Choosing raw materials: milk and dairy

Р. Эрли, Harper Adams University College

As the main product, which begins to feed newborn mammals, milk is an important source of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals that affect the development of tissues and bones of the body, its development and growth.

Milk is a product that has a beneficial effect on the body of a person of any age, both in the case of consumption in kind, and in the case when milk is used as a basis for the production of other dairy products and milk additives for other products. The nutritional composition of the milk of various animals varies widely, but cow milk is used most widely both for consumption in ready-made form and for the preparation of various dairy products. Goat and sheep's milk are also not overlooked and are used mainly in the production of cheeses.

The main use of milk in the sphere of chilled products is, in fact, milk itself as a finished product, as well as various dairy components used to produce chilled products. Most dairy products, such as cheeses and yoghurts, have a long history of development, while others have appeared in a relatively recent time. The development of the production of such products is associated with the movement of the modern market towards convenience-ready semi-finished products and the sale of finished products, which in most cases are chilled products.

The composition of milk

Water is the main component of milk, and many of the technologies used in the dairy industry are based on controlling the percentage of water in the finished product. The percentage of water in cow's milk is usually 87,5%; Milk has a high water activity (ai,) - about 0,993 [15], which, without proper heat treatment or packaging, leads to exposure of the product to rapid damage by bacteria. Storage conditions also play an important role in the preservation of dairy products. The production of most dairy products is based on the partial or complete removal of water from the finished product while maintaining its taste characteristics. The nutritional value of whole milk is given in Table. 2.1 according to the proportional content of the main dry components: milk fats, lactose (milk sugar), milk proteins (casein and whey proteins), minerals and slags.

2.1 Table. Essential nutrients (A), the basic components (B) contained in cow's milk and the major components of milk dry basis (C)

Components (in 100 ml) А В С
Fat grams 4,01 3,90 30,80
Proteins, g: 3,29 3,20 25,30
casein - 2,60 20,60
serum proteins - 0,60 4,70
Lactose d 4,95 4,80 37,90
Ash - 0,75 5,90
Calcium, mg 119,00 - -
Iron mg 0,05 - -
Sodium, mg 56,70 - -
Vitamin A (retinol эkvivalent) mg 57,20 - -
Thiamine mg 0,03 - -
Riboflavin mg 0,17 - -
Niacin equivalent mg 0,83 - - -
Vitamin V12, g 0,41 - -
Vitamin C, mg 1,06 - -
Vitamin E, g 0,03 - -
Energy value:
kJ 283,60 - -
kcal 67,80 - -

Source: [15] and [30].

functional approach

Various dry milk components are described by the term "functional properties", meaning that they meet the specific requirements of food systems, such as emulsification, thickening and water binding. Some logical discrepancy of the term "functional properties" is explained by the fact that all kinds of products and their components are strictly functional [1]. The development of the so-called "functional food", or products with medical and extended properties, where the word "functional" was attached to food, caused some confusion of the layman. All of the above shows that the dairy industry and food producers using milk ingredients evaluated the functional properties of dairy components and use this knowledge to obtain products with specific and extended properties [27]. The properties of dairy products in kind (for example, cream, butter, cheese, yogurt) largely depend on the functional properties of the dry components of the milk entering into them. Combinations and proportions of dry milk components can vary in accordance with the desired quality of the product and serve to enhance the parameters that characterize the dairy product. In other cases, the combination of the dairy ingredients included in the dairy product is determined by the desire to obtain a product with the maximum set of specific functional properties. The functional properties of the main components of milk are given in Table. 2.2.

2.2 Table. Functional properties of skimmed milk (SNF)

casein serum Proteins lactose Dairy fats
emulsification of fats foaming Compound with air foaming
foaming Thickening antiseptic Flowability
Deposition by Sa2 + The collapse temperature foaming absorbability
Precipitation chymosin Solubility at any pH Aromaticheskaya basis Small sweetness (27-39% sucrose)
Solubility at pH> 6 shine


sucrose crystallization

water Bondage Layering Fat's unique taste

Source: [12].

The organoleptic properties

Organoleptic properties of milk and dairy products are a direct consequence of the combination of the components of the product and are directly dependent on their quality. The components of the dairy product are a consequence of the chemical processes taking place in the milk, they give rise to the physical properties of the product, and the consumer's perception of the product is determined both by the chemical processes and by its physical properties. The chemical and physical properties of dairy products are determined by the quality of the source milk, the production process, the storage conditions and the overall production control. The manufacturer seeks to declare the quality of the product and, as a consequence, its maximum suitability for the consumer, but the activity of microorganisms and chemical oxidation processes can (and often lead) to a change in the chemical and physical properties of the product, which in turn leads to a decrease in quality and loss of consumer properties Goods. The consumer judges the quality of the dairy product in appearance, smell, taste and structure of the product. The characteristics of the product, which cause a special sensation from the product, can be considered as its characteristic features. For example, the cheese "blue stilton" can be estimated by type, flavor, texture and taste, where the characteristic taste of the oil is a distinctive feature and criterion for the attractiveness of this type of cheese. Yogurt is determined by its pure, sour taste and the smoothness of the taste sensation.

The whiteness of liquid milk is explained by the scattering of light in globules of milk fat, colloidal particles of calcium caseinate and calcium phosphate [26], despite the presence of carotene, which determines the yellowish color of milk fat. The taste of milk is composed both of the taste of the main components and of minor impurities in the milk. Globules of milk fats containing lipids, phospholipids and casein, mainly determine the characteristic taste of milk. The taste of butter is a consequence of the combination of milk fats and whey [31], but this taste is also explained by the relatively high content of short chains of fatty acids that form triacylglycerin. Unfermented dairy products are generally described as having a characteristic pure milk taste, while the taste of the fermented products is determined by the conversion of lactose to lactic acid. The use of homofermentative microorganisms makes it possible to obtain a more pure milk taste, since these bacteria in addition to lactic acid produce aldehydes, ketones and alcohol, which can serve as the basis for a wide range of gustatory sensations. Milk odor is formed mainly by the presence of fatty acids with more than 12 carbon atoms conventionally called "volatile fatty acids" [4]. Oleic acid is a fatty acid with four carbon atoms and a melting point of -7,9 ° C, constitutes 5-6% of milk fat and largely determines the taste and smell of the oil.

The smell and taste of dairy products can be changed deliberately or spontaneously by microbial activity. Biochemical activity, in some cases the activity of molds and yeast, can improve the taste of cheeses. For clarity, we can cite as an example the mature Camembert cheese, the taste and smell which can be partially improved by the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and fatty acid part release, decomposition into ammonia and other protein components.

