 100 parts of sugar, 20 — 30 parts of molasses and 2 — 3 parts of agar.
Agar, as in the production of jelly marmalade, pre-soaked in cold water, and then dissolved in boiling water. The solution is filtered, then sugar is loaded into it and the solution is boiled down. At the end of boiling, molasses is added, and the syrup is boiled down to a temperature of 110 — 112 ° C and humidity of 17 — 19%. The boiled fruit mass and agar syrup are cooled to a temperature of 55 — 60 ° C. If the fruit mass and agar syrup are hot, the agar will be destroyed by the acid contained in the fruit mass and the resulting mass will not form a jelly.
The cooled fruit mass and agar syrup are mixed in relation to 1: 1, added to the formulation of fruit-profitable supplies, acid, essences and, if necessary, dyes. Mixing can be carried out in a digester or in a vacuum apparatus with a stirrer. The finished mass is sent to the molding.
Candy masses with agar are made very rarely, as they have a number of negative properties. The viscosity of the jelly masses in comparison with the fruit is very small, so the jelly masses cannot be molded by smearing - the mass spreads; when molded by casting, the mass for the same reason gives drips. Gelding of this mass occurs very slowly - up to 2 hours, while fruit mass stays up during 1 hours. Cases formed from a jelly mass require a large number of trays and large areas for vystoyka.
Preparation of aerated candy mass. Whipped candy masses are obtained by churning egg whites or other frothers, followed by the addition of sugar-syrup or agar syrup. Whipped candy masses, as well as the marsh, are foamy masses containing small, uniformly distributed air bubbles surrounded by shells of agar-sugar-syrup syrup. Whipped candy masses are used for making glazed sweets. The physicochemical properties of the foam are described in the section “Production of marshmallow” (chapter II). Whipped candy mass can be divided into two main types:
  1.  light whipped masses like "Souffle";
  2.  heavy whipped masses like “Nougat” and “Zoological”.
A variation of the mass light type are fruit-knockingfruit masses with the addition of fruit mass (“Stratosphere”) and milky-whipped masses with addition of milk syrup (“Goldfish”, “Jubilee”).
Fresh chicken egg protein, dried egg white and frozen protein are used as frothers. Dry egg white is pre-soaked in water with a temperature of 18 — 20 ° C in relation to: 1 part of dry protein and 6 parts of water - until complete swelling. After swelling for 30 — 40 min, the proteins dissolve while stirring.
For the manufacture of whipped masses, agar is often used, which fixes the foamy structure and gives the masses a jelly-like consistency. Dry agar, as well as in the production of jelly marmalade, soaked in running water and then boiled in hot water. In addition to agar, gelatin can be used, but in the practice of domestic confectioneries, gelatin is not used, since it has a low melting point and a low pour point.
Whipped mass light type. The filtered agar solution is loaded into the digester, sugar and molasses are added, and the resulting agar-sugar solution is boiled to a moisture content of 17 — 25%. In parallel with the cooking of the agar-sugar syrup syrup in a vertical whisk, equipped with a whip with a planetary motion, egg white is knocked down. When the volume of egg white increases approximately twice, gradually add the agar-sugar mixture, cooled to 60 — 70 ° C, and churn the mass until a homogeneous, fine-pore structure is obtained. At the end of churning add flavoring and aromatic substances according to the recipe and after sufficient mixing, unload the mass from the tank of the whipping machine into the pots or trays and transfer to the molding.
In addition to agar-sugar-syrup syrup, sugar-syrup syrup can be used to prepare whipped masses, for example, in “Sea-type” candies.
Whipped heavy mass type. To the masses of the heavy type can be attributed sweets "Nougat" and "Zoological".
