Under the molding understand the division of plastic or liquid candy masses into separate portions of a certain volume with giving each portion a certain, desired configuration.
There are five ways to form candies: casting; smearing; rolling; extrusion; jigging Casting and jigging give immediately the desired shape of the product, and spreading, rolling and extrusion require subsequent cutting. In addition, there is a method of forming candy cases on the caramel equipment. This method, despite its simplicity, is not widely used.
The choice of molding method depends mainly on the properties of the candy mass, its structural-mechanical (viscosity, plasticity, strength, etc.) and physico-chemical properties (humidity, temperature, composition, etc.). Some masses can be molded in only one way; for others, a number of methods can be used. For example, liquor masses can be molded only by casting, masses from raw marzipan with high viscosity are only rolling, and fondant masses by casting, spreading, etc. However, when choosing molding methods, the main are the structural-mechanical properties of candy masses, their viscosity, which, if necessary, can be changed by regulating moisture and oil content, as well as temperature.
Currently, casting is the most common method of molding. Casting molded mainly mass with low viscosity (good fluidity). Molding by casting allows you to get products of various shapes and even consisting of several different layers of candy masses. Casting is produced mainly in destructible (from starch) or in permanent (from silicone) forms. However, some types of products are molded into forms of granulated sugar.
Molding by casting into starch forms is the main method of forming a significant part of candy cases. Cases of fondant, milk-fondant, fruit-jelly, liqueur, whipped and other candy masses are made by casting into starch forms. The process of molding by casting itself consists in the fact that the candy mass is cast into specially shaped cells stamped in starch. In the starch, the mass hardens or becomes covered with a sufficiently strong crust so that when sampling from starch, it retains its shape. During casting, the following operations are performed: forming cells in starch; candy mass casting; maturation under certain conditions cast mass in starch; selection of starch and removal of starch residues from the surface.
There are a number of requirements for starch as a molding material: obtaining non-crumbling molds with a smooth surface when stamping, easy removal from the molded bodies when cleaning with a brush and blowing air, not sticking to the surface of the dies and the absence of foreign smell and taste. Starch should not contain impurities, including those formed when it is used for casting (small pieces of the body, hair from brushes, etc.). Starch as a molding material should absorb moisture from the molded mass well.
Corn starch has a number of properties that give an advantage in making molds from it and using candy masses for casting in them. The corn starch grain size is significantly smaller than that of the potato one. Thus, corn starch grains are 20-30 microns in size, and potato starch 50-80 microns in size, the consequence of this is that corn starch forms have a smoother surface, and this has a positive effect on the quality of casings produced during casting. Of great importance is the temperature of gelatinization. Potato starch is pasteurized already at a temperature of about 65 ° C, and corn starch - at a significantly higher (64-71 ° С). The low temperature of gelatinization of potato starch makes it impossible to mold candy from it at elevated temperatures.
The moisture content of the starch used has a great influence on the quality of the molds and, consequently, on the quality of the semi-finished products and products produced by casting. It must be within 5-9%. Wet starch adheres to the surface of the stamp in the manufacture of forms, as well as to the surface of the resulting body or candy. This phenomenon contributes to the increased temperature of the cast mass. Forms from excessively dry starch easily flake off, which does not allow to get molded products of the correct form. To reduce the precipitability of forms from starch and strengthen the bond between its particles, starch is injected into 0,4% refined vegetable oil (mainly sunflower, usually 0,25%). With an increased amount of injected oil, starch clumping and a decrease in the quality of the forms occur, in addition, the ability of starch to absorb moisture from the molded masses during vystoke decreases.
When casting candy mass starch is used repeatedly. At the same time, it is systematically clogged with crumbs from molded masses, therefore it should be periodically (at least once a week) sifted through a sieve with holes no more than 2,5 mm in diameter. With repeated use, the sugar content gradually increases in the starch, which degrades the properties of starch as a molding material. Mass fraction of sugar should not exceed 5% (for the casting of liquor masses - up to 10%). In addition to sifting, the starch is periodically dried. This operation is carried out in two ways: in chamber dryers in trays where starch is poured, possibly in a thin layer (temperature 40-50 ° С, duration 10-20 h), and in units of continuous action of a screw type at temperature 110-130 ° С (in this case of starch dries much faster).