The consistency of milk is characterized primarily by moisture and fat content, an important role is played by factors such as acidity (pH). In yoghurts, souring casein to an isoelectric point contributes to the formation of a gel. In cheese, a decrease in the moisture content of the product leads to an increase in the hardness of the cheese. The fat content and chemical processes have a direct effect on the consistency of the product and taste sensations. Since the content of fatty acids in milk fat can vary depending on the time of year, then, as a rule, summer milk fat is softer and yellow than the winter one. This can be important when the oil is spread as a finished product, but for other products it may not have a significant value. In this book, we are not going to consider the entire set of factors that are important for the formation of consumer properties of dairy products, and refer to the classical data on milk chemistry, as a detailed study of the taste and consumer qualities of dairy products was carried out in [5].

Microbiological parameters of dairy products

Manufacturers of dairy products provides microbiological parameters of their products with the specification for these products. Despite the fact that the manufacturers have the opportunity to introduce their own standards, microbiological parameters for some types of dairy products are defined in [23] and accepted by most manufacturers. Table. 2.3 TZHG lists recommendations for milk, cream and milk products in the Table. 2.4 -Data dry milk, and indicators, and harmful microorganisms are listed in Table. 2.5.

2.3 Table. Microbiological parameters of milk, cream and other dairy products

organisms Normal value Maximum content

Salmonella spp.

L. monocytogenes S. aureus E. coli 0157*

in 25 ml or g is not detected in g or ml 25 not detected

<20 on g

in 25 ml or g not found

in 25 ml or g not found

103to d

103 to d

in 25 ml or g not found

* For solid milk products.

Source: According to [23].

2.4 Table. Microbiological parameters of milk powder

organisms Normal value Maximum content

Salmonella spp.

S. aureus



in 25 ml or g not found

<20 on g

<102 to d

<102 to d

ND in 25 ml or g

103 to d

103 to d

103 to d

Source: According to [23].

2.5 Table. Indicators and harmful microorganisms for milk, cream, dairy products and milk powder

Product Microorganism Normal value Maximum content
Soft cheese (raw milk) E. E. coli coli <102 104
processed cheese Number of aerobic <102 105
Number of anaérobov <10 105
Other cheeses Koliformы <102 104
Entyerobaktyerii <102 104
E. E. coli coli <10 <103
Pasteurized milk and cream Once forms <1 <102
Entyerobaktyerii <1 <102
Other pasteurized dairy Once forms <10 104
Products Entyerobaktyerii <10 104
E. E. coli coli <10 <103
Yeast (yogurt) <10 105
Powdered milk aerobes <103 Depending on the product
Entyerobaktyerii <102 104
E. E. coli coli <10 <103

Source: According to [23].

Chilled dairy products and dairy components used in refrigerated foods.

Dairy industry produces many dairy products, chilled product comprising a natural form, and a plurality of dairy products, which are included in other refrigerated products in the form of additives. It is impossible in this chapter detail see all dairy products and dairy components used for the preparation of chilled products. We can give only the basic products and give a brief overview.

Pasteurized milk

Pasteurized milk is widely represented on the market. In the UK, the fat content of milk is determined by law (Table 2.6). These data are also used to produce chilled products, in particular the basis for making sauces (such as béchamel) and cheeses for finished products. During the production of pasteurized milk, raw milk is purified with a centrifuge to remove insoluble impurities and somatic cells. In accordance with the English provisions for dairy products [2], milk is cleaned at a temperature of not less than 71,1 ° C for at least 15 s *. A negative phosphatase test (determining the degree of pasteurization of milk to reduce alkaline phosphatase activity in it) determines the duration of heat treatment, and a positive peroxidase test does not allow overheating of the milk (above 80 ° C). Partially skimmed and skimmed milk is used to make cream using a sealed separator (see [6,11]). Homogenization at high pressure is used to reduce the size of globules of milk fat from 20 μm to 1-2 μm, to prevent the formation of a layer of cream and the possible formation of "cream plugs" in glass bottles. For sale, milk is poured into glass bottles, laminated cardboard or plastic containers (HDPE) [41].

2.6 Table. Types of milk sold in the UK

Type of milk Description

Natural whole milk was homogenized whole milk standardized whole milk

Standardized homogenized whole milk

Part-skim milk Skim milk

Milk without any changes in the homogenized milk, without changes in the standardized milk, with a minimum fat content of 3,5%

Milk is standardized, homogenized with a minimum fat content of 3,5%

Milk with a fat content between the 1,5 and 1,8%

Milk with a fat content of less than 0,1%

* The process of pasteurisation used for the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. - Approx. scientific. Ed.

For industrial use, pasteurized milk can be supplied in automotive tanks of stainless steel or solid containers with pallets. Since pasteurization does not destroy all microorganisms originally present in raw milk, milk must be stored at a temperature below 8 ° C in order to avoid microbial activity. The deterioration of pasteurized milk, which has a short shelf life, is caused, as a rule, by microbiological activity in the period after pasteurization storage. The most common damage is caused by gram-negative bacteria - psychrotrophs [39]. [18] described the possibility of preserving heat-resistant microorganisms (such as enterococci, Streptococcus thermophilus, milk bacteria) in milk, as well as spore-forming microorganisms of the species Bacillus and Clostridium. The loss of quality of pasteurized milk is possible due to souring and decomposition reactions of proteins (which occur, as a rule, at low-temperature storage). For example, the protease produced by Pseudomonas fluorescent passes through a cycle of pasteurization even though the body itself is dying. The rancidity of the cream causes Bacillus cereus.


Cream entering the market is produced, as a rule, for home use with a minimum fat content, as shown in Table. 2.7. In the production of refrigerated products, creams are part of various soups, sauces and additives. The fat content of cream for industrial use is determined by many factors - the ability to whip, pumping, packaging, transportation and storage restrictions. Creams are an oil-in-water emulsion, with milk fat globules in non-homogenized cream having a diameter of from 0,1 to 20 μm (average 3-4 μm). These dimensions are limited to globule membranes, which include phospholipids, lipoproteins, cerebrosides, proteins, and other components. Membranes have surface activity or surface properties. Most lipids in milk fat are triacylglycerol with small additions of di- and monoacylglycerols.