Mass type "Nougat" is prepared as follows. Egg whites come together in a vertical whipping machine with a planetary motion of the corolla. In parallel with the churning of proteins in the digester, a sugar syrup is brewed (in relation to the 0,5 parts of the molasses on the 1 part of the sugar), honey is added at the end of boiling. The syrup is boiled down to a moisture content of 12 — 13%, which corresponds to the boiling point of 115 — 116 ° C. Approximately! / S, a portion of the syrup obtained is added in a thin stream to the downed proteins in the whipping machine. continuous movement of the corolla. The remaining 2 / s syrup is boiled to a temperature of 120 — 122 ° C or 8 — 10% humidity and also added in a thin stream to a whipping machine. After adding the second portion of the syrup, the mass is stirred for 10 — 15 minutes and sugar powder and cornstarch are added, as well as flavoring and aromatic substances: candied fruits, roasted chopped nuts and vanilla. Powdered sugar and starch, filling the smallest cells formed by churning the mass, increase the specific gravity of the mass and give it density. As a result of the partial gelatinization of corn starch with the addition of hot syrup, the mass acquires a characteristic viscosity. The finished mass contains 10 — 12% moisture and has a temperature around 70 ° C.
Mass, for sweets "Zoological" is prepared as follows. Egg whites are brought together in a whipping machine, after which a sugar syrup is added, boiled to a moisture content of 12%. When the syrup mixes with the whipped whites, heated sugar is added in an amount of about 50% by weight of the knocked down mass, as well as powdered sugar, flavoring and aromatic substances.
After mixing with additions, the mass is fed to the molding. Lipstick and powdered sugar make the mass dense. The finished mass has a moisture content of 10 — 12%.
Fruit with b and c n e s mass. Knocked egg whites are mixed in a churning machine with an agar-sugar-treacle syrup, boiled to a moisture content of 15 — 17%. Then add fruit mass obtained by boiling apricot or plum puree with sugar in relation to 1: 1 to a moisture content of 20 — 25%. After that, flavoring and aromatic substances are introduced: grated or chopped roasted nuts, candied fruits, essences. The finished mass has a moisture content of 18 — 20%.
Candy-type sweets of the “Spring” and “Stratosphere” types are made from fruit whitewash. As well as in light-weight masses, in sugar-crushed masses, besides agar syrup, sugar-syrup syrup can be used, for example, in October type sweets.
Dairy-whipped filling mass. At first they prepare, as well as fruit-whipped masses. After mixing downed proteins with agar-sugar-syrup syrup, milk syrup is added that is prepared by boiling milk for a long time with sugar, such as creme brulee lipstick, and is called “burnt milk with sugar”. Milk syrup has a moisture content in the range of 9 — 11% and is added for the 1,2 — 1,3 part to the 1 part of the ground mass. After the downed mass is mixed with the syrup, flavoring and aromatic substances are added: roasted grated nuts, cakes, wines, essences. The finished milk-whipped masses have a moisture content in the range of 14 — 20%.
Preparation of nut mass. Nut masses, or pralines, are masses derived from roasted nut kernels ground with sugar and fat. The best raw material for the preparation of nut masses is sweet almonds. For medium varieties of praline, hazelnut and cashew kernels are used, for mass varieties — peanut kernels. For the preparation of nut masses, confectioneries produce nut kernels that are exempt from the shells at the nut cleaning plants. Of the fats used cocoa butter, coconut oil and confectionery fat. Sugar is usually used in the form of powdered sugar.
Dry milk, cocoa powder, grated cocoa, coffee, corn flakes, wines and alcohol are used as flavoring agents. As an aromatic substance, mainly vanillin is used.
The nut masses in their structure, physicochemical properties and method of preparation are very similar to the chocolate mass. The fat content in the nut mass is about 30% and at the MOUTH must be at least 21%. Moisture content does not exceed 3%. The fat in the nut mass is a continuous phase in which there are small particles of sugar and nuts. Nut masses at room temperature have a solid or semi-solid consistency due to the solid fats added by the recipe (for example, cocoa butter, confectionery fat, etc.). But since almonds, hazelnuts and other nut kernels that are part of the nut masses contain liquid fats, the nut masses have a less solid texture than the chocolate ones.