The temperature of the candy mass in the molding casting is of great importance, as with increasing temperature decreases the viscosity of the mass and it is easier to cast. However, at elevated temperatures in some candy masses after vystoyka, for example in fondant, large crystals occur, the presence of which is found in the form of white spots - "hares". For this reason, technological instructions regulate a certain temperature for casting various candy masses.
The optimum temperature for casting various candy masses, ° C: fondant (sugar and milk) - 65-72, fondant with the addition of nuts and similar products - 70-75, fruit and fondant - 80-85, fruit - 96-106, jelly - 70-75, milk -100-110, liquor-90-95.
The leveler removes excess starch, aligns it along with the sides, slightly compresses starch in the trays and smoothes its surface. The tray is cleaned from above and from the sides with a set of 9 and 10 brushes and is fed under the / 14 stamp through the 5 conveyor. At the time of lowering the stamp tray stops.
The stamp consists of many small dies, sinking down over the entire surface of the starch, squeezes in it forms for casting candy mass. For better cleaning of the stamp from starch sticking to it at the time of the dies in the starch, the special percussion mechanism 12 creates frequent shocks. This creates the conditions for obtaining a smooth surface shape, eliminating the sticking of starch to the stamping.
They make it possible to significantly reduce the duration of dying as a result of creating an optimal temperature regime, to fundamentally improve the sanitary condition of production premises, to transfer the process of dying to a continuous stream, to significantly reduce the consumption of starch.
Each type of candy mass requires its own accelerated drying mode: fondant - 32 — 40 min at 4-10 ° С; fruit mass - 40-50 min at 4-10 ° С; milk mass - 60-90 min at 25-28 ° С (at the beginning of the stand) and 8-10 ° С (at the end of the stand).
The unit does not allow to receive fragile cases, such, for example, as liquor. The cases of these candies in the case of inversion of the tray will break, and the liquor mass from them will pour out, contaminating the starch. For the manufacture of such cases a special production line has been designed, on which the cases do not pour out of the trays, but are removed with a special comb. To enter the comb in the tray in it there are special slots. Through these slots in the tray, an inclined comb is inserted from below, into which liquor shells are carefully transferred with the help of moving pushers on top. Pushers transfer the shells to the mesh conveyor to clean them of starch by blowing air. At the same time, the starch is sucked off by a fan into a fabric filter.
An additional important advantage of this method of sampling and cleaning of the hulls is that the hulls after these operations do not lose the correct orientation and rows obtained during the casting. In this connection, the shells are fed to the enrobing machine in regular rows without a special (sequencing) layout. Trays with starch, released from the bodies, enter the tipper, and then are filled with sifted starch, new forms are stamped in them, and the cycle repeats.
Casting machines can be equipped with a special device for drying starch. This device, consisting of a system of augers, some of which is equipped with a steam jacket, removes the sifted starch from the casting machine and, after drying in heated augers, returns it to the casting machine to fill the trays.
Recently, thanks to advances in the creation of anti-adhesive materials, it has become possible to mold fondants with a casting method without the use of starch.
Some kinds of candies are molded into molds stamped in sugar-sand. In order for the forms not to crumble, a small amount (about 0,1%) of nut oil can be introduced into the granulated sugar. For molding use fine sifted granulated sugar. Casting carried out by mechanized method or manually. This method is used to form candies from the candy fondant of the “Kiev fudge” type or from the colored peas type fruit candy.
After the granulated sugar is loaded into the tray, its surface is leveled and the cells are squeezed out with a special stamp. These cells are filled with hot candy mass. Fondant should have a temperature of 65-70 ° С, and fruit should have a temperature of 105-109 ° С. After filling the forms, the surface is covered with a thin layer of granulated sugar. Curing lasts 2-3 h depending on the type of mass. After vystoyka candies sprinkled with additional fine granulated sugar and transferred to the packaging.
