1 unit. The model of the innovation process
2 unit. Profile of innovative organizations
2 unit. Profile of innovative organizations
3 unit. Project Management for the transfer of technology and new developments
4 unit. Leadership in the development of new literature
1 unit. model of the innovation process
After studying this unit, you can:
- To understand the essence of the innovation process and give its definition, enumerate its basic components, learn how it differs from other traditional activities of the organization development, and to identify the main types of innovation.
- Describe the basic characteristics of a well-organized system of innovation management and its role.
- Select and describe the four phases of the innovation process.
- Understand and explain the principle of the situational model of the innovation process.
- Introduction: Innovation and Management
- presentation of technological innovations and their components
- some tips on innovation management
- a checklist of factors to evaluate alternative methods for the development and introduction of new products or processes
ВMAINTENANCE: INNOVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Innovation - a creative process. It can be defined as the process of development of innovations, starting with the invention of a new idea or discovery of a new method of application, followed by the introduction of this innovation in the usual practice. For example, if we consider the computer as an invention, the use of it to meet the information needs of the organization has been innovation.
Innovation is typical of many areas, such as the development of new products or new production process, distribution of products, management and so on. D., And more specifically, for every sphere of human activity. Some experts rightly see it as an activity aimed at persuading people to recognize an invention.
No less interesting perspective on innovation management is based on the opposition of its process of maintaining the system in working condition, which is a current problem, while innovations are directed to the future, they create a guarantee of continuous improvement of profitability and efficiency improvements or socially oriented business results.
If the result of the maintenance of any activity is quite predictable, the results of innovation are not always obvious, because innovation - is a creative, unstructured and rather risky process leading to the emergence of an entirely new quality.
According to the definition, innovations run counter to existing ideas about the essence of the process. But they, that is remarkable, are characterized by some extremely stable forms of its organization. While technologists focus on the content of a specific innovation process, the technologist-manager deals with the form of his organization and his nature. This approach to innovation management allows technologists to develop the necessary new view and understanding of how to enter the field of technological and innovative management. Innovation can be considered as a periodic change in three factors: technology, the environment (the market) and the organization itself. The innovation process can be initiated by changing any of them.
Management plays a decisive role in initiating any innovation process. Its main task is to create conditions conducive to the generation of new ideas, their implementation and improvement. At the same time, management must ensure a balance between the promotion of new developments and the implementation of traditional for the organization of activities. To achieve such an equilibrium, a clear vision of the organization's strategy is of great importance. Consistently and correctly solving these problems, management contributes to the existence of the creative style of the organization. Management of innovation is much more than managing a single innovative project.
Successful innovation management system inherent, at least the following characteristics:
- open structure, inspiring creative process. Openness implies conformity to the personal qualities and style of those people (entrepreneurs), which should support the creative organization;
- the division of responsibilities. If we combine the responsibility for maintaining the current organization processes and the introduction of new, the urgency of the problems associated with the first, immediately shall overcome those whose solution is directed to the future;
- the presence of an interdisciplinary rather than a functional structure. This requires simultaneous improvement in all relevant areas of expertise, so that each problem that arises in the innovation process, consider and decide how it is possible in a broader context;
- support of senior management. It must believe in the importance of innovation in the formation of the future of the organization to take the risks involved and participate in the management of the innovation process;
- availability monitoring tools built into the system of total quality management;
- "Coercion" to progress. Creative organizations are forced to raise and support progress database. The ability to make timely decisions - a strong incentive for innovators group and an important factor in assessing the effectiveness of its work;
- availability of successful innovation management system, which should attract entrepreneurs professionals capable of carrying market risks and committed the successful implementation of innovations. This system should include incentives that might be interested in these very rare but very valuable innovators;
- a strong leader who will motivate, inspire and push professional innovators;
- focus exclusively on the consumer. The innovation process should begin with a study of their needs, and then to come up with new ideas or to create technological innovations that allow them to solve real problems.
There are no standard ways to succeed in innovation. Fortunately, for the manager there is always an opportunity to learn a lot about innovations in order to subsequently make the best decision. This applies primarily to the main strategic decisions, such as, for example, allocating resources for and implementing innovative developments. In some cases, past positive experience can serve as a guide in decision making, but it should not be copied in the development of future actions. History teaches us that pioneers in the field of new technologies do not always appreciate the value of the next technological breakthrough for the future. A good example is Anthony Fokker, who at the beginning of the 30-ies. He occupied the leading position with his aircraft on the world market, but neglected the importance of using metal structures, as a result of which his company lost a dominant position in just a few years.
Despite the fact that innovation can apply to any area of the organization, in this module, we will focus mainly on technological innovations, as managers it is important to understand their features and take them into account when making decisions. Consequently, the idea of innovation models and innovative processes - useful decision-making tools.
ПREDSTAVLENIYA about technological innovations and their COMPONENTS
One of the first questions to be asked when making decisions about innovations, it sounds a bit strange: "We need them or not", however, the following example shows that the answer is not always obvious, but it entails far-reaching consequences.
An example of a machine for laminating
The entrepreneur, engaged in the manufacture of book covers, decided to buy new equipment for lamination. The production manager was instructed to develop the relevant proposals. When evaluating different machines, he considered the possibilities of some improvements in the process. A machine was chosen that allows laminating the cover with rounded corners, although so far the company has produced only rectangular covers. From the point of view of the production manager, this machine will only slightly improve the existing process. After the company director gave the green light, new equipment was ordered. At this stage, the production manager developed a plan for its installation in the production room, which required some movement of the operating equipment.
Meanwhile, the enterprise has spread a rumor that ordered new machines. In general, the monthly meeting of laminating Foreman reported that employees have many questions to which he can not answer: Will this solution of industrial workers? will remain unchanged whether the duties? Does this affect the wage system? When changes occur, whether something will change or repair on site? Do not move the company in the end to the use of another adhesive, to no longer reject 20% of production? etc.
Master reassured: in the process, it will receive all the necessary information, but first you need to solve some technical problems, which will require some time. Finally, the new line, launched in late in the year (compared to the plan), has earned quite stable. But during this time, the company has lost some customers because of the failure terms of manufacturing of covers and their poor quality. Also, there were some unforeseen shutdowns.
After one of these stops working group was formed, in which the goal was to develop new methods of work, job descriptions, and the final plan training. It was necessary to improve the organization of work in order to adapt to new machines. When the work necessary explanations were given, and they participated in the process, their distrust and resistance quickly waned. The immediate result of this approach was the development of training programs.
It was necessary to carry out the following most important changes:
- Brigade maintenance and operators - training on the new machines, computer-controlled;
- purchasing department - extension of responsibility to assess the capabilities of suppliers to meet the increased requirements for binding cardboard;
- sales - promoting products with tighter specifications, achieved thanks to a new process;
- Training Department - specialized training of new staff.