The process of cooking nut masses is as follows. Nut kernels are cleaned of impurities on sorting machines used to sort cocoa beans, and then transferred to roasting. As a result of roasting, the taste qualities of the nuts are improved and the nuts become darker in color.
In the process of roasting nuclei, complex physicochemical changes take place. The amount of soluble nitrogenous substances and thiamine decreases. The acid number of fat changes as a result of the decomposition of glycerides into glycerol and fatty acids, especially in such kernels as peanuts and cashews. The amount of volatile acids decreases. The loss of solids during roasting ranges from 0,1 to 0,5% and depends on the roasting temperature. The least loss occurs when roasting almonds. The roasting of the kernels is carried out in ball or cylindrical fryers (see chapter III "Production of chocolate and cocoa powder").
Roasting in cylindrical fryers is performed at 125 — 135 ° С for 30 — 40 minutes, and in ball fryers — at 150 — 160 ° С for 15 — 20 minutes. Roasted kernels with 3% humidity are rapidly cooled to temperatures 35 — 40 ° С in special trolleys with a mesh bottom or in a refrigerator with a stirrer.
As experience has shown, a more uniform roasting of nuts occurs in a ball roaster than in a cylindrical roaster.
Recently, instead of roasting, drying of nuts is used in dryers VIS-2 and VIS D-42-DK. Drying is performed with hot air entering at a temperature of 150 — 160 ° С for 50 minutes. Studies have shown that drying gives a more homogeneous product and significantly improves its quality, as compared with frying, the amount of soluble proteins increases and the decomposition of fatty acid glycerides decreases. The moisture content of dried nuts can be increased to 1%. After drying, the nuts are also cooled.
For the higher grades of nut masses, for example, candies “Bear Kosolapy”, secondary roasting of nut kernels (usually almonds) with sugar in small boilers with electric heating or on gas rings is used. In this case, the first roasting or drying should be shorter, resulting in kernels containing 4 — 5% moisture. The kernels fried in this way are mixed with sugar in relation to 1: 2 and loaded into an electrically heated boiler, where the mixture is heated to temperature 170 — 180 ° C. As a result of heating, the sugar melts and partially caramelizes, covering the cores with a thin layer. Roasting is carried out with continuous stirring and ends when all the sugar is melted. Sometimes secondary roasting is replaced by the addition of burnt sugar in the preparation of a prescription mixture.
Roasted and cooled kernels are ground on eight-roll or other mills until a finely ground mass is obtained. Grated walnut is loaded into the kneading machine with heating, powdered sugar and half of the melted fat put into the recipe, as well as flavoring and aromatic substances are added to it.
In the absence of eight-roll mills, it is possible to use melangeres, which produce not only coarse grinding of nuts, but also the mixing of a prescription mixture.
In the case of the use of roasted kernels with sugar, the mixing of the constituent parts of the recipe is carried out in heated melangers. Melants are loaded into kernels fried with sugar, melted fat, flavoring and aromatic substances, and processed for 30 — 40 minutes, until the nuts are rubbed.
After mixing, the mass is passed through a three- or five-roll machine with a gap between the last pair of rolls of no more than 0,05 mm, and then mixed in a kneader with the addition of about! D of the fat provided by the recipe. This operation is called a rollback. After grinding, the mass is again passed through rolling with a gap between the last 0,02 — 0,025 mm rolls, and then loaded into a kneader, where the rest of the fat is added. The mass is thoroughly mixed when heated. This operation is called wiring. Depending on the amount of fat contained, the consistency of the mass may be different. So, the mass for spreading on waffles has a semi-liquid consistency, for molding bars - thick.
Mass grades of praline are made from corn kernels. Corn kernels are steamed for the purpose of softening, dried and cleaned of the casing. The resulting grains are fried in fryers or dried in VIS-2 dryers to a moisture content of 1,5 — 2%. After drying, it is cooled and subjected to secondary roasting with sugar in electric kettles. Pralines are prepared from the grains treated in this way with the addition of confectionery fat, flavoring and aromatic substances.