Many types of candy masses are formed by the method of spreading with the subsequent cutting: fondant, fruit, nut, whipped and even cream. In this case, by spreading, candy cases and unglazed candies can be obtained both as single-layer, consisting of one candy mass, and multi-layered, consisting of several layers of different candy masses. Different masses belonging to one or different kinds can be included in multi-layered candy cases, which are rarely made from more than three layers. Examples of two-layer candies with different types of fondant candy mass can be Sport sweets (one layer of sugar fondant, another of milk powder with cocoa powder) or a case for Red Flower sweets (one layer of milky fruity lipstick, the other is from creme brulee lipstick). An example of a two-layer candy with layers of different candy masses is the body of the Raspberry candy (one layer of fruit candy mass, the other from fondant creme brulee).
The molding process consists of several separate operations: the preparation of candy mass; spreading; vystoyka; cutting. Preparation of the candy mass is mainly in tempering it before forming. At the same time candy mass gains optimum temperature and viscosity. Different candy masses are molded at a specific temperature for each type of mass. So, the fondant masses are smeared at temperature 60-65 ° С, fruit - 80-85, whipped type “Bird's milk” - 55-60, cream - 28-30.
On a spreading conveyor, single-layer and multi-layer candy shells and unglazed candies can be obtained from shapeless plastic candy masses. Initially, a formation is obtained on the conveyor, which is then cut in two directions, usually at a right angle. As a result, receive a separate body to be glazed, or unglazed candy the correct form.
For cooling the candy mass, after each carriage, boxes are installed above the conveyor belt into which cooled air is blown by the fan at a temperature of 15-20 ° C. The second and, if necessary, subsequent layers spread the cooled previous layer. To obtain a smoother surface of the upper layer after the last cooled box, a special smoothing mechanism is installed. It consists of a vertical rotating shaft, to which a horizontal plate with two sponge rubber cushions is attached. At the end of the conveyor, the mass is cut into individual layers of length up to 70 cm and goes to the stand.
The duration of the vystoyka depends on the type of mass, its properties and temperature. Some candy masses do not require a separate vystoyka in the workshop, and may be subjected to cutting immediately after they exit from under the cooling box of the spreading conveyor. This is possible if air is supplied to the cooling box at a temperature of 10-12 ° C.
After vystoyka in the shop single-layer and combined layers inverted on metal or plastic boards and free from paper or oilcloth. Then the surface of the layer of fondant and some other masses sprinkled with powdered sugar or a mixture of powdered sugar and cocoa powder and served for cutting. After sintering, the layers of whipped masses are coated with a thin layer of chocolate icing at a temperature of 28-30 ° C. After that, the layers are additionally 1-1,5 h in the shop until the glaze hardens. Then they are turned over onto metal or plastic sheets so that their surface, covered with chocolate icing, is at the bottom, and the paper or oilcloth on which they are spread are at the top, and the paper or oilcloth are carefully removed.
Then the resulting layers are cut in two mutually perpendicular directions into separate shells of mostly rectangular shape. This operation is usually performed on two types of machines: with circular knives or with strings that perform the function of knives. With both methods produce alternate cutting of the reservoir, first into strips, and then into individual products. When cutting circular knives use two separate cutting mechanisms with different distances between the knives. In this case, the knives are placed so that in one mechanism they are located at a distance equal to the width of the candy, and the other at a distance equal to its length. When the machine is turned on, the disks rotate, and the candy layer falls under the rotating knives, exciting and cutting them into separate strips as they move.
Then the layer is rotated 90 ° and goes under the second knives, cutting the strips into separate products. In order to avoid mass sticking to the knives, they are periodically cleaned and lubricated with vegetable refined oil. When cutting whipped masses knives moistened with water.
In machines with a string cutting working body, there are two fixed frames with tensioned strings, between which a special section of the table moves. The distance between the strings in the first frame is equal to the width of the candy, and in the second - its length. A layer of candy mass is placed on the table, and the table is set in motion. Moving along, the candy layer is cut with fixed strings, first into separate strips, and then, after turning the table by 90 °, into separate pieces.