Upon completion of this project, its evaluation and made the following important findings was carried out:
- at the start of this project seemed normal replacement of equipment, rather than innovation. The scale of change and adaptation to the organization were underestimated;
- while the innovative nature of the project has not been recognized, the responsibility for its implementation was the production manager, who treated it as a purely technical problem;
- too optimistic approach to the introduction of new technologies has led to unrealistic planning of the project and acceptance now impracticable obligations to external customers;
- We underestimated the fact that the operators were not familiar with the new machines, but because they involved in decision-making at very late stage;
- staff resistance arose mainly from the lack of information and not in connection with the changes as such;
- creative and practical involvement of the production workers have eliminated most of the problems;
- technological innovation affects not only the production department. Other units, such as the purchasing department, sales department, personnel department, and so on. E., Also must adapt to the new conditions. Decisions should be judged by their impact on all other units up to senior management level.
- Discuss this example in your group and answer the questions:
- What new roles for staff you found it?
What were the main problems of the introduction of this innovation?
Technological innovations - this is more than a solution to technical problems
a kind of general model of the innovation process has been developed based on the study of many innovations implementation projects. This is an important tool to help make decisions about innovation. In accordance with the model of the overall process of implementation of innovation consists of three interdependent processes occurring at the same time: address the problem, the spread of innovation within the organization and organizational change .
Solution. Here are the main activities related to the solution of the problem:
- determine the direction of innovation (in production, as well as in the process of development);
- the definition of its objectives (in the previous example - a machine for laminating, allowing to make the cover with rounded corners);
- development of methods of achieving the objectives (the automation of feeding blanks into the machine);
- definition of the scope of innovation and its implementation in practice (insertion of a new machine for lamination into an existing process).
Each action is executed as a cyclic process of passing four phases:
- creative phase (identification and description of the innovation problem). A possible approach - to study the problem from a new angle;
- selection phase (selection of exactly the problem that allows active development and can have a long-term solution). This should be followed to develop the preliminary model and criteria for the expected results. A possible approach - to decide which ideas need elaboration. Specific activities may include the definition of criteria for the selection of the ideas, setting priorities, gathering information on possible solutions, evaluate alternatives and choice of options for further study;
- Design phase (selected solutions strategy developed innovative problem as long as possible a realistic application of innovations will be found). A possible approach - to formulate the proposed options in the form of concrete actions that allow the practical implementation of innovation and the development of solutions including search approach to their implementation, the method of work, preparation for testing, definition of rules on the execution of operations and the drafting of the technical characteristics of the final product;
- implementation phase (proposal put into practice plans are implemented, and acquired a new experience for Monitoring and Evaluation -.. is the initial steps to start the next cycle). A possible approach - to verify the solutions. Specific actions may include the implementation of plans, preparation of reports on their performance, the introduction of a new method of operation, training of users, providing resources.
Dissemination of innovations within the organization Is the process of getting acquainted with the organization's units . The Rogers model, shown in Fig. 16.1, shows that this process is a necessary part of introducing innovations. The spread of innovation is of paramount importance. The main aspects of this process are information, interaction, motivation and enthusiasm of the staff involved. At the initial phase of the innovation process, the number of its participants is small, but as it develops, it gradually grows. This confirms the special importance attached to communications within the organization, since it depends on them whether innovation will be accepted or not.
Organizational changes the introduction of innovations, such as: the creation of an innovative group, we need to become possible solution to the problems and dissemination of innovations. In addition, it is possible that some of the selected solution can not be implemented without adapting to the organization.
Quantitative and qualitative changes in the organization affect its personnel, resources, processes and structure.
This model is characterized by three internal process related to their interdependence and interaction determine the course of the introduction of innovations (Fig. 16.1). In addition to the characteristics of the organization, there are other random factors such as the nature of innovations (degree of innovation, the kind of innovation, and so on. D. Environmental characteristics that may affect the course of the innovation process .
Fig. 16.1. Situational model of the innovation process
In accordance with the general conditions of the situational model of successful innovation management are as follows:
- Different processes (solution, dissemination of innovations in the organization, organizational changes) must be combined with each other to take into account random factors. For example, the provision of information about the goals of innovation motivates people to actively support its implementation. Innovation should match the style of the organization, and if it is not, then the organization should be amended.
- It is necessary to assign specific individuals to play a key role, such as a "generator of ideas", "Champion", "Sponsor", "guard", "project manager", and so on. D. . During  identifies the following roles:
Integrator. Since different innovation management processes proceed simultaneously, it is important to balance them. The task of the integrator - to optimize all activities and processes to improve efficiency.
Scout. The role of the scout - search for information in a well-defined, but not well-known in the area. This role is the opposite of the role of "guardian", which collects information unstructured way.
Ambassador explains the policies associated with innovative objectives and activities staff, which is expected to attract. It conveys information about the attitude of the people that are affected by innovation, those who solve the problem. "Ambassador" makes proposals on adaptation of the methods of communication and problem-solving.
Reorganizer draws attention to the necessary changes in the early stages. This role involves the initiation, implementation and consolidation of the changes in the organization due to innovative processes (personnel, resources, processes and structure).
Freedom of the innovation should be determined by the style of the organization.
Innovation is seen as a process of learning throughout the organization. However, not always a good start leads to a good conclusion. Therefore, it is important to bear in mind the following points:
- back up time, money and human resources in the case of failure. Determine the "fee for science", which the organization is willing to pay;
- plan changes in the methods of work: who is involved, how it will affect the current responsibilities of what work instructions, etc .;.
- provide access to information about the planned changes. Awareness - the precondition of staff involvement;
- coordinate the adoption of innovative solutions to senior management level. Analysis of decisions authorizing the action, the need for spending in excess of approved limits and purposes of correction - the inevitable companions of innovation.
Different types of technological innovation
In addition to general recommendations for each type of innovation management innovation makes its own specific requirements. In many cases, the direct reason for the initiation of the innovation process is the need to replace equipment and technologies. This is often unavoidable, as noted, and organizational changes (training, reallocation of tasks, responsibilities and authorities, communication levels). The following are the most important characteristic points identified in the study of innovation processes.
- Do not focus exclusively on technological issues. The project team should be composed not only of the technical experts.
- When evaluating possible solutions to use methods that are suitable for investment in innovation. Classic profitability calculations often fail due to the fact that it is not defined the nature of innovation.
- Technical specifications should be regularly adjusted. While the problems are resolved, changing market expectations, which in turn affects the production capacity i.
- Teams participating in the project should continue for some time after the innovation has been introduced, since it is at this stage identified the technical and organizational problems, which is not in doubt, it is much easier to deal with members of the team.
Studies show that in most cases the cause of innovation is the need to replace the previously manufactured products or the need for adaptation to the new markets of consumers. The most important findings to guide the process of development and introduction of new products are as follows:
- Purpose and product specifications should be specific and exhaustive. They must meet the needs of user groups, rather than one client.
- Development and introduction of new products - an ongoing process. You need to have enough time and resources to continually learn, for example, are often unable to revive the stalled process of innovation, making changes to the project or adjusting marketing objectives. Regular analysis of the planning delays or "failures" often indicates the existence of an alternative route.
- It is worthwhile to implement separate parts of the project in parallel. A long waiting period weakens the incentives for an innovative process. For example, the manufacturer of cosmetic products decided to use a disinfectant lotion as an additive to personal hygiene products. The official permission to release new products was only applied after marketing and follow-up. The whole procedure lasted almost a year. By this time, marketing agents that were involved in the early stages of the introduction of a new product, lost faith in the possibilities of its implementation, that Chu did not lead the project to collapse, when the product was finally launched into mass production.