Custard nut masses are made from grated roasted nuts mixed with sugar-dairy or milk syrup. The syrup is boiled down to 10 — 12% moisture and mixed in a kneader with grated nuts. On 1, a portion of grated nuts is added to H / 2 — 272 parts of sugar syrup. Scalded nut masses contain from 10 to 15% moisture and from 6 to 25% fat.
Candy like “Road”, “Chapaev” are made from custard nut masses.
Preparation of marzipan mass. Marzipan is a candy mass made from raw peeled and crushed nut kernels mixed with syrup or pounded with sugar. If ground kernels are mixed with syrup, then marzipan is called custard. If raw, peeled kernels are ground with sugar, then marzipan is called raw. Currently produced mainly custard marzipan. For the manufacture of all types of marzipan, the best raw material is sweet almond, and the sweet kernel of apricot kernel can be used as a substitute. You can also * make marzipan from hazelnut kernels.
Custard marzipan. First, the peeling of almonds is done. In order to peel the almond, it is necessary to soften it and create conditions for its easy separation from the surface of the kernel. This is achieved by a sponge that is produced in open steam-jacketed boilers. The almonds loaded in a copper are filled in with water. The water is heated to a temperature of 70 — 80 ° C and held for 10 — 15 minutes, until the skin is easily removed from the core.
Peeling is done with an almond cleaning machine. In almond cleaning machines, almonds pass through a pair of rollers, covered with grooved rubber and rotating at different speeds, as a result of which the skin is removed from the core; then it blows off the air. Peeled almonds have a higher moisture content — more than 10%, so it should be dried to the original 6 — 8% moisture. Drying is carried out in hot chambers with a temperature of 40 — 50 ° C. in wooden trays with a layer of 2 — 3, see. Drying time 7 — 8 h. In the same way, the apricot kernel is subjected to peeling.
In the case of the use of hazelnut kernels, they are first lightly roasted, or rather dried, in a roaster or a VIS-2 dryer to a moisture content of 4 — 5%, with the result that the peel is easily separated from the kernel by an almond cleaning machine.
Dried almonds are ground on a three-roll machine with granite or steel rollers. Granite rollers are more suitable for grinding, since almonds, which have a significant moisture content - 6 — 8%, slide on metal rollers and do not stick well to them.
Almonds should be passed through the rolling of at least two times until finely grated mass.
During the last rolling, the gap between the rollers should be no more than 0,025 mm. Pounded almonds are loaded into a universal kneading machine with 2-shaped blades, to which, with continuous mixing, sugar-milk or milk syrup with moisture 10 — 12% is added.
When preparing the syrup, molasses is added as an anti-crystallizer - from 25 to 30% by weight of sugar. The syrup is added from 2 to 4 pieces to 1 pieces of grated almonds or other kernels. After adding the syrup, flavoring and aromatic substances are injected - wine, alcohol, essences - and continue mixing. In the process of mixing, there is a partial crystallization of sucrose from the syrup, and the mass acquires a structure similar to that of a lipstick. Custard marzipan contains from 10 to 13% moisture and at least 9% fat.
Crude marzipan is obtained by mixing grated almonds with icing sugar with respect to 1: 1 and adding flavors, followed by grinding the resulting mass on rolling.
Since raw marzipan is not subjected to heat treatment during the manufacturing process, it is easily susceptible to microbiological spoilage and less storage when stored than custard. Currently, raw marzipan is almost not produced.
Marzipan masses contain much less fat than nut, so when heated, they do not change their thick consistency. Marzipan masses are molded by rolling and cutting or molded in the form of various shapes.
Cooking liquor cabinets. Liquor shells consist of a shell, which is a small crystalline sucrose, inside of which is a saturated sugar solution with the addition of wines, milk, fruit puree, flavoring substances.
Depending on the recipe, there are three main types of liquor masses: wine, fruit (jelly) and dairy liqueurs. Liquor sweets are high-quality products and, when manufactured, require adherence to a number of specific technological methods, they are quickly candied during storage, and therefore are produced in small quantities.