String cutting has several advantages. Due to the small surface of the cutting tool (string), which is in direct contact with the material being cut, the conditions for sanitary treatment of the cutting body are improved and the amount of candy mass adhering to the cutting body is reduced.
After cutting, both methods select waste (edges, irregularly shaped products, etc.) and send them for recycling. The received cases come for glazing, and unglazed sweets - for wrapping and packaging.
A more advanced cutting machine is a continuous type combined machine designed for a production line of multi-layered candies. The machine consists of a belt conveyor through which the candy mass moves, a slitting mechanism with circular knives and a cross-cutting mechanism with a guillotine-type knife. Slitting knives are staggered. The cross-cutting knife makes a reciprocating movement vertically. After the knife, rising up, comes out of the thickness of the candy layer, it receives a backward movement and, with a new lowering, meets the next strip of candy layer. The advantage of this machine is:
1) cutting is carried out without turning the formation at 90 °;
2) the conveyor movement is continuous. All this allows the machine to be used in production lines.
A big disadvantage of the formation of candy masses by the method of spreading and subsequent cutting is a significant amount of the formed scraps (returnable waste), the processing of which requires large additional costs and increases losses. The amount of such waste can reach 15% or more. The advantage of this method of molding is that the mass in the process of spreading does not change the basic properties, for example, the bulk density. This is especially important for candy masses containing an air phase, such as whipped and creamy.
This method is more progressive than spreading. As with the molding by spreading, a layer of a certain thickness is preliminarily obtained from the candy mass. The formation of candy layer occurs when the mass passes between the rolls. The thickness of this layer corresponds to the gap between the rollers. By way of rolling, shells are formed from custard nut masses, fondant masses, as well as from candy masses of roasted nuts and “Creamy toffee” type. Rolling can be used to form both single-layer and multi-layered candy cases. In the latter case, each layer is formed on a separate roll mechanism.
Plastoformuyuschaya machine works as follows. Candy mass is loaded into the funnel, the walls of which are double and warm water circulates in them, so the mass does not stick to the walls of the funnel. Bottom funnels are two smooth rolls, rotating towards each other. At the end of one roll there are flanges, inside which are smoothly machined end surfaces of the other roll. A cooling brine with a temperature of minus 7 to minus 10 ° C circulates inside the rolls. As a result, a cooled layer is formed on the surface of the formation that prevents the mass from sticking. To improve the molding conditions, scrubbing knives are installed under the rollers, which are tightly pressed to the surface of the rollers. The advantage of roller mechanisms is that when they are used, the layer is molded directly onto a conveyor belt without paper laying. The seam of the car goes a certain width with smooth edges. This significantly reduces the amount of waste generated after cutting the formation (scraps). The seam, formed by rolls, falls on the steel strip. The speed of the tape is equal to the linear speed of the surface of the rolls and is 2,2-2,5 m / min.
Forming candy mass on a wafer base is carried out on a machine with three working rolls, one of which is grooved and two smooth. Corrugated roller injects mass into the space between two smooth rollers. The gap between the rolls is adjustable and determines the thickness of the formable formation. A special knife directs the mass to the conveyor belt, which is pre-covered with wafer sheets. The strength of adhesion of wafer sheets with candy mass depends on the temperature of the mass. This temperature should be slightly higher than the melting point of the mixture of fats in its composition. To do this, the mass must be tempered (loaded into the tempering machine and mixed for 15 — 30 min). If the mass is made on the basis of cocoa butter, then it is tempered at 32-35 ° С, the mass prepared on the basis of confectionery fat, - at 39-41 ° С. Wafer sheets should have the same temperature as candy mass, humidity of sheets must not exceed 3,5%. The rolled layer placed on the wafer sheets is covered on top with another layer of wafer sheets. Before entering the cooling chamber layer with waffles passes under the pressure roller. After cooling, the formation is cut into rectangular candy cases on machines with string cutting.