A few tips for Innovation Management
"The image of innovation determines the way"
The idea of innovation can be summarized in three main claims:
- Innovations arise more often than you think.
- Technological innovation - is more than a technical improvement process. It consists of three independent processes: problem solving, organizational changes and the spread of innovation within the organization.
- There are several innovative processes that require special management.
The following are practical tips based on these statements:
- Find out whether you have implemented technical improvements in the process is actually the process of innovation.
- Set specific goals innovation.
- Develop a complete product specifications, taking into account the recommendations of your organization's departments involved in the process.
- Develop innovative process as a learning process.
- Use the methods of decision-making, which are suitable for the innovation process.
- Keep a balance between the three processes and combine them.
- Assign to the key role of specific individuals.
- Combine all the action at the level of the general management of the company.
- Spend enough time communications.
- Keep an innovative team until after the introduction of innovations.
Based on these practical tips any manager can use such methods of decision-making and governance, which are suitable for the organization, and thus establish a system of operational innovation management.
CHECKLIST FOR EVALUATION FACTORSALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW PRODUCTS OR PROCESSES.
Distinguishing features (With a strong positive correlation). This factor determines the extent of the benefits of using an alternative method for internal or external user. Evaluation of competing alternatives implies taking into account parameters such as price, performance and reliability useful.
The suitability of the alternative method in terms of performance (with a strong positive correlation). Cash resources - financial, technical and marketing know-how, development opportunities, as well as the qualification of the administrative personnel compared with the resources that are required for the successful implementation of this alternative method.
The scope and potential the need to use (a positive correlation). What are the real needs of users in this alternative method? The scale and the possible expansion of the scope of application should also be taken into account.
Benefits for users (Positive correlation). This factor characterizes the degree of achievement of its objectives by the consumer. It may take into account the decline in prices, increase in market share and the need for law enforcement (the external environment).
Novelty Company (With a weak negative correlation). If alternative methods of production, distribution channels and so on. D. Are less advantageous compared to existing, as well as if this is true of the products offered, the chances of success are reduced.
The competitiveness of the market (with a weak negative correlation). This factor is important for the introduction of new products. With increased competition (the number of competitors, their aggressiveness) the chances of success are reduced.
Specialization (With a weak positive correlation). If an alternative method is based on the ideas of consumers and is the standard solution for a relatively large number of them, the chances of success increase.
Issues for discussion
1. What is innovation and how it differs from conventional technical development?
What is the role of individual participants in the innovation process?
What are the key elements of the innovation process?
Can we consider communication as a process independent of the innovation?
The innovation process is sometimes referred to as the learning process. Arguments in support of this view, based on the model above.
2 unit. PROFILE OF THE INNOVATION
After studying this unit, you can:
- Identify and characterize the profile of an innovative organization.
- Rate the importance of integrating cultural and creative sides of the structural organization and their contributions to the management process.
- To understand the essence of the evaluation of innovative activities and use the results when making decisions.
- Assign different management objectives and management styles with corresponding stages of innovation processes.
1. historical background
2. approach in terms of organization culture
3. approach in terms of organization structure
4. characteristics of innovative companies.
5. assessment for decision-making
6. three stages of the innovation process and three management tasks
As an explanation for why one firm more creative than the other, experts tend to give two answers. The first relates to an innovative climate. The second can be found by studying the organizational measures that are specifically designed for new ideas and manage their implementation. Such arrangements are called innovative mechanisms. The real innovation is likely to be found where achieved the right balance between innovative climate and innovative mechanisms.
In 1961 of Burns and Stalker  published a study on the British electronic firms in which they described the culture and structure of some of both successful and unsuccessful companies that existed after the Second World War. Successful companies they called organically (we now call them innovation), unsuccessful - mechanistic. The authors believe that organically are those in which the description contained 12 characteristics - from the "individual backsidetions dictated by the logic of the real situation "to" horizontal rather than vertical communication. " A description of the mechanistic organizations contains 10 characteristics - from the "specialized differentiation of functional tasks" to "hierarchical structure". A similar study was conducted over several years by other experts with the same results. In one of the most famous works perfect (model) company endowed 8 harakteristikami2 (Table. 16.1).
Table 16.1, Eight characteristics of committed companies
||Focusing on actions
||Autonomy and entrepreneurship
||Productivity - from man
||Communicate with life, value management
||Loyalty to his cause
||The simplicity of form, modest management staff
||Freedom and rigidity at the same time
|A source. .
APPROACH FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE CULTURE
Many authors and practitioners emphasize the importance of creating a culture of corporate culture that favors innovation. This climate is a set of values, attitudes and beliefs that affect everyday decisions and actions. Peters and Waterman  noted in the companies they surveyed, a strong team spirit, some special powerful culture in which the new employees were deeply "immersed". Among their characteristics, researchers noted the focus on action, the need for experimentation, short lines of communication and predictability of leaders.
This arrangement is simple, clear and relatively small managerial staff. If necessary, it is subdivided into unit more flexible. The sense of family, and at the same time guarantees freedom of action, and the stiffness control. The feeling of freedom is manifested, for example, tolerance to errors and that the new risky ideas are not rejected "on the threshold". In organizations of this kind it is received and appreciated by uncompromising behavior.
A good example of creating an innovative climate is the French travel company Club Med. It focuses on the personal qualities of staff, including sociability, diversity of talents, education. The managers of recreation places are replaced here once every six months, and other tasks are often set before the other employees (of course, not without prior training). In the last week of rest, the clients of the company are handed short questionnaires with a request to make critical remarks and suggestions. The answers are not used for statistical analysis, but are immediately sent to the staff of the recreation areas.
The above authors are not alone in assessing the importance of the innovation climate for successful firms. Most authors, some of whom are well-known, such as Mintzberg and Mosskanter, innovative company called, which attaches great importance to the organizational culture.
APPROACH FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE
The climate of the organization is not the only characteristic from the point of view of innovation management. The organizational structure of the company can also be fully or partially focused on innovation. The classic approach to building the organizational structure of the process of developing and implementing innovations is to break it down at a stage, each of which is carried out in a certain functional department of the company. A simple example of this approach is shown in Fig. 16.2. In this sense, the structure of the innovation firm is based on the active work of the R & D department, which performs the function of "pushing" innovations due to "technology development" and the marketing department that performs the function of "pulling" new consumer requests "from the market."
Fig. 16.2. An example of the distribution process of development and introduction of innovation by departments
Nevertheless, innovation - this is not only the result of the excellent work of individual functional departments; It requires coordinated work of all departments. In this sense, the innovative firm characterized by the creation of links between the functional units engaged in research and development and marketing, which produce a synergistic effect. Typically, such integration is carried out through the creation of multidisciplinary teams. For example, the company Philips organized the so-called multi-disciplinary product groups.
At the same time, for the success of innovation in addition to the work of departments and teams is extremely important role of committed individuals. Much has been written about the role of the so-called champion in the creation of new products. "Champion" - the driving force of any innovation. This person develops a violent activity, pushing a new idea, which is why he manages to light the others and attract the required resources. In his study on the great breakthroughs in the field of innovation, Ketteringham and Ranganath Nayak  found that the success of each of them was due to the activity of one or more "champions". Creative organization, as a rule, can create "champions" and nurture their enthusiasm.