Milk fat contains dissolved and vitamins A, D, E and K. The cream separated from the milk by centrifuge. Currently, use airtight separators, capable of producing the cream with fat content up to 70%. Next, the cream is pasteurized at a temperature of not less 72 ° C for at least 15 and subjected to

2.7 Table. The minimum fat content in the cream% sold in the UK

Half cream (the cream with half the fat) 12%
Cream or single cream (cream) 18%
Sterilised half cream (sterilized cream with half the fat) 12%
Sterilised cream (sterilized cream) 23%
Whipped cream (whipped cream) 35%
Whipping cream (whipping cream) 35%
Double cream (double cream fat) 48%
Clotted cream (топленые сливки) 55%

Positive phosphatase and negative peroxidase tests. Half fat skimmed and conventional creams are homogenized at high pressure to prevent delamination, and double-fat cream can be homogenized at low pressure to eliminate thickening of the product. Cream, intended for subsequent whipping, to preserve their qualities remain non-homogenized. Whipped cream is a traditional product of the southwestern part of England. Some of the existing ways of producing this dairy product have been described in [51]. This process involves heating the milk (during which baked cream is removed) or 55% cream is heated to a moderate temperature (usually 75-95 ° C), which causes the cream to fold.

For sale, cream is supplied in polystyrene spherical containers with a flat top, treated with an antifungal agent. In [6] it was noted that when packaging cream, it is important to avoid light, which can cause self-oxidation of fats and prevent foreign matter from getting into and absorbing water. For industrial use, the pasteurized product is supplied in tank trucks made of stainless steel or in plain pellets with pallets. Both retail and industrial products need to be stored in a refrigerated state at -8 ° C. In work [45] some conditions of loss by cream of their quality are considered. A poor microbiological state can reduce the shelf life of the product below 10-14 days, and the breakdown of lipids as a result of the natural activity of microorganisms can cause rancidity of the cream. Physical defects can be low viscosity, separation of whey and poor whipping of cream.


Sour cream is used both at home and for industrial production (mainly for making different sauces). Sour cream is obtained by fermentation of cream (no less than 18% fat content) by microorganisms - such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Cremoris. Fermentation serves to isolate casein at an isoelectric point (pH 4.6) and form the product. The product for sale on the market can be fermented in pots, however for industrial use it is required to produce a product of such consistency that it can be pumped through pipes and then transported in 20-kilogram corrugated flasks or monophonic pellets. Before the fermentation process, the cream is pasteurized, and the presence of lactic acid serves as a safety factor for the product, but despite this, sour cream should be stored in cold conditions at -5 ° C. The storage period under these conditions can reach 20 days. "Creme fraîche" (fresh cream, fr.) Is a kind of sour cream made from homogenized cream with a fat content of 18-35% using lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis vardiacetylactis ). Incubation of microorganisms occurs at 30-32 ° C for 5-6 h and allows to obtain a product with a pH lying within 4,3-4,7. The mixed or condensed "creme fraîche" is supplied to the retail trade for the direct consumption and production of chilled desserts, and in the dairy industry this product is used in marinades, sauces, desserts and ready-to-serve products, and it is supplied in various containers, including 20 kg jars and monophonic pellets .


Home use of butter is well known, and the use of oil as an additive in the preparation of chilled products finds its application mainly in soups and sauces. It is a component of the "ryu" sauce [roux - red, fr.], Where it is used together with flour. Garlic and herbal oil is used as a flavor additive to chilled ready-made products and spicy dishes, is added to garlic bread and is used as a condiment for the preparation of meat - in particular beef, chicken, fish. The production of unsalted butter includes the process of inversion of the oil-in-water emulsion, which is a cream, into the water-in-oil emulsion, which is actually the oil. A number of existing methods were considered in [28]. The most common method of obtaining oil is the method of Fritz and Senn (Fritz and Senn method), which consists in the rapid cooling of 42% cream to 8 ° C and keeping them at this temperature for 2 h, followed by an increase in temperature to 20-21 ° With and re-cooling to 16 ° C (or the beat temperature of the oil). The process of temperature change reduces the amount of impurities in fat crystals that are in the form of globules, which is achieved by crystallization of triacylglycerols with a higher melting point to pure crystals. This also improves the ductility of milk fat, especially when the content of iodine compounds is high in oil and it is too hard.

The process of cream heat treatment is performed by the buttermilk continuously during the four technological stages of obtaining the oil: the buttercock cylinder whip cream, which causes the membranes of the globules of milk fat to coalesce, the fat crystals are combined; The separation stage separates the liquid from the oil; The spinning stage serves to further remove liquid from the product; At the last stage mechanical oil softening takes place. In the manufacture of salted butter salt is added to the oil during the last stage of the process. The salt is dissolved in the liquid to obtain a brine with an 1,6-2,0% salt content and added in portions to the oil to obtain a resulting salt / water ratio of about 11% - sufficient to suppress microorganism activity. The activity of microorganisms is not the only reason for the decline in the quality of the oil. The processes of evaporation of moisture cause a surface change in the color of the product, and keeping the oil in the light leads to oxidative processes and rancidity of the oil [43]. To avoid light and create a hindrance to moisture, the oil for sale is packed in barrels or wrapped in foil. For the industry, the oil is supplied in polyethylene film in 25-kg blocks packed in corrugated cardboard boxes. Dairy butter may be manufactured from cream by the fermentation of lactic acid bacteria. The taste of the manufactured oil can be simulated with the help of additives of the necessary components during the manufacture of oil [42]. Garlic and herbal oil is made by mixing the appropriate components and pressing (to obtain the desired shape and size).

Concentrated skim milk and skimmed

Skimmed concentrated and powdered milk are used in sweet creams, gravies, soups, sauces, marinades and desserts. Skim milk is a by-product of skimming cream and contains about 91% water. From the milk solids in the product contains proteins, lactose and mineral substances with traces of fats. Concentrated milk is obtained by vacuum evaporation of the starting material to achieve an 35% content of SOMO in the product sufficient for essential uses and for manufacturers. A high level of dry components in the product increases the viscosity of the product, reduces shelf life and increases the crystallization of lactose. Concentrated skim milk needs to be stored in a refrigerated state. Dry skimmed milk is produced by drying the sprayed milk concentrate until 60% of the dry matter content is reached. The quality of dry milk depends directly on the dry impurities in the drying unit. A high content of solids leads to a generally high product density. Density more than 0,65 kg / m3 allows to obtain high quality of the product with minimal dust formation during transportation. Dry milk has a moisture content of less than 3,5%, and water activity is about 0,2. Powdered milk can be stored for many months at room temperature without deterioration of quality indicators. Granular milk powder having good solubility can be made using a two-stage drying process, usually using spray dryers with separate liquid baths. Preliminary heating of milk before the drying process is important for maintaining the thermal stability of milk proteins [13].