Wine liqueur is prepared as follows. In an open digester with a capacity of 25 — 50 l, sugar is dissolved in water. For the complete dissolution of sugar, water is taken significantly more than in the manufacture of fondant syrup - 35 — 40% by weight of sugar. When the sugar is dissolved, the syrup continues to boil down, watching that the sugar does not crystallize on the inner walls of the shell. To remove sugar crystals, the boiler is periodically covered with a wooden or metal lid. Steam, exuding and? boiling syrup, condenses and dissolves sugar crystals formed on the shell. The syrup is boiled down to a moisture content of 20 — 25%, which corresponds to the boiling point of 107 — 110 ° C.
The finished syrup is poured into a copper basin or pot and, according to the recipe, dessert wines, tinctures, cognac, rum, various liqueurs, alcohols and coffee extract are added in the amount from 10 to 30% by weight of sugar. Dry grape wines that are acidic are not suitable. Acid contained in wine contributes to the inversion of sucrose, and invert sugar prevents the formation of a crust. For the same reason, when cooking, do not add molasses, which is an anti-crystallizer. Wines are not only taste, but also technological value. Due to the fact that sucrose is almost insoluble in alcohol, the alcohol contained in wines reduces the solubility of sucrose and promotes the formation of a crystalline crust on the surface of the hulls.
In order to avoid sugar syrup when adding wine, it should be introduced into the sugar syrup gradually, with slow stirring. Intensive mixing can also cause sugar to liqueur.
Liquor syrup with a temperature of 90 — 95 ° C is poured into corn starch by special casting machines; the surface of the shells is covered with corn starch. Trays with molded liquor are placed in chambers with a temperature of 40 — 50 ° C on 6 — 7 h. The standing can be performed at room temperature, but in this case the duration of standing increases to 12 — 18 h.
During maturation, the starch absorbs moisture from the surface of the hulls and gives it to the air of the hot chamber. As a result of starch absorption of moisture from the surface of cast casings and cooling of the surface layer of liquor due to the lower temperature of starch, the syrup on the surface of the casings becomes supersaturated and the selection of sugar crystals from the syrup begins, i.e. the formation of a crust on the surface of the casings.
As mentioned above, alcohol accelerates the crystallization of sucrose. The formation of the crust is slow and ends when the excess sugar contained in the liquor stands out on the surface of the body and forms a fairly solid crust. The crust usually contains 4 — 5% moisture, while the internal, liquid part of the liquor is 33%. The process of crust formation also continues during storage as a result of moisture evaporation.
Therefore, after the removal of starch residues from the surface, the liquor cases are glazed with chocolate.
Cases with wine liqueur are prepared for chocolates like “Chocolate bottles with liquor” and “The Bronze Horseman”.
Fruit liqueur differs from wine in that sugar syrup is boiled down to a higher temperature - to 115 — 118 ° C, and then apricot or applesauce is added in the amount of 10 — 15% to the weight of sugar. If puree is added at the beginning of cooking, then due to the presence of acid in the puree, an increase in invert sugar will occur during cooking, which prevents the formation of a crystalline crust. After the addition of mashed potatoes, the liqueur is slightly cooked to the boiling point 110 — 112 ° С, and then flavoring and aromatic substances are added: wine, alcohol, essences. Wines are added in smaller quantities than in the wine liqueur, as the fruit puree gives the basic taste to the liqueur.
After casting vystoyki and starch, as well as in the wine liqueur crystalline crust is formed, and inside the pectic weak jelly. Liquor is sometimes prepared with the addition of agar. Fruit liqueur contains up to 21 25% moisture.
The fruit liqueur case has “Cherry liqueur” candies, glazed with chocolate.
Milk liqueur is prepared by boiling milk syrup to a temperature of 110 — 112 ° C. Syrup is prepared from sugar, condensed milk or whole milk, sometimes with the addition of 5 — 10% molasses (by weight of sugar) as an anti-crystallizer. The syrup is boiled down to a temperature of PO — 112 ° C; for individual varieties up to 115 — 116 ° C.
