Egg products and their use in the manufacture of bakery products
"Development of the technology of flour products for prophylactic purposes using dry egg products"
The structure of nutrition of the population of our country has undergone significant changes lately. With a reduction in labor costs, and the need for food decreases. Along with this, the need for the most important elements of food (proteins, vitamins, minerals, etc.) remains at the same level. A significant place in the structure of food takes a variety of products from flour. Along with bakery products, an important role in nutrition is played by flour confectionery products, as well as a variety of culinary products from flour. Among the flour confectionery products, cakes and cakes, as well as cupcakes, are very popular. With undoubted popularity, these products can not be attributed to the products of healthy food due to their high energy value, as well as the significant content of sugars and fats in them. Therefore, one of the urgent problems is the creation of products with a lower 5 energy value, enriched with biologically active substances and containing a sufficient number of dietary fiber.
Egg products are widely used in the manufacture of confectionery and food products. However, the use of natural egg products considerably complicates the organization of production, dramatically increases the risk of microbiological, while the use of dried egg products eliminates a number of operations and significantly simplify the process of preparation of raw materials for production.
Dried egg products formulated into dry mixes for bakery food products. Dry mixes are included in the product range of the baking industry and are produced in accordance with GOST R 50366-92 (Food concentrates. Semi-finished bakery products).
With egg products that are used as a prescription components, flour products introduced cholesterol, an excess amount of which affects human health. Therefore, decrease in the number of egg products in recipes without compromising product quality is an important task.
The domestic egg-processing industry delivers to the market a variety of dry egg products: dry protein, yolk, egg powder, incl. With various additives. This opens up the possibility for enterprises using egg products as raw materials to improve production technologies, changing the ratio of protein and yolk to the recipe and developing new types of products. However, the technological aspects of the application of dry egg products in the production of flour products with increased food and lower energy value have not been adequately studied. In this connection, the development of technology and the development of recipes for flour confectionery and dry mixtures for the production of culinary products using certain types of dry egg products are relevant.
Scientific novelty of the work is to justify the technology of production of flour confectionery products and flour mixtures for preventive purposes, using dry egg products. It is shown that the effectiveness of the application of dry egg products depends on their functional properties. A mathematical relationship between the indicators of fat-emulsifying ability (VES) of dry egg yolk, foam-forming ability (PIC), foam stability (SP) of dry egg protein and the properties of semi-finished products, and the quality of products. It is shown that dry egg products contain significantly less cholesterol compared to natural eggs. It has been established that the effectiveness of the application of dry egg products can be increased by introducing additives that affect the viscosity of their solutions: modified starch, carboxymethylcellulose, surfactant; Which ultimately reduces the consumption of egg products, and in the case of cooking cream to reduce the amount of butter. It is established that the use of dry egg products instead of natural slows the staling of products.
Practical significance is due to the fact that technologies have been developed for the application of dry egg products in the production of flour confectionery products (biscuit-cream cakes and cakes for yeast) and dry flour mixtures for culinary products. Recommendations are given for the purposeful application of dry egg products with different functional properties. The ratio of dried egg yolk and yolk is established in the production of a biscuit test and a test for yeast cakes. Techniques for the use of food additives (modified starches, emulsifiers, CMC, flavors) for the development of products using dry egg products have been developed. Formulations of dry mixtures for pancakes and pancakes with the use of dry yolk.
The proposed technologies have been tested under production conditions of "French pastry" and confectionery shop enterprise LLC "Pink Pearl". The established procedure was developed and approved by the regulatory documentation for new products.
1. It was established that commodity lots of dry egg products differ in functional properties, with the main functional properties of dry egg white are foaming capacity, which ranges from 157 to 200% and foam stability, which fluctuates from 39 to 81%, and the functional properties of yolk - fat emulsifying ability, ranging from 83 to 90%;
2. It is shown that in the presence of egg yolk powder reduces the foaming capacity and foam stability, so in the development of certain types of products and yolk protein ratio should be changed in comparison with natural egg products;
3. It is found that dry egg yolk powder and contains substantially less cholesterol (calculated as DM) compared to natural products, which creates the prerequisites for use in the development of egg dry product prophylactic;
4. It was established that the formulation biscuit semifinished number yolk compared with natural egg products must be reduced, and the ratio of albumen and yolk should be 1,6: 1, and in the formulation of dough for cakes proportion of yolk in the formulation must be increased, and the ratio of protein and yolk should be 1: 1;
5. It has been established that the efficiency of using dry egg products depends on the viscosity of their reconstituted solutions, which can be controlled by the amount of water used to restore dry egg products, therefore a certain amount of water should be added to the preparation of dry products: for protein - 1: 8,5; and for the yolk - 1: 2,5;
6. The introduction of hydrocolloid (CMC) in the amount of 1,0% of flour weight, enhances the dough viscosity, improves the quality of semi-finished biscuit and cake prepared with dried egg products;
7. The possibility of the use of dried egg powder in the production of custard and egg albumen in the development of protein-protein and butter creams instead of natural egg products;
8. Qualitative characteristics creams with dry egg products can be improved by using the modified starch Yesh Those 12688. Simultaneous use of dried egg products and food additives (modified starches and surfactants) can reduce the oil content in the cream and thus obtain prefabricated with reduced energy value;
9. It was found that in the development of yeast cakes introduction of dry egg products instead of natural and CMC in the number 0,75% by weight of flour slows staling products;
10. It is shown that a better quality of food products from dry mixes attained upon introduction into their structure instead of dry egg yolk powder.
The following recommendations can be formulated on the basis of the research:
-in the current regulatory documents on dry egg products it is advisable to introduce indicators reflecting their functional properties;
-Use dry egg products in the production of flour confectionery and food products in order to improve the sanitary conditions of production, improve quality, and reduce food energy value of products;
-with formulating biscuit-cream products, preference should be given to the use of dry egg white;
-with the production of cakes as part of the formulation should increase the amount of yolk;
-in the formulation of dry mixes for food products it is advisable to use an egg yolk.
The application of these recommendations will enable a comprehensive and more efficient use of the products obtained in the processing of natural eggs.
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