The concentrate of whey and whey

The whey concentrate is used in the production of margarines and non-dairy products, such as pates. This product can also be used for making soups, sauces and desserts. Sweet whey is a by-product of coagulation enzymes in the process of cheese making. The serum has a pH within 5,8-6,6 and a titratable acidity (TC) within 0,1-0,2%. The medium-acid and acidic whey are used for the production of acid cheese and casein. Sweet whey is most often used for the production of concentrate and dried whey. The water content within 94% and the presence of lactic acid bacteria make this product extremely perishable. The percentage of dry matter in sweet whey reaches 5,75%, of which 75% is milk sugar (lactose). The whey concentrate is obtained by vacuum evaporation, where low solubility of lactose allows to obtain 30% of its content in the product. The concentrate is supplied in road tankers and stored around 2-3 day at a temperature below 8 ° C. To ensure the predominance of lactose monohydrate in the product, non-hygroscopic whey powder is prepared by crystallization of lactose at a temperature of 93,5 ° C. Crystallization of milk sugar occurs in drying aggregates to the concentration of CB in 58-62% and obtaining a dense powder. Demineralized whey powder can be obtained by ion exchange and electrodialysis [20], as well as by nanofiltration. Like dried milk, dry whey can be stored at normal temperature for many months.


Lactose (or milk sugar) is used in making soups or sauces. It is a compound of monosaccharides of D-glucose and D-galactose. During the hydrolysis using the enzyme ß-galactosidase, lactose is converted to 4-α-β-galactopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose. Lactose is found in α- and ß-crystalline forms, but amorphous compounds are also possible. Carbohydrates are less sweet than sucrose, and how reducing sugars are used in some food products to give them a darkening reaction to Mayar. In the industrial preparation of products, anhydrous a-lactose monohydrate is usually preferred due to its flowability and non-hygroscopicity - it is easily stored without loss of quality. To ensure the production of crystals of a-lactose monohydrate, the whey is concentrated to more than 65% of the dry matter content to form a supersaturated solution and is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 95 ° C. In the process of abrupt cooling, a-lactose crystals are formed. Lactose grains are used to control the crystal size of less than 25 μm or to control the threshold of taste sensations. Lactose crystals are usually separated from the whey concentrate by decanting centrifuge, washed, dried by fluidized bed drying and packed in multi-layer paper bags coated internally with polyethylene.

Conventional and "Greek" yogurt

Yogurt is among the most popular chilled dairy products. Currently in refrigerators supermarkets can be found a wide variety of yogurt flavors and names. Industrial Applicability The yogurt includes fabricating refrigerated gravies, sauces, soups, desserts, fillings and various finished products (e.g., curry sauce and other national dishes). Yogurt is made from a single, normalized and skim milk fermentation method. Acidity (pH) normal milk averages 6,5-6,7, but the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid by lactic acid bacteria reduces the pH to 2,6, which leads to gel formation. Control of fermentation pH will delay time within 3,8-2,4. Микроорганизмы Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus и Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus in yoghurt manufacture have been used for a long time, but can use other microorganisms - such as to render the product more aged fruit flavor and sourness reduction using microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. Bifidobacterium и house. In the industrial production of yoghurt milk is used with different fat content. In the market yoghurt produced from both skim milk and the natural natural fat. To increase the viscosity and bring the level up to skim milk solids content in the range of up to 8,5 12-14%, often in the production of yoghurt milk was added. In addition, gelatin and hydrocolloids (such as a modified starch or guar) can be added to increase the viscosity and to improve the consistency of yoghurt. In general, the yogurt is made from heated for five minutes to 90-95 ° C milk that has been normalized on dry matter and fat. Heat kills bacteria and cleans milk from spore-forming organisms, also destroyed bacteriophages, which can later hinder the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Denatured whey protein, which increases the viscosity of the product. Then the milk is cooled to about 42 ° C, is added about 2% sourdough fermentation product and is carried out in a closed volume. Sourdough can be any culture of lactic acid bacteria, or direct injection into raw frozen concentrate, freeze dried. Further development of the microorganisms, which reduces pH, can be stopped by cooling and stirring the coagulum, and then mechanical stirring achieve uniform texture of the product, which can later be used to manufacture conventional yoghurt or fruit, and also be used as industrial raw materials. When used as an industrial raw yogurt is pasteurized to kill the lactic acid bacteria and eliminate further uncontrolled acidification product. In most cases, yoghurt is available in 20-kg canisters. Pasteurized yogurt can be stored for several weeks at a temperature of not more than 16 ° C.

Yogurts on the market are represented in a very wide range, including variants of mixed and fruit yoghurts, which can consist of various combinations of yoghurt, fruits and cereals. The fat content in yogurt depends on the particular product and can vary widely - from completely fat-free to foods with a very high fat content. The so-called "Greek yogurt" conditionally refers to the category of "wrong" yogurt. Milk whey during its production is removed, which allows to increase the dry matter content to 22-26%, resulting in a thick product resembling texture cream cheese. Recently, the market has seen an increase in interest in biofermented yogurt and "healthy food". Products fermented with microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei subsp. Casei and Bifidobacterium have pronounced therapeutic properties, and, as noted in [33], many starter cultures are used to produce a specific taste and consistency of yoghurt and similar fermented milk products (see also "Yogurt and other sour-milk products: scientific fundamentals and Technology / A. Tamim, R. Robinson - Translated from English - St. Petersburg: Profession, 2003 ").


Cheeses are represented on the market by a very wide range of products. A number of products are used for home consumption, but cheese finds application in the preparation of chilled food products, and as one of the components for the preparation of various sauces and exotic ready meals. For example, cheeses cheddar, grju, parmesan, pecorino, etc. are used in such dishes as lasagna, baked potatoes and other fried dishes requiring cheese sprinkling. Mascarpone can be used to thicken sauces, Gorgonzola - to give sauces an exotic taste.