Hare candy masses are formed on a roll machine, in which the rolls are arranged horizontally (one above the other). In this case, the upper roller can rise and fall. In this way, the size of the gap between the rolls and, consequently, the thickness of the candy mass is regulated. The roasted candy mass is rolled at a temperature of 70-75 ° C and then cut. When cutting the roil-weave layer on the harnesses, and then the body, the working parts of the machine do not completely cut the layer. Jumpers 0,5 thick and 0,2-0,3 mm wide remain on the lower plane of the formation between the bodies. Thus, the formation is not completely divided into bodies into cooling. After formation, the formation has a temperature of 65-70 ° C. The temperature of the cooled formation of 23-25 ° C.
On such roller machines, masses for tyrannized iris and candy masses such as "Creamy jellies" are formed. The molding temperature of such masses is much lower.
The masses of the type of custard praline and marzipan are molded on rolling machines in which special webs pass between the forming rolls. These machines have two pairs of rolls, the gap between them is different: for the first pair of rolls, it is larger than for the next pair. To reduce the sticking of the mass on the canvas, powdered sugar is applied. When forming the dark mass of powdered sugar is pre-mixed with cocoa powder. The resulting candy layers are cut into individual shells on cutting machines.
The basis of the method is the extrusion of candy mass through the openings of the dies into the bundles of the corresponding profile (round, oval, rectangular, etc.). This method is used to mold plastic masses, which mainly include fat-containing masses. This is mainly nut candy mass. This method is also used to form marzipan masses with a mass fraction of fat not lower than 25%. Vypressovyvanie used for some fondant masses.
The work of pressing machines is greatly influenced by the preparation of the mass for molding. Such preparation for praline masses is recommended in two stages. Initially, the praline mass is kneaded for 30 min at a temperature 2-8 ° C higher than the melting point of the mixture of fats in its composition. When this occurs, the complete destruction of the structure and the mass acquires a liquid consistency. Then this mass is cooled with stirring to the optimum molding temperature.
Depending on the design of the molding machine, the extrusion of the candy mass is carried out through the 6, 18 and 22 holes of the forming matrix. The performance of the molding machines depends on the number of holes of the forming matrix, the profile and the cross-sectional area of the resulting tow, the molding speed, etc.
Of great importance for obtaining high quality products and reducing the amount of waste is the process of preparing praline masses for molding. This preparation is carried out so that the mass before molding contains the required number of crystallization centers (small crystallized fat particles). Cooling can significantly reduce the duration of the subsequent structure of the mass. The duration of the mass in the cooling cabinet after molding is significantly reduced, which allows you to increase the speed of movement of the conveyor belt and increase the performance of the line.
For cooling the praline mass in a thin layer in a continuous stream, three-roll mills are used, in which the rolls are cooled with a circulating brine with a temperature of minus 6 to minus 8 ° C.
With this cooling, the mass should maintain a plastic consistency. Its temperature should be at 4-5 ° С above the pour point of the mixture of fats that make up it.
The extrusion of the mass during molding is carried out by a screw or roller-gear supercharger, into which the mass comes from the feed hopper. From the shaping mechanism, the mass comes out in the form of endless bands or strands. The cross section of such tapes or bundles leaving the die after extrusion increases slightly, which leads to fluctuations in the geometric dimensions of the finished products, and this, in turn, negatively affects the operation of the wrapping machines. This process of cross-sectional change intensifies with an increase in the speed of molding and decreases with an increase in the length of the die channel and an increase in the temperature of the mass during molding.
The harnesses obtained as a result of pressing out are cooled on a conveyor in cabinets at a temperature of cooling air 2-8 ° C. At the same time, the temperature of the harnesses decreases to 19-20 ° C. The harnes acquire significant strength, the fat contained in the mass crystallizes. Cooling duration usually 7-8 min.
Machines with screw blowers have disadvantages associated with uneven pressing pressure along the length of the die. Due to the different pressure values, the speed at which the harnesses exit at different holes in the die is not the same. Extreme holes of the matrix have a slightly lower rate of pressing out the harness than the middle ones. Various methods are used to equalize the speeds. For example, increase the length of the average forming channels in comparison with the extreme, establish additional resistance in front of the average channels or in the channels themselves. Sometimes set a higher temperature in the extreme molding channels. However, it is not possible to achieve complete equality of speeds in all channels.