When the syrup is ready, add according to the recipe flavoring and aromatic substances: cocoa powder, chocolate mass, wine, alcohol, vanillin and essences, and then cast into starch and allow the hulls to stand. Milk liquor shells contain up to 22% moisture. Milk-shed shell have “Pop” type candies.
Preparation of dairy mass. Milk candy masses are prepared from milk, sugar, molasses and edible fats with the addition of flavoring and aromatic substances. Milk sweets due to the presence of nutrients in milk such as proteins, fat and milk sugar, have a high nutritional value.
The consistency of milk chocolates can be partially crystalline, such as, for example, the Start, School, Record candies, as well as amorphous ones like the Cream Toffee and the Cow.
Dairy candy masses are obtained by boiling the recipe mixture in open cooking kettles, batch vacuum machines, universal cookers.
or cooking columns (heating part of the coil apparatus). Sugar is dissolved in milk at a temperature of 70 — 80 ° С, and then subjected to boiling. If cooking is performed in periodically operating cookers, then molasses is added at the end of boiling. When cooking in continuously operating apparatuses, syrup is added to the milk syrup.
When using condensed milk, a sugar syrup is prepared, then condensed milk dissolves in it.
Milk candy recipes are constructed as follows. The ratio of whole milk to sugar weight ranges from 1,5 to 2 parts per 1 part sugar. The amount of molasses is from 15 to 30% by weight of sugar. Such high-quality products such as toffee, are prepared with the maximum amount of milk and with the addition of butter. The pulping for the “Creamy Toffee” and “Cow” is done in batch-type vacuum apparatuses with a capacity of no more than 75 l and in universal cookers. It is necessary to observe the conditions that prevent at least partial crystallization of the mass during cooking, since these masses must have an amorphous structure. It is also very important that during the cooking process of these masses there is no significant formation of melanoidins, which impart a dark color to the milk candies, therefore the masses for the “Creamy Chicken” and “The Cow” are boiled under vacuum.
Candy masses of the “Start” type can be cooked in cooking columns, and after cooking, mix in boilers with stirrers or tempering machines to form small sugar crystals. Ready candies contain from 9 to 13% moisture.
Cooking cream mass. Cream masses are obtained by churning chocolate, nut masses or sugar syrup with the addition of fat and flavor substances in vertical squeezing machines with a planetary whisk movement.
The soft, fluffy consistency of the cream mass is formed as a result of the inclusion of the smallest air bubbles during churning, as well as due to the addition of melted fats with a low melting point (butter- cocoa, coconut and butter) while churning.
Cream applied to mass production of the dessert varieties of chocolates.
Typical for this type of candy are "Truffles", "Ear". The fat content of cream masses ranges from 25 to 40%, depending on the type of candy, and the moisture content does not exceed 4 — 8%, with the exception of the Carnival and Firebird candies, produced with the addition of sugar syrup, where the moisture content ranges from 15 — 18%.
Preparation Roasting masses. Griljazhny masses are obtained by melting and caramelization of sugar with the addition of roasted chopped nut kernels (almonds or hazelnuts), butter and aromatic substances.
Grilyazh prepared as follows. In a copper boiler with electric heating capacity 10 — 15 l load sugar and heat it with stirring until complete melting and partial caramelization - to a temperature 160 — 170 ° C.
As soon as the sugar is melted, the heating is stopped and. add according to the recipe butter, roasted crushed nuts and aromatic substances. Caramelized sugar gives the mass a peculiar taste and aroma. In addition to this type of roasting, there is a massive variety of roasting, obtained by boiling sugar syrup in cooking pots with the addition of honey at the end of boiling, which gives the products a certain taste and aroma, and is also an anti-crystallizer. Honey is added 40% by weight of sugar. The final temperature of the boiling mass 130 ° C. After boiling, butter, roasted chopped nuts and essence are added according to the recipe.
Hot roasting mass is cooled on cold tables, and then molded by rolling and cutting.
Roasting masses contain up to 1 5% moisture and not less than 15% fat.

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