According to the basic agreement on refrigerated foods, cheese fell into two categories [21]. Soft cheeses ripening on fungi and cream cheese are classified as 2 as products requiring storage at temperatures from 0 to + 5 ° C, while hard cheeses and processed cheese are classified as 3 and should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 8 ° FROM. The English food safety provision from 1995 establishes the need to store refrigerated food at a temperature of 8 ° C or lower. Obviously, most hard cheeses can not ripen at low temperatures and may need to be stored at a temperature above 8 ° C. In these cases, a scientific study of food safety conditions [46] is recommended, based on a reasonable interpretation of the microbiological hazard factor - as recommended in [9]. Cheeses are made from milk and dairy products by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria, but more often with the help of proteolytic reactions using special enzymes (usually chymosin) for the curdling of milk, from which, by separating the whey, a dry product that can either ripen or ripen, or No (depending on the specific method). At some stages of maturation, additional microflora (for example, mold fungi) can be used, which is capable of promoting the aging process. At present, a huge number of varieties of cheeses are known - in work [17] it is reported that their number exceeds 1000. The difficulties in the classification and transfer of cheeses are also indicated in [45], where a classification system is proposed, based on the composition of the product and the characteristics of their maturation and moisture content. It is quite obvious that cheese can be characterized as "mature cheese", "cheese, ripe on fungi" or "immature or raw cheese" [8].

Fermented cheese

Cheeses of this type are sold as chilled food products, including a variety of their variations (Parmesan, cheddar, grju, edam and kuezo manchego). Mature cheeses can be sold for home use in the form of "slicing", packed in a vacuum package or using packaging in an adjustable base environment. For industrial use, mature cheeses are delivered, as a rule, in blocks, "heads", which are then either cut or crushed. As for home and for industrial use, grated cheeses are also supplied, packed in sacks. Although mature cheeses differ considerably in appearance, taste, smell, texture, etc., they are all based on the main stages of the technological chain, namely:

  • pasteurized or unpasteurised whole milk (for example emmental - mature cheese from pasteurized milk);
  • sourdough fermentation of lactic bacteria added to the milk, which matures at a temperature sufficient for the activity of microflora;
  • rennet (chymosin with a proteolytic enzyme) was added to form a coagulum;
  • curd is cut to separate the serum;
  • Serum was removed;
  • cottage cheese is compacted, compressed;
  • salted curd (this may occur either prior to the molding of cheese curd or when placed in a mold, or after, when the cheese is removed from the forms);
  • curd is placed in a round or other shapes of cheese to impart the desired shape;
  • the cheese is placed on the storage and aging.

Process step cheddar cheese production are shown in Table. 2.8. Quality mature cheese depends on the combination of components, or (as in the case of cheese ched-

2.8 Table. Review of manufacturing processes in the production of cheddar cheese

Day IV Delnoe milk (a) Normalization of milk to produce a fat-casein 1: 0,7
(B) Pasteurization at 71,9 ° C for a 15
(at) Cooling to 29,5 ° C and filling the cheese vat
(G) The addition of the leaven in the amount of 1,5-3% of volume of milk - usually of mixed cultures of lactic acid, based on the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. sgemoris
(D) Curing of up to 45 60 minutes - long enough to lift the titratable acidity (TC) of milk from 0,15-0,17% to 0,20-0,22%
(F) The addition of rennet and maintaining 45-60 minutes
(H) Cutting cheese
(with) Aging and the rise in temperature to 39 ° C for 45 minutes
(and) Curing cheese with 39 ° C 45-60 minutes, stirring to initiate syneresis
(TO) Removal of serum when TC reaches 0,20-0,24%
(L) Cheddar curdled within 90 minutes until TC reaches 0,65-0,85%
(M) Spin cheese
(N) Adding salt (2,0-3,5% by weight of the cheese)
(about) in the shape of the room
(P) The room under the press on 16 hours (overnight)
Day 2 (P> Removing mold from cheese - pH between 4,95-5,15
(C) Cheese packaging, avoiding air entrapment - usually vacuum packed in plastic by heat sealing
(T) Vacuum packaging of cheese in a box to save the form
(IN) Maturing cheese with 10-12 ° C of up to 3 18 months
(F) Pre-packing or sale of cheese on the weight (circles, heads and so on. N.)

Source: According to [13].

der, which has long term aging) - on the moisture content in the SNF, the fat in the solid state, acidity and moisture salinity, all these parameters are critical to the quality of cheese [40].

In the process of making cheese, cheese makers strictly control these factors in order to obtain the best quality cheese. In [18] it was found that cheeses can have mechanical or microbiological defects. Microbiological damage to the cheese can occur during production, that is, spore-forming species of Clostridium and Bacillus can produce gas bubbles, and proteolytic bacteria can spoil the taste. In the process of aging Clostridium spp. And hetero-enzymatic microorganisms can lead to a defect called "late gas"; In addition, the damping of cheese can be a consequence of the activity of putrefactive anaerobic microorganisms - such as Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium sporogenes. The finished cheese can become a "victim" of a variety of microorganisms, including Oospora caseovorans, which can cause rapid mold formation on cheese, like Swiss. Pénicillium spp. Can lead to the formation of fungal discoloration of cheese, and Brevibacterium linens - to the appearance of red-orange spots. In the process of making cheeses, you should closely monitor the level of acidity. In the case of low acidity, there is a danger that Staphylococcus aureus can develop in an amount sufficient to produce a toxin. Consequently, the cheese maker often works on the technology of making "slow cheese" to make sure that before the sale the cheese is tested for toxins.

Сыр "моцарелла" - one of the main cheeses for the industrial production of refrigerated products (such as pizza and pizza ingredients), supplied to retail trade and to public catering establishments. Cheese "mozzarella" is characterized as "pasta filato" (it.), Which implies an elastic, fibrous mass. Traditionally, it was made from buffalo milk, but now mozzarella is produced from cow's milk, both of these types of cheese can simultaneously be present on the supermarket display. The initial stages of making mozzarella cheese are similar to the stages of production of cheddar cheese. Differences begin with the grinding process. Grinded cheese for mozzarella cheese is not salted, but sent to a special device called "cooker-stretcher" (literally "cooker-stretcher"), where, by mechanical influences under water, heated to a temperature of 65-80 ° C, it acquires plasticity and Fibrous texture of the "chicken breast". Then the cheese is pressed into molds and cooled to a temperature of about 40 ° C to retain a rectangular shape, then placed for a while in a brine with a temperature of 8-10 ° C and a salt content of 15-20% until the salinity reaches 1,6%.