These disadvantages are to a much lesser extent the machines with superchargers in the form of two gear rotors.
Machines with screw blowers have disadvantages associated with uneven pressing pressure along the length of the die.
The gear mechanism of the gear type can be used on the spread conveyor instead of the carriages for pressing out the candy layer. In this case, the matrix is not a series of channels, but a long slit, the width of which corresponds to the thickness of the reservoir, and the length of the slit is equal to the width of the spreading conveyor.
When forming by forming, pieces of complex configuration are obtained from candy masses by extrusion through profiling nozzles onto the receiving conveyor or sheets. This method of molding is a type of extrusion.
A feature of the method of forming jigging is the possibility of forming candy masses, subject to easy destruction of the structure. For this reason, this method is used to form mainly cream and whipped candy masses, as well as some high-grade fondant masses containing an increased amount of fat, such as “Fudge with candied fruits”. When jigging products are dome-shaped, so when using this method does not require further cutting. Usually cream masses, a typical representative of which is the mass for the "Truffles" candy, are whipped off just before the molding. Often the stitching unit is an integral part of the jigging machine. Three different methods are used to extrude the mass from the jigging machine: plunger, roller and auger. The application of one or another method depends on the properties of the molded masses and their preparation for molding.
The most common jigging machine with a screw blower. On such a machine is formed a creamy candy mass for dome-shaped candies - “Truffles”.
The considered machine does not provide a stable mass of each product in a row and in adjacent rows. This is due to the uneven outflow of mass from different holes of the matrix due to uneven pressure distribution in the common pre-matrix chamber, a combination of continuous operation of the injection screws and periodic shut-off work, which causes an increase in pressure in the mass at the moment when the forming holes of the die are blocked.
To eliminate the above disadvantages, a device is assembled into the pre-matrix chamber of the machine, which consists of 12 cylinders (according to the number of holes) equipped with pistons. The moldable mass fills the cylinder, the volume of which corresponds to the mass of the product provided for by the recipe, and at the moment of coincidence of the holes of the cutting bar and the die, the pistons push the measured portion through the nozzles onto the conveyor belt. The drive of cylinders and pistons is carried out from the main shaft of the machine by a cam-lever mechanism. The machine produces 18 jigging in 1 minutes, i.e. its capacity is 216 units / min.
Forming chocolates "Assorted". Assorted chocolate candies are significantly different from other groups of candies both in composition (recipe) and in the preparation method. These sweets are made up of a large proportion (56-60%) of chocolate. The proportion of chocolate in candies depends on the type of filling: in candies with harder fillings - about 56%, in candies with more liquid - about 60%. For the manufacture of these candies use a special semi-finished chocolate production - "chocolate for molding". The following candy masses are used as a filling: praline, chocolate, fruit-marmalade, fondant-chocolate, fondant-fruit, fudge-creamy, creme brulee fondant and peanut. In addition, Assorted candies are prepared with a liqueur filling. The preparation of such candies is carried out according to a special complicated technology that ensures tightness (no leakage of liquid filling from the candy). To do this, a crust is created on the surface of the filling or a thin layer of cocoa butter is applied to the filling filled in the form, which is allowed to crystallize, and only after that a layer of chocolate is applied (candy bottom).
For the manufacture of candies "Assorted" use special units designed for the casting of chocolate with fillings.
On these units, all technological operations are fully mechanized. The technological process of making candy on such a unit consists of the following operations.
The filling-filled forms pass through a vibrator and a cooling chamber. Next, the form comes under the electric heater, which heats and softens the upper edges of the chocolate shell of the cells. After this, the mold enters the casting machine for pouring chocolate at the bottom of the product. After removing the excess chocolate mass from the surface and sides of the mold, using scrapers installed on the machine, the molds enter the cooling chamber, from which they are transferred to the machine to sample products from cells.
Implement candy "Assorted" for the most part packaged in boxes, as well as by weight, wrapped in foil. In 1 kg of sweets must be at least 80 pcs.