A more systematic study in the organization of work on the introduction of innovations was conducted by the American consulting firm Arthur D. Little . In this study, the term "mechanisms creating opportunities" was used, which meant the creation of organizational structures to promote the development and management of new ideas. In Table. 16.2 presents the results of comparing the most important elements of these mechanisms on an international scale and the frequency of their use. This table clearly shows those elements of innovative mechanisms that are preferred by the most creative companies.
16.2 Table. The use of innovative mechanisms (in%)
||North America n = 417
||Europe p = 446
||Japan I = 88
|Dedicated person or organizational units
Work enthusiasts of working hours New Venture Unit
Creating a new kind of business
|Acquisitions and divisions
The initial investment (less than 10%)
Opportunity to purchase (10-100%)
Selection of independent companies 100% -e selection into an independent company
Corporate Group venture capital limited partnership with a research organization
Partnership with the customer
The company, backed by the government
The group attracted advisers
The Ad Hoc Committee at board level
Appointed Head of Innovation
|A source. .
CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIVE COMPANIES.
ASSESSMENT FOR DECISION
Innovative mechanisms and climate are structural and cultural aspects of the innovative creativity of the company and form the "matrix", with which you can create its characteristic (see. Fig. 16.3). For natural innovators importantly - climate in the company, and systematic innovators rely on the use of innovative mechanisms. Said previously Club Med - an example of a natural innovator.
FACTORS OF INNOVATIVE CLIMATE AND MODIFICATION
The studies listed above, can be used as a basis for a fairly accurate set of factors that encourage innovation activities. Table. 16.3 11 are the most important ones. The left column lists the characteristics of the factors that have a negative impact on innovation, and in the right column, on the contrary, - positive.
16.3 Table. Some aspects of the innovation climate
intolerant attitude <
the guilty are punished "
negative attitude <
Plans are analyzed <-
planned funds <
closed organization <
on the results of the internal <
Non-standard thinking person
The interaction with the outside world Decisions Orientation Strategy
| > distant
> Planned actions
> Creating opportunities
> Open organization
(O-fact; • - ideal)
Fig. 16.4. The points of application of force to modify the innovation climate
there is too much, then the situation gets out of control. Some degree of tolerance for failure - a positive phenomenon, but only up to a certain level.
Thus, the "measure" innovation climate in the organization can not. To judge it, we use the method of comparison "ideal - a fact." When this method is first determined by the actual situation, and then - the ideal or desired. The value of "gap" between them is just a measure of innovation climate. In areas where it is significant, necessary modifications. This approach is illustrated in Fig. 16.4.
Evaluation of innovative mechanisms and their use
The use of innovative mechanisms can be determined accurately. Most companies use only a limited number of them and choose the ones that fit their culture and traditions, regardless of whether this mechanism is suitable for this purpose. It makes more sense to consider the whole set of mechanisms and choose only those that meet the goal. So if there was some idea to evaluate it and choose the appropriate innovative mechanisms must be guided by the following:
- determine how this idea close existing business practices of the company and its capabilities;
- compare the resources required (in terms of presence in the company of talented people and resources) with the existing;
- define how long it takes from the moment of detection of the feasibility of the idea until the new items on the market.
Assessment of the extent to which the idea of the current activity of the company is the most important for decision-making. You can use the well-known matrix "Market / Technology" (Fig. 16.5). If innovation
Fig. 16.5. Communications market / technology and innovative mechanisms
ny project is close to the technology that exists in the company, and the market is ready to accept the new product, the target group and venture capital created within the company, are a good mechanism. For innovation with a moderate degree of risk can be considered co-operation with other organizations, t. E. The middle of the matrix. For the new and therefore risky projects seem appropriate financial mechanisms such as risk (venture) capital and (to a lesser extent) participation in investments.
Another criterion for choosing suitable mechanisms is the type and quantity of available financial resources in comparison with the required ones, as well as human resources, taking into account the accumulated experience, the availability of trained personnel. Although many companies have limited capital, the most significant obstacle to innovation is the lack of management resources, as managers are overwhelmed by current affairs and short-term problems and the time that they can devote to starting a new venture is extremely limited. Therefore, companies in such situations are often forced to look for new talents outward, reconciling with all the ensuing uncertainties.
Time from the moment of revealing the possibility of implementing a new idea to its successful development is called a "window of opportunity". The choice of the mechanism for its implementation will obviously be determined by the time available to the leadership. If it is sufficient, it makes sense to develop the required knowledge and technical capabilities within the company itself. If time is limited, then a joint venture or acquisition may be more suitable. Innovative organizations understand the importance of using a wide range of suitable mechanisms for implementing new ideas to accelerate the process of innovation; They are also well aware of which mechanism is appropriate for a particular type of innovation.
THREE STAGES OF INNOVATION AND THREE OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT
The innovation process is helpful to split into three stages:
- conceptual, which revealed a new idea; This stage of "inventiveness" and free creativity;
- stage of development, where ideas are transformed into projects;
- implementation stage in which the projects are embodied in new business.
At each stage, the tasks of managers are different (Figure 16.6). At the conceptual stage, this is creating a climate that is conducive to innovation. At the development stage, managers are required to create a mechanism that will ensure the normal development of the project. At the implementation stage, we need a more traditional approach to management: planning, execution, control. All three management tasks need to be integrated into a single innovation process. Innovation management is actually the management of paradoxical situations, which once again underscores the need to involve top management in the innovation process. Only senior management is able to strike a balance between a good climate for the emergence of ideas and structuresture necessary for their implementation in products perceived by the market, while avoiding the mixing of the innovation process with the current progress of the production.
Fig. 16.6. management tasks at different stages of the innovation process
Issues for discussion
- What is meant by an innovative organization? What is its main feature?
- How do companies organize their innovation activities? How can the line managers to influence the innovation process? Suggest the best scenario.
- Why distinguish between innovative culture and innovative mechanisms?
- What is the main criterion for evaluating the innovation?
- Discuss the relationship between the stages of the innovation process and task management.
3 unit. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS
After studying this unit, you can:
- Learn what factors determine the process of project development and the concept of project management, as well as to understand the basic differences between project management and the management of usual linear course of current production operations.
- Learn the basic steps of the project development process and the main problems to be solved in these stages, as well as familiarize with management styles at each stage.
- Find out who the users of the project and how to attract them to participate in shaping the requirements for it, and the determination of his stages.
- Rate the importance of the design organization for the timely development and implementation of projects.
- why you need to project management?
- What is project management?
- project management application
- basic project management development
Usually project management is used for timely achievement of goals when managing new developments or transferring technologies. This block discusses some issues and problem areas for project management of new developments. Particular attention is paid to the provision of products and services, the development in a short time of new types of products and services of high quality, as well as the role of project users and how project managers involve them in their work. In addition to defining the stages of the project, various methods of project management, such as project quality assurance, planning and scheduling, financial management, organizational structure, documentation control and communication, will be briefly discussed in this block.
WHAT TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Among the many reasons that push us to the increasingly widespread use of various forms of project work organization in the new developments of control, two are particularly important:
- global acceleration of the introduction of innovation and the associated development of competition;
- reduction of time for new development and reducing the risk of failure.