Blue cheese

In the preparation of such cheeses, both bacterial leaven and mold fungi are used to achieve the desired characteristics. Thanks to the use of mold fungi, which have a higher biological activity than the lactic acid fermentation bacteria used in the standard leaven, the cheese based on the fungus leaven achieves maturity much earlier than normal mature cheeses, but in general they are characterized by shorter shelf life. Cheeses ripening with the help of fungi (for example, stilton or il roquefort), belong to the category of so-called "blue cheeses" due to the useful activity of mushrooms Pénicillium roqueforti. They contrast with Camembert, which is considered white cheese and produced with the help of Pénicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum.

The production of cheeses ripening with the help of mold fungi is similar to the production of conventional cheeses, with the difference that a little less leaven is added and the resulting cottage cheese is boiled not so long or not at all boiled. The key difference is that in the milk or pressed cottage cheese is added the culture of fungi, as it recently began to do in the production of cheese stilton. The presence of a blue mushroom culture in curd makes it possible to accelerate the ripening of cheese. Maturing of stilton cheese is that after a certain time (usually from 8 to 12 weeks from the date of manufacture) cheese is pierced with wire to access air and stimulate the growth of fungi. In the case of Roquefort cheese, blue mold is found in bread crumbs, which are mixed with curd [49]. Alternatively, spores of fungi can be placed in water and sprayed over the surface of the cheese - this is how the brie is made. There are also "irregular" cheeses with mold, where bacteria and yeast are used for superficial ripening. The price of this is the uneven maturation of cheese and the need to wash the crust of cheeses such as münster with red-orange spots, traces of the activity of microorganisms Brevibacterium linens, and saint-nectar with a surface with traces of both microorganisms and yeast.

Nezrelыe sыrы

This category includes pressed cottage cheese (querg), cream cheese and fatty soft cheese. All varieties are widely represented on the market and are also used in the manufacture of chilled food products. Traditionally, pressed cottage cheese is produced without the use of abomasum. Acidic coagulum is formed from whole or skim milk due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus cremoris and Leuconostoc citrovorum at a temperature from 20 to 22 ° C for 16 h. When using the rennet, it is possible to decrease the incubation time to 6 h. Coagulum cut And pasteurized at a temperature of 49-55 ° C, and the resulting curd is washed with warm (49 ° C) water and then wrung out from the diluted whey to obtain a mass with a pronounced granular structure. Getting cottage cheese "soup" is similar in technology to obtaining pressed cottage cheese. Skimmed milk is used here to produce a coagulum which, without sterilization, is placed in a special separator, where whey is separated from the cheese mass to produce a product with a CB content of approximately 17,5%. The use of cheese starter gives the cheese a distinctive taste, contrasting with the taste of yogurt. This cheese can be mixed with cream to produce a high-fat product, although the quark itself has a traditionally low fat content. The trade name qurag ("fermentage fre") aims to attract the buyer's attention to this kind of cheese (cottage cheese). Cream cheese is a fatty soft cheese made from normalized milk by fermentation using liquid starter and rennet coagulum to produce a liquid coagulum. Separating with a centrifuge reduces the percentage of moisture in the curd - in the case of cream cheese, the product usually contains 51% CB and 46% fat, and 39% CB and 30% fat - for fatty soft cheese.

processed cheeses

Frozen cheeses are made, as a rule, from mature cheeses that do not meet the required standards, using systems with a steam jacket at a temperature of 80-110 ° C. Various cheeses can be combined to achieve the desired taste. Certain enzymes can be used to modify the cheeses. Phosphates and citric acid salts are added for stabilization and emulsification, to regulate the acidity of the product. Processed cheeses with pH in 5,2-5,6 have sufficient hardness and well retain their shape. They can be used in grated or sliced ​​condition as elements of sauces, sauces, for decorating exotic dishes or pizza. Cheeses with pH in 5,6 - 5,9 are easily spread and can be used in sandwiches.

Cooling System desserts

In most cooled desserts, milk components are used to obtain the desired odor, color and texture. For gel desserts and mousses, often pasteurized milk is used, but milk concentrates are sometimes used. Milk proteins give the necessary consistency, help emulsify the fat and serve to impart color to the product. Cream - one of the main components, whipped cream as well serve to create air creams, as well as to achieve a pleasant taste. In products containing chocolate, the addition of dry milk components makes it possible to achieve milky chocolate color. Creme brulee is based on fresh cream and skim milk, which provides a yellow-golden color (in the course of Maillard's reaction), as well as texture, density and completeness of taste. Milk is the main component of ordinary sweet desserts and promotes the formation of hydrates. Modified corn starch is used to thicken the product and provide the required density and taste, especially when using whole milk.

In the market for chilled desserts, there is a wide variety of types of products, and in certain cases, to reduce the number of calories in sweetened creams, it is possible to replace milk with low-fat yogurt. Milk is also one of the main ingredients in the preparation of cold rice pudding, providing the necessary moisture for the swelling of rice grains, serves as a coolant in the cooking process and gives the product a distinctive taste and color. Cheese pudding, as the name implies, includes cheese, but the use of various types of cheese varies widely. The baked pudding with cheese can be based on the pressed cottage cheese or cream cheese, or on a mixture of both. Cheese is used along with other ingredients - such as sugar, starch and fillers (in the traditional recipe used egg yolk, flour and milk) - to make a mass to fill the culinary form, which during cooking turns into a fragrant cheese pudding. In another version of the pudding cheese (quark) quark, curd or cream cream is used; A combination of these cheeses (cottage cheese), which fills the surface or is located inside the biscuit, can also be used. Thickeners and stabilizers are needed to control the density of a mixture of cheeses or various hydrocolloids. Starches and alginates can be used as thickeners and stabilizers. Many chilled desserts are covered with whipped cream.

Ready meals

Many ready-made meals contain dairy ingredients. In dishes based on pasta (for example, in lasagne), milk and cream are used mainly due to the ability of globules of milk fat and milk proteins to bleach. Useful and casein, which serves as an emulsifier that binds added fats and oil. Various cheeses (Parmesan, cheddar and gruyere) can be used in lasagne as fillings, giving the dish a golden brown color. In dishes based on dough-like products (pizza or tortilla - a flat Mexican tortilla) the use of cheese makes it possible to get an attractive look and smell. In these cases it is important to use cheese with suitable melting parameters. Mozzarella cheese is used to make pizza "native", but recently pizza made using mixtures of mozzarella and cheddar cheese, as well as pizza variants with the use of melted cheeses can be found on the market.

Cheese is an important ingredient in the production of certain kinds of "quish" - quiches with custard and various fillings, in which it is used to impart color, taste and texture to the product. In addition, cheese is used to create greater consumer appeal for products such as potato casserole in which the look and taste improves - for example, gruyere cheese can be included in the recipe for cooking the product along with cream and butter. Meat dishes can also include dairy products as ingredients - for example, Provençal lamb can include cheddar cheese as a garnish in the recipe, and cream for making sauce and expanding the palatability range. Yogurts or buttermilk are used to prepare sauces for national or pseudo-national dishes such as chicken "tikka masalla" or sauce for "pasanda" chicken, where creams are used to achieve a specific taste, color and shine. In gravies (sauces-pastes) cream and butter are used for taste and gloss, and skim milk is used for bleaching the product and emulsifying fats. With the same goals, dairy products are used in soups. In some French soups (for example, in tomato soup) cream and butter are used for taste and gloss, and sodium caseinate is used to increase the viscosity. In a soup of asparagus for similar purposes, skimmed milk powder and fat cream may be used.

Quality assurance in production

Effects of heat treatment on the milk proteins

Thermal stability of milk implies mainly the stability of whey proteins when heated. At temperatures above 65 ° C, which take several seconds, denaturation of the proteins proceeds very rapidly, and when heated to 90 ° C and withstanding for 5 min, denatures almost the entire serum protein. In contrast to whey proteins, casein does not actually denature when the temperature rises. Determination of the thermal stability of proteins depends significantly on the method of evaluation [17], but in general, α-lactoalbumin is considered more stable than (3-lactoglobulin, followed by serum albumin and then immunoglobulins.) During the thermal decomposition of serum proteins, β-lactoglobulin irreversibly binds With k-casein via disulfide bonds This process resembles the process of fermenting milk with chymosin in the manufacture of cheese, but allows much more thermal stability of proteins in products such as c Milk whey The thermal effect on whey proteins that convert serum to gel can be used by food producers to change the consistency of products and to bind water with a whey gel. The formation of a gel from whey and the quality of the gel itself is influenced by many factors - this The concentration of proteins in the serum, and the acidity of the medium, and the concentration of salt and the presence of fats. [41] High-protein whey foods (up to 90%) are manufactured for use as pi evyh additives and can be used in the manufacture of chilled soups and sauces.

Mechanical damage to the milk and cream

The quality and functionality of liquid milk and cream can be impaired by mechanical influences that affect the stability of the milk emulsion. The level of emulsion destabilization depends on many factors including shear force, fat content, globule size of milk fat and the quantitative ratio in milk of solid and liquid fats. Mechanical destabilization as a consequence of milk pumping through pipelines or a poor condition or construction of milk lines can lead to an increase in the amount of free fats in raw milk that are highly susceptible to hydrolysis with lipoprotein lipase [19].

Cleavage of proteins and lipids caused by bacteria

Raw milk stored in cold conditions is the object of bacterial proteolysis and lipolysis (Pseudomonas spp.), As well as proteolysis caused by psychotropic spore formers (Bacillus cereus, B. circulans and B. mycoides). In the process of pasteurization, which destroys vegetative microorganisms, Bacillus spp. Can remain viable and help initiate proteolysis in chilled liquid products. In addition, although the process of pasteurization leads to denaturation of lipase, bacterial lipase is more thermally stable and can give rise to hydrolytic reactions and the appearance of rancid taste in milk, the cause of which is the release of oily and caproic acids. The quality of dairy products also depends on the quality of raw milk, and processing processes should serve as a reliable guarantee against the growth of bacteria that cause proteolysis and lipolysis. In the post-pasteurization period, it is also possible to introduce into the product harmful microorganisms of other types, which can lead to the appearance of foreign flavors and to the loss of the product of its functional properties.

Rancidity as a result of oxidation of milk fat

The main cause of rancidity of liquid milk and dairy products containing fats is in most cases oxygen. One of the first to undergo oxidation is polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic acids) and acids containing phospholipids and glycerides [25]. Oxygen destroys the methylene groups adjacent to the double bonds of the carbon chains, which leads to the formation of hydroperoxides. These components are very unstable and oxidized further by free radicals. Sunlight and especially the light of fluorescent lamps can cause self-oxidation of milk fats; To the same result can lead to the presence of salts of iron and copper. In dairy products with low water activity, the level of oxidation reactions is highest at aw = 0,6, falls at aw = 0,4 and then again begins to grow with decreasing aw [15]. This can be important for dairy products that have low humidity, and therefore low water activity.

Maillard reaction

Maillard reaction - a reaction that leads to darkening of the product indifferent enzymes. This is the result of interaction between the carbonyl and amino, leading to the appearance of glucosamine and ultimately - melanoidin. The reaction occurs when milk is heated to the temperature required to initiate the reaction between lactose and amino acids - lysine. The result of this reaction is darkening, which is often described as "cooked color" and is associated with a strong taste and aroma.

Food safety issues

Despite the fact that dairy products are very well characterized from the point of view of food safety, the main issues of medical safety are associated with pathogenic and toxicogenic microorganisms. Such microorganisms as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coxiella bumetti are the most thermally stable vegetative microorganisms found in milk, and both of these species belong to pathogens. In work [24] it is shown that the first of organisms withstands heating up to 65,6 ° C during 0,20-0,30 min, and the second - during 0,50-0,60 min. For comparison, Listeria monocytogenes - a microorganism characteristic mainly for immature cheeses and producing food toxin, dies at the same temperature for 1,6-2,0 s. The English position on dairy products (hygiene section) from 1995 defines microbiological standards for whole cow milk used for further processing. According to this provision, the amount of microorganisms in the sample at 30 ° C should not exceed 100 000 cf / ml, and the number of somatic cells should not exceed 400 000. Vegetative toxicogenic microorganisms in milk are mainly Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacterspp. And pathogenic E. coli. The recently discovered pathogen E. coli 0157 is in the spotlight due to its association with cattle, but it can not be said that the milk of cows is automatically infected by all these microorganisms. The study of milk from England and Wales in 1995-1996 showed that 1674% of 2 samples showed positive results on Listeria monocytogenes, 6,7% were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (one of the main microorganisms causing mastitis) and 62% yielded A positive reaction to Escherichia coli, an indicator of fecal contamination [3].

Other possible hazards associated with chemically contaminated milk (antibiotics and other traces of veterinary drugs, detergents, foreign bodies naturally occurring mycotoxins from animal feedstuffs, as well as particles of wood, glass, metal).