- This section is divided into three aspects:
- development of new technologies;
- deployment of existing technologies;
- Development of strategy of development of new technologies.
It is not always wise to excel in mastering innovations, but if a decision is made, the time from development to implementation will have to be reduced in comparison with what was originally intended for two reasons. Firstly, because of lower costs, and secondly, what is more important, because of the opportunity to enter the market earlier than the competitor, and consequently, to generate income, while consumers are willing to pay higher prices for new products endowed with new functions. In addition, the product or service must, of course, meet the needs of the consumer. Here again, speed and quality are strategically important.
To achieve these objectives the main importance is the training of primary processes at each stage of project development and implementation. "Good start - half the battle," as the Dutch. Sections 3.3 and 3.4 devoted to this issue. The key concept here - to prevent the failure of the project.
The choice between linear and project management
Managers of organizations, particularly manufacturing, as a rule, are of the opinion that the best projects to implement well-established through a linear structure, usually resorting to the assistance of consultants. However, project management - a profession that requires knowledge not possessed by line managers. The main differences between conventional linear and project management are as follows:
a mismatch between short-term (production) and long term (project) objectives;
Project management includes the ability to operate in conditions of uncertainty and risk;
speed and quality of decision-making in the management of projects above;
project management necessitates a different approach at different stages of rapid changes in work organization and leadership for the entire duration of the project;
from line managers and project managers are different incentives and goals for a career.
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT?
Project - is an organized program of research and action aimed at achieving a certain goal, often nonrecurring nature, with a specific completion date. The project can be introduction of new technologies, R & D, the development of social programs and so on.. Some important aspects of project management are discussed below.
The importance of the project of user requests
Getting to the development of technological innovation, it is essential to divide its potential users into categories (see. Below) and find out their opinions. Professional project manager has to prepare terms of reference for the project taking into account the needs of different users. Often, their objectives are not the same, so the first phase of the project - it talks.
The following categories of users can be identified:
End users - The people who use the end products (or services) - the results of the project; they form the results of the project market.
Users within the business system are those who throughout the life cycle of a new product (or service) ensure that it is available and provided to the end user in the proper form. They work in the production, in the supplying departments, logistics of production, storage of stocks, packaging of finished products, its sale, distribution through the channels of the trading network, after-sales service. These users, as a rule, form their own requirements, which must be taken into account during the implementation of the project.
Intermediate users - People who are employed in various fields of business and involved in the development of the project. They have expertise in research and development, technology, advertising, and market analysis, production, and its material and technical supply, in training sales and service, in the preparation of guidelines (for use of the product, service, installation) and so on. D.
Members of the external environment - this is the last and very important group of consumers, consisting of people who are "not visible" or not engaged in the development of the project, but are interested in its implementation and in the final product. They can represent the government, regulate such aspects as security, environmental protection, export, taxation issues, working conditions, licensing, etc., as well as public groups that influence the issues of protection and working conditions, etc., Persons representing the interests of competing internal power structures and, finally, external competitors.
Stages of project implementation and risk control
The process of implementation of the project is schematically shown in Fig. 16.7. Breaking the process into steps is important, as it allows you to monitor the progress of the project at predetermined points of its implementation and promptly inform management of progress. Here are the most important steps:
Orientation. At this stage identified the problem and preliminary studies. The purpose of phase - a decision on the development plan.
- The decision to implement the project. With user defined requirements for the project and developed his plan. This stage ends with decisions such as "yes / no".
- Development. Within the framework of the existing plan produced by creative solutions. Depending on the complexity of the plan may be two or more solutions. This stage ends with a decision on the implementation of the selected technology.
- Introduction. Works related to new product (or service), become part of the operational management in all areas. Outcome stage -rotovnost for commercial development, then can begin actual production.
- Using the new product and service. This phase sometimes lasts for years.
in steps above is controlled by a standard set of methods as shown in Fig. 16.7.
Quality assurance in the project implementation progress. There are two main areas related to quality control of the project. The first - the quality of the project plan, which is set by checking whether it was properly taken into account the views of users. If the plan is carefully designed, the second area - quality assurance of compliance with the plan. All actions and decisions are evaluated for compliance with the plan and concluded it needs.
Drawing up a work schedule. Typically, this is done on two levels. First, a general plan for the whole project is drawn up in order to establish the main points of the transition from one stage to the next and the decision point. This is an analysis of the process. At the same time, a detailed action plan is developed for the next stage, designed to control the process and control its progress. The methods of planning used are determined by the nature of the activities and their duration. A detailed schedule is drawn up for each stage, the maximum planning period should not exceed three months. The best way to monitor the progress of the project is to ask the participants: "How much time and effort will be required to complete the work?" Instead of: "What has been done so far?" So you will find out what, apparently, you should expect.
Financing of the project. Financial management is based on three levels of uncertainty:
preliminary assessment of the potential costs and benefits is at the stage of orientation;
at the conclusion of the decision-making on the implementation of the project carried out the final assessment, which is part of the information required for decision-making such as "yes / no". The error can be about ± 30%. Money at this stage should be allocated, but not yet used (except budgeted to carry out this step);
the allocation of funds based on the target budget for the implementation of specific measures, the purchase of materials, consulting and so on. d. In the majority of budget data control systems and the schedule of works connected to check the progress of the project and estimate the effort required to complete.
The organizational structure of the project. It is important to create a good framework for the organization of the project. Type of organization and leadership changes from stage to stage.
At the stages of orientation and decision-making requires people who can see the future, conceptually-minded, having the commercial and businesshowling experience and sometimes the quality policy. Leadership is focused on the achievement of the task at this stage is not necessary. The organization of work is based on collaboration and communication equal to each other people. Problems and future requirements for the project should be in the spotlight.
At the stage of developing or searching for solutions that take into account the formulated requirements, leadership is needed that is oriented towards the solution of the problem. Subprojects are singled out within the framework of the overall project; The work to be done is relatively clear, the main thing is to establish responsibility. To carry out the work at this stage, the matrix structure is most often created, while the project manager requires firmness to force line managers to allocate the necessary resources. For the implementation of the project, the authority of its leader is of great importance, which means that it is extremely important that the project is supported at the highest level by the management of the organization, where conflicts and decisions can be resolved.
During the implementation phase requires the participation of other teams. Convey not only the technology, but also knowledge, new methods of management, organization, jobs and so on. D. This step requires leadership, based on the solution.
All work on the project at the stage of use of the new product and its services are held back by the linear structure with its clearly defined divisions, responsibility and hierarchy.
Information and Communication Control. This activity has three components: standardization (identification documents), the dissemination of information between users, including those who are responsible for decision-making and control over making changes in the documentation.
Standardization (Identification documents) increases the amount of communication between the parties - participants of the project, forcing people to communicate within an agreed framework and thus increases the impact and effectiveness. The standards should adopt and adhere to the formulation of tasks, introduction of changes and preparation of information for monitoring the progress of work.
When disseminating information useful to consider "what to whom and when it is necessary." Said means maintaining a list of selected recipients.
Change control documentation involves reaching an agreement at the outset of the process of change management. Here. There are three levels:
- changes in the characteristics of the final product / service and the actions that occur at the intersection of subprojects. This is a complex issue that must be addressed at the highest level of project management;
- changes within the sub. The decision to be taken on these sub-project management level, provided that they do not have any impact on the overall performance, graphs and installed costs;
- changes in the lower level. They should always be recorded, but not stand on the project management level. However, they can affect the maintenance of new products and the maintenance manual.
APPLICATIONS PROJECT MANAGEMENT
There are several applications of project management related to technology development: research and development of new technologies, implementation of existing technology, development of strategy of development and introduction of new technologies.
Research and development of new technologies. In many countries, as noted, there is a desire to shorten the development of innovative projects and improve their reliability. The best way to achieve this - the use of scientific methods for the development of new products and market development and management of applications, involving the simultaneous fulfillment of the following:
the use of experts at the start-up of the project;
joint development, ie attraction to the project suppliers from the beginning of its implementation..;
project management by experienced and trained staff;
transfer of the necessary authority project managers.
Implementation of existing technology. Most organizations underestimate their capabilities and readiness to accept change. The effort and cost required to achieve the desired change, often exceed the very technology costs. Moreover, the implementation of the project requires special skills in areas such as organizational development and management, changes in the culture of the organization and training. Do not trust the introduction of the project to people who are concerned about the development of technology.
The development strategy for the development of new technologies. It is recommended to apply project management and strategic level. After agreeing on long-term goals would be a logical extension of the definition of a phased process to achieve them. Gradually, organizations recognize that this is the best course of action.
MAJOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT
The main development project management - introduction of projects by experts, the quality of the project development process, a joint development.
Implementation of the projects specialists forces. The appropriate help can be found in today's market consulting, for example through located in Europe, the International Project Management Association. The value of such assistance illustrates the following fact: Professional approach for the introduction of projects covering different aspects of the business and the involvement of all users can reduce the development time by approximately 30-60%.
The quality of the project development process. International standards series ISO-9000 (especially ISO standard-9002) is a first step to systematize quality assurance process proektov3. This document allows the organization to conduct an audit of the project in terms of the ability to manage the project development process and improve the process mandatory. Respect for users, both external and internal, is an important characteristic of the audit.
Joint development. The next important area for the development of project management is joint development, which acquires exceptional importance in the field of creating advanced technologies. The idea is that instead of concluding contracts with suppliers (both products and knowledge) upon completion of the initial stages of the project, they are attracted to joint work at its earliest stages, that is, in the course of deciding on its implementation and at the development stage Plans. Their knowledge helps to accelerate the development of the project. Sometimes strategic alliances are concluded with a view to long-term cooperation.
ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION
- What are the main stages of the project development and why you need to break it into stages? What are the goals and describe the content of the different phases of the project.
- What are the most important methods used in the management of projects, their objectives and the main content.
- What type of models used in the implementation of project management in organizations?
- Which categories of users should be involved in the start-up stage of the project?
- Discuss some of the important areas of application of project management.
A link to the author's ISO-9002 standard unfounded. It has nothing to do with project management. ISO has released a special standard "Project Management" (.Project Management). - Note. scientific. Ed. LL Konareva.
block 4. LEADERSHIP IN NEW DEVELOPMENT
After studying this unit, you can:
- To understand and appreciate the nature of leadership in the process of new development and its difference from the control of production processes.
- Formulate principles and understand the human resource management features in innovative organizations.
- Understand the differences between managerial responsibilities and functions of experts in the field of technology, between knowledge and skills and those of others, as well as to evaluate their mutual complementarity.
- Explain how to create innovative organization and manage it.
- Assess the need for the development of leadership skills in the leadership of new developments and to receive advice on their purchase.
- the nature of leadership
- leadership in terms of technology development
- Leadership development
- towards innovative organization
THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP
When analyzing an innovative organization, it turns out that in general, its managers demonstrate an open and captivating leadership style. In addition to monitoring and disposition (management in its narrow sense), a manager guiding the development of new technologies should pay special attention to motivating and stimulating his employees. In other words, there is a great need for a leader in this business . In this process, an extremely important role is played by direct contacts between the manager and the staff. But the structure of the organization is also of great importance, especially the distribution of tasks and responsibilities for their solution, remuneration and career prospects, the culture of organization. This means that human resources should occupy a central place in the mind of the manager.
In the innovative organization of human resources management is an integral part of management, including senior management. The same can be said about the management of the development of technology. It is innovative in the organization of human resources and the development of technologies make up an increasing part of the activities of management and organizational culture. The factor
Organizational Structure - Culture
Fig. 16.8. management functions in relation to innovation
Gia innovative companies attach great importance to the integration of human resource development and technology management functions. Fig. 16.8 shown is the direction of development. Among other things, this integration influences the problems of resourcing (this applies to career planning, job rotation, setting individual objectives, the creation of cooperation networks, and so on. D.). Let us now discuss the following example.
TECHNOLOGY AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE COMPANY PORSCHE
Several years ago, the former CEO of Rogsche plant described how he, a newcomer on this automobile plant, he asked his employees to which the most important race they attended and whether they have a chance to win. The answers were: "24-hour race in Le Mans" and "No". The staff explained that they participated in the race, only to check the reliability of their machines. The reaction of the manager was clear: as long as I remain general manager, Vehicle Make "Porsche" is necessary to participate in the race only to win. is he I asked my team to come the next day with a winning formula. The result - "Porsche" has won first place!
This story had a continuation. Technical characteristics of cars to participate in future races have been changed so that the company Rogsche was forced to partially change the design of its vehicles. However, this did not prevent the company to win new victory, the manager explained as follows: "We were forced to change the car, but the team remains the same."
Pay attention to the connection between the new goals, new technology, and human resource management.
There are several ways to control the activities of innovative companies. following  observed more often than others:
individual self-control on the basis of opportunities and obligations;
formal control, presented in the form of rules, agreements, manuals, etc.. etc .;
collective self by the members of the team (cooperation, team spirit, etc...);
The mechanism of control, implementation of which is emphasized, depends on the type of organization. For example, the bureaucratic organization will characterized by a high degree of formal control; professional (eg research laboratory) - a high degree of individual self-control. To control mechanisms is important and harmony with the situation and compliance with it. The right combination of control mechanisms - part of the leadership. But what is the difference between conventional management and leadership?
Average guidance and leadership
It is assumed that with the help of structures, procedures and management systems, managers can control any situation. Leaders differ from ordinary leaders in that they attach special importance to the sociopolitical processes of cooperation, concentrate more on the culture of the organization, on stimulating the employees' sense of devotion through consultation with them and their involvement in the management processes. Leaders are also characterized by a clear strategic orientation: they focus on achieving the main goals of management and creating opportunities and conditions through which workers realize that their work makes a significant and valuable contribution to the company's work. In Fig. 16.9 shows these relationships.
Fig. 16.9. Matrix comparing conventional management and leadership
Managers innovative organizations must carry out all the activities listed in each of the four quadrants of the matrix, even if the overall management is focused on process control and production strategy. In practice, this means the following.
Preparation of documentation, reporting and accounting within the framework of the innovative project must meet the strategic requirements of the policy of his company, its plans, and the total budget (for example the harmonization of and 1-3-th quadrant).
In order to develop the participation of staff, development of policies undertaken by senior management, should not be done in isolation from the employees at the lower levels of the organization (for example the harmonization of and 2-4-th quadrant).
Specific objectives should flow from the constant "live" the general policy-making process (for example the harmonization of and 3-4-th quadrant).
Achieving compliance and observance of this - an important feature leading executives, which is essential for an innovative company. Now let us discuss an example. REORGANIZATION OF THE COMPANY THOMASSEN
The company Thomassen & Drijver - Verblifa (Netherlands) is a good example of reorganization and complete reorientation aimed at improving staff motivation at all levels of the organization.
Branch office in Leeuwarden had a relatively independent status of the business unit. It was determined the reorganization was carried out here. Introduction of the product of the organizational structure resulted in workers involved in the development of their new job descriptions. Probably because of this largely managed to solve many common problems of the production department, such as poor motivation, poor quality of work and a high percentage of absenteeism due to illness.
However, changes in this department TD \ / - is not only a question of developing a new organizational structure and setting goals. Maybe even much more important
And the process itself. A very significant factor was the position of management. On the one hand, the management clearly demonstrated what it wants (the creation of a profitable company) and how to achieve it (among other conditions through the food organization, without unnecessary compulsions, carefully improving working conditions). On the other hand, it actively involved employees in the overall process of change, taking risks of delays and other adverse manifestations in the process of reorganization. Its results were not just another structure, but also a complete change in organizational culture. Increased not only the interest of staff, but also his loyalty and loyalty.
Источник. Hendriks Н. Space for new content in О.AM Orton, H. Means and R. Vinke (eds.). Human resource management (Deventer, Netherlands, Kluwer, 1990).
In discussing this example, consider the following questions:
What innovative roles described in this example?
Were all defined from the very beginning of the project?
Can one person play several roles?
If you combine the role, which of them, in your view, are compatible, and what - no?
How can I determine the innovative nature of the investment project?
LEADERSHIP IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
Professionalization of management
In the past, the highest position in the management of technology development, as a rule, was occupied by a technologist. This situation has changed significantly. In recent years, we have witnessed an increase in the number of people who, without a good technological background, have managerial skills and experience. As a result, there is often a neglect of technology and the transfer of related solutions to staff at lower hierarchical levels. Turning management into a profession led to the fact that management has ceased to deal with technology issues at the shop floor.
Professional managers often do not "feel" of technology and are reluctant to deal with the actual process of production and product development. They have no specific knowledge and above all due to the fact that the production takes place directly on. Therefore, it is natural that they have difficulties in communicating with specialists.
However, it is obvious that the technology development function has become so complex that it needs to be managed. So, if you want to install new equipment (for example, robots), then the whole organization should be adapted to this (for example, another assignment of tasks is required). Technology is increasingly becoming the object of strategic decision-making by senior management. Its complexity requires strategic control. At the highest level, management makes general assessments and considers in details all the pros and cons. Is the solution justified in terms of technology? Is the market ready to adopt such a technology? Are there sufficient funds? Do we have any experts?
High complexity requires a special organization and management methods and within specific areas. Thus emerged and continue to develop project management, quality management, maintenance management. As technology development management has become a profession, on the management of the highest level it takes a lot of differentiation of management functions in different areas, but it, in turn, must be accompanied by integration.
Technology in the enterprise
Technology in a variety of applications (at production, placing the production equipment, the use of technical knowledge and experience) - one of the most important resources companies. You must learn to identify their own position in relation to competitors in regard to the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies: areas in which the company is in the lead rather than lag behind, what are the possible consequences of such a situation.
In this regard, management is constantly confronted with the following questions:
- What technologies are used in product development and its production?
- The development of any technology to stimulate that invest in them?
- What are the scope and direction of our efforts in R & D?
- What happens if you invest in the development of this technology, or refrain from doing so?
What knowledge to buy on the side? that develop themselves? the areas in which research should be to cooperate?
- What policies implemented in the field of training, professional development, and so on. D.?
- What could be the timing of decision-making and implementation of all the above?
For information on all of these issues are experts in the field of technology, and it is just as important for decision-making, as well as information about the market, competitors, financing, staffing and resource organization. In addition, it is important that managers assessed the risks have been able and willing to justify and accept them, like all managers-entrepreneurs.
Complementarity of managers and specialists in the field of technology
Experts claim to independence, they create a subculture with its own language, customs, manners, and, when possible, with their own privileges, skills and standards. In a sense, their subculture can be characterized as follows:
- culture "hobby business." Often, technicians are immersed in the development of products, presenting them creative interest: if the essence of the work is fascinating, and the results are encouraging, it means that everything is fine. The arguments put forward by the functional services (coming from management or customers), are often regarded simply as something disturbing case;
- "Perfect" culture. Most of the experts are extremely sensitive to all imperfect. This property, which can be costly. Clients do not always ask for it the perfect product, they often prefer a lower price and shorter delivery times;
- "Demonstrative" culture. Staff are happy to show their products to anyone who shows interest. Not always accidentally leaked company secrets in this way;
- culture of "my child." Technical experts consider its scope and the results as their own. They like to hide their trade secrets and act at the same time as, say, the cook. Thus, companies often fall into the excessive dependence of the inventor or developer. Culture "my child" is shown, in particular, when the results have to be transferred to another department or client. This leads to a strong resistance from the specialists, problems often arise.
In the case of complex technology management position is in addition to the position of experts. First putting up with a relatively high degree of autonomy and the latter play an important role "pushers". Another important
task - to ensure effective communication and the distribution of tasks between managers and technicians, and it will require intensive interaction.
Management function of technology and organization of work
Managers of both higher and middle level are faced with the task of organizing the functioning of the technological service. Production and service processes need to be designed, maintained and updated. It is necessary to find such an organizational structure in which the functions are assigned the proper place, the tasks are distributed among the relevant units, groups or people who are responsible for their implementation and who are delegated powers. Management is faced with the problem of how to integrate the technology development function into the existing structure so that this function serves as one of the "pillars" of the organization.
For the management, there is no obvious, clear-cut solutions to this problem that would guarantee success in this area. It is here that there are contradictions and "friction". Here are some of them:
the overall culture of the organization or a "subculture" of specialists;
short or long term orientation;
development of advanced technologies or support existing ones;
the acquisition of knowledge, equipment, products, or on the side of the development of its own;
providing technicians independence or limit their functions rigid framework;
involvement in developing strategic solutions to technical experts, or the right to decide line managers;
stability or flexibility;
behavior in accordance with the "look inside" (carry out work in accordance with the plan) or "outside eyes" (adjust the plan when a change in the market situation);
openness to scientific and technical progress of the organization or closed.
So far, the prescription of what to do with technological dilemmas there. And it is not always possible to learn about it from books or training programs. The resolution of these dilemmas requires a special attitude on the part of managers. They must:
to recognize that the nature and relationship of events (eg, technical and social impact) is much more complex than we would like to think those skilled in the field of technology;
better than ordinary skill in the field of technology, be aware of the uncertainty in the current reality;
aware of the repetitive nature of the problems, while technology experts tend to think that the problem can be solved once and for all;
know the laws of communicating with people, to inspire them to produce results, and so on. d.
LEADERSHIP SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Innovation management requires a constant focus on updating the leadership style of leadership. Whenever new technologies are developed, sought the application of new products or new combinations are being tested "product - the market", the organization must adapt to them. An important part of this adaptation must be compensation and leadership development functions. For innovation and leadership development is responsible management of the company.
For the development of innovative leadership should examine the most important functions and tasks used in the management of innovation. Here are some of them:
formulation of a clear, well-understood strategy, prospects, which are communicated to all members of the organization. Everyone should take their work as a contribution to the implementation of an overall perspective and identify with it;
monitoring and control of production and service processes, as well as general company management system;
stimulation and motivation of employees. Based on the fact that employees are dedicated, management can create favorable material and social conditions so that they can contribute to achieving the company's goals;
management needs to have a clear picture of the present and future situation and the organizational changes that will be needed to adapt the processes of business and innovations for future requirements;
in innovative organizations management task - to be aware of technological developments outside the company, about the markets, on the governmental regulatory prescriptions to distribute the information collected and use it in further developments;
Manual - the main representative of the company - should be able to create an external image of the company and support the idea of her appointment;
the creation of a good example. The behavior of managers should be clear what they think and how seriously monitor compliance with the instructions received;
making decisions. In most cases, this aspect of leadership involves facilitating the processes of collective or individual decision and confirm the findings.
These functions and tasks make up what we call leadership content.
.. With respect to lead organizational aspects, ie, the distribution of different tasks at different positions in the official organizations, it means at least the following:
differentiation of tasks hierarchical levels, which, by the way, in an innovative organization should not be much. Tasks, areas of competence and responsibility should be coordinated so that there was no dublirovaof a lack of authority. In the innovative organization it does not matter who implements a certain function, but it is important that it is carried out at all;
• differentiation by functional area. In addition to the overall management of functional areas such as marketing, production, R & D, human resources, and so on. E., Are also in need of coordination and management. These areas require more technical leaders and special skills.
In terms of leadership development in addition to improving the professionalism and knowledge of the various functions are important personal qualities rukovoditeley- leaders.
Leadership development also includes training on the basis of practical experience, not just training. The situation faced by managers are often so unique that their conceptual knowledge can not be applied to resolve it without appropriate adaptation.
Managers need practical experience and knowledge of how to use it. To learn how to use this experience, they should have a partner for discussion, the teacher, "bullies", which is debatable.
Thus, knowledge and experience must be "two sides of the same coin" in the person of the leader. Driving Leadership training process is shown in Fig. 16.10.
Fig. 16.10. The process of learning leadership skills
TOWARDS INNOVATIVE COMPANIES
An important feature of the innovative organization - the coherence and robastnost4.
Resistance to possible undesirable consequences, flexibility, the ability to adapt. - Note. scientific. Ed. LL Konareva.
Integrity with respect to product development and to the organization
Developers of new products are making increasing efforts to maximize the customer's requests for technical characteristics, cost, duration of operation, etc. All this is related to quality. You can also use the term "integrity"  when parts of the product are compatible and form a single whole. For example, it is useless to install an automotive engine designed for long-term use in a housing that is prone to rapid aging. You can give a lot of examples of products in which the parts are not fitted or their device does not correspond to the functions performed. In such cases, the requirements for internal integrity are not met.
Just as the concepts of internal integrity and compliance with established requirements are related to product development, they are applicable to the organization itself. All parts of the organization must be adapted to the external environment. In addition, its device must match the nature of the product. In the R & D department, this product is new technologies. The more fundamental the research is, the course and result of which is unpredictable, the less rigid should be their organization, in which following the standard methods is not the main thing. The integrity of project development and the organization itself can not be viewed in isolation. The project, characterized by internal and external integrity, requires adequate coordination and participation of representatives of various functional departments, each with its own field of competence, with specific requirements. Coordination with suppliers is also needed. If we start cooperating with them at the stage of the technical assignment, it will be much easier to reach agreement at the implementation stage.
Organizational integrity means that coordination and adjustment are ongoing. The most important preliminary requirement is that there should be a clear strategic orientation. Common goals and interests should be clear, and everyone should share them, so that everyone understands his task and is committed to its fulfillment. Integrity does not mean that the company's structure and culture should be homogeneous. On the contrary, production departments require other forms of management, social relations, organizational structure and incentive schemes than the R & D department.
The robustness of the project and organization
There is a wide range of differences related to the extent to which the basic design of such products as automobiles, aircraft, electronics, and so on. E., Amenable to adjustment, change and alterations. Sometimes, as a result of changes in market requirements, taking place for several years, some products need to fully adapt, and sometimes even the basic design does not need to change for a long time. In the latter case we call robust design (or design - robust). Robust design is characterized in that it contains a flexible,
Or technological freedom, which makes it possible to create on its basis a whole family of products or their variants [19, p. 9]. Examples of robust designs are the Beetle ("bug") - a car from Volkswagen and Boeing 747 from Boeing. Such designs are so flexible and elastic that based on the basic model can develop into a whole family of options and remain useful for many years. The first air cushion ships can be identified as an example of products with a rigid structure, completely devoid of flexibility and, therefore, not robust. In terms of technology, robustness means the possibility of introducing technical innovations at the level of subsystems or individual components without the need for a complete rework of the system. It also allows you to adapt this product to other markets after relatively minor modifications in the design.
By analogy with the robustness of the design, we can speak about the robustness of the organization, which indicates its internal flexibility, which allows to have a different structure and culture in different divisions, provides the opportunity for changes and adaptability. Often temporary project structures are created, target discussion groups, employees work in several groups, at the same time relationships are formed that "cross" existing lines of subordination. A company that is able to create such organizational forms of adaptation to specific situations, while avoiding the general confusion or the need for a general reorganization, can be called robust. In this sense, robustness is the opposite of rigidity. It is possible to formulate the main goals and principles, but always the organizations should retain the possibility of making significant changes within the established principles and goals.
The question is how to achieve robustness and integrity of the product development and organization. The following section provides some guidance in this respect.
Recommendations for achieving robustness and integrity
Management is commitment and leadership. First, top managers need a commitment to the company's strategy being built on the development of product development and production processes. As much as possible, both processes must develop simultaneously. The classical model provides for a sequential process, that is, first the products are designed and then the technology for their production is developed. However, the need to achieve integrity requires their parallel development. It can be implemented in different ways: through consultations, joint participation in the work of project teams, systematic exchange of information, organization of work of personnel of various services in the same room to stimulate informal contacts and, most importantly, by designating the person responsible for the project as a whole. Analyzing the Experience of the Japanese and American automotive industry, Womack and co-authors  emphasize that the person responsible for the project should be given the status of not the coordinator, but the leader. In this case, the project manager is not only responsible for how the work is going on, but also has the appropriate authority. He has the right to defend his views, seek funding, invite people from various parts of the organization to work on the project for a long time. If necessary, from the very beginning, the process should include suppliers (joint development).
Orientation to a broad market. Do not limit the new development to a single field of application. From the very beginning it is necessary to focus on several combinations of "product - market". To have a clear understanding of the demand and needs of consumers, a company should not interact with just one market (one particular type of consumer or a single buyer). From the very beginning, the