Quality control for critical control points (The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, HACCP) is currently considered the best method for controlling food safety. This methodology is supported by the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Microbiological Requirements for Foodstuffs (ICMS). Within the EU, the entire food business requires the implementation of the first five (of seven) principles of HACCP [14]. In the UK, this European Directive is expressed in the Food Safety Regulations [20]. In [11], its action is considered for the dairy industry, whereas [30] and [39] provide a detailed description of its main applications. In [36] HACCP is considered in connection with the quantitative assessment of risk in the control of Listeria monocytogenes. In dairy production, this technique can be used to: a) prevent accidental contamination; and b) completely eliminate or reduce the risk of infection. Effective animal husbandry management and best practices for obtaining and processing milk help reduce the overall risk of accidental contamination of raw milk, which poses a threat to human health. The standards for the production, storage and transportation of whole milk, laid down in the National Dairy Farm Assurance Scheme should be strictly observed. The organizations responsible for the collection and storage of milk should be protected from the possibility of contamination or contamination of milk during transport, and should also adhere to the best practices of management and maintenance of dairy transport and containers from a sanitary point of view. Ideal for storing whole milk is a temperature not exceeding 4 ° C at the storage location, but in spite of this in the UK, milk temperature during production may exceed this value, but only according to the requirements established by different provisions [2]. Cooling milk immediately after milking process avoids the mesophilic growth of pathogens and microorganisms. Psychotropic microorganisms at low temperatures may retain the ability to reproduce, but the shelf life of whole milk before processing must be limited in order to avoid loss of quality caused by proteolysis and lipolysis caused by biochemically active microorganisms (for example, Pseudomonas spp.). Dairies whole milk prior to processing is stored in the insulated containers. Basically, the milk at the outlet of the container passes through a coarse filter, which serves to purify the milk of extraneous impurities, representing a potential hazard.

In the production of most dairy products, the key link in controlling the activity of pathogenic microorganisms, either completely destroyed, or their activity is significantly reduced, is pasteurization. Such pathogens as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coxiella bumetti, plant toxicogenic organisms - Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp., Pathogens of E. coli spp. Completely destroyed by pasteurization at 71,7 ° C for 15 s. Nevertheless, spore-forming bacteria, such as Clostridium and Bacillus spp., Can remain viable. Since the production process for most refrigerated dairy products does not provide for further heat treatment, careful caution is required to avoid post-pasteurization contamination of the product with harmful microorganisms when working with most products.

Dairy production must be maintained at a high level of hygiene and hygiene requirements, and production maintenance must be carried out in such a way as to avoid the possibility of contamination of the product from plant particles, contact with equipment and due to production conditions. Sanitary measures are practiced mainly for the implementation of existing sanitary norms and especially to prevent the possible transfer of microflora from the treatment area of ​​whole milk to the post-pasteurization zone. Since some dairy products are used as food components that will later be heat treated during their final preparation, the standards and methods used to prepare the ingredients may be very different from those used to make chilled dairy products. Indeed, in the production of products such as milk powder, it is extremely important to avoid post-pasteurization contamination of the product [34-36].


Traditional dairy ingredients used in the preparation of chilled products and traditional dairy products will not undergo major changes in the future. It is more likely that development will go along the way of increasing the number of non-traditional consumer products (dairy desserts, prescription chilled products - soups, desserts, sauces and ready meals), which will allow fuller use of the functionality of dairy components. New processing and preparation technologies will lead to the emergence of new types of dairy products developed for specific applications and based on a practical understanding of the role of dairy products in the food system. Understanding of competitive advantages will lead to the fact that the share of firms working in the sector of chilled dairy products and dairy components for them will grow.

The search for ways for economic growth, a kind of "Holy Grail" for all Western firms, will stimulate a "technological partnership" in the development of food technologies. It will open up new opportunities, and, consequently, new options for the development of the industry. By combining the needs and desires of consumers with the technical capabilities of the producers, the dairy components will be brought into exact correspondence to a particular food system, which will allow creating products with special properties that allow competitors to leave far behind. This is also observed at present - the producers of ingredients already choose raw materials from non-traditional producers and unconventional ways of processing for non-traditional dishes and products. Dry whey is obtained in various processes - for example, in the manufacture of chewed emmental cheese, cheddar or in the production of acid casein whey. With it, you can get various functional characteristics for making various desserts by mixing it with stabilizers and thickeners. Demineralization of whey by various methods or by varying the balance of minerals in the process of a clearly controlled demineralization process yields the "desired functionality". Skim milk from different countries allows to obtain different characteristics, which makes it possible, for example, to obtain an oil with widely varying taste and melting points, depending on the breed of cows and the country of origin.

For a certain development of innovations in the field of chilled dairy products and dairy components, which will be used in cold dishes, the requirements for the initial products and processing technologies should be toughened. Genetic engineering, for example, can provide such new opportunities that are difficult to imagine. For the consumption society, the theory of surplus-value was of primary importance, but free competition in the market constantly blurs the price that producers and sellers are able to "add" to their products. Consequently, new opportunities for obtaining surplus value of food products are always in the center of attention, and genetic engineering can become a "key to a treasure box" in the field of new food technologies. In work [28] it is noted that the increase in profit is quite possible by using biotechnologies. This idea resonates with the views of Shelton [48], who predicts that the products that we will be eating in the future will be based on raw materials and ingredients developed to suit our individual taste, lifestyle and medical indications. Genetic engineering tells manufacturers of chilled products many possible ways of development. For example, implanting genes from mammals in the genome of a cow that are not normally used in the dairy industry can give milk with unusual functional characteristics that can be used in the dairy industry as an entirely new component. Bacteria used for the production of fermented dairy products can acquire new properties through genetic engineering, and as a result, a new product will appear, such as self-stabilizing yogurt (yoghurt, which does not require stabilizers and thickeners, since they are produced in During the production of the yogurt itself) or bacterially vitaminized milk and cheeses or products that contain a vaccine obtained by bacterial fermentation. In addition, there may be opportunities to say goodbye to cows for good. What seemed like a science fiction yesterday, tomorrow may be a scientific fact. And what do you say about the genetically modified E. Coli for the production of individual milk components, which can subsequently be mixed in the required proportions to produce a certain product or food additive? But if such a fantasy turns into a fact, can we call such a product milky?


Last Update Saturday, November 26 2016 15: 56
Vladimir Zanizdra

Founder site. More than 25-years of experience in the confectionery industry. More than 20-five years of management experience. Experience in the organization and design of the production from scratch. Site: El. mail This e-mail address is protected from spam bots. You need JavaScript enabled to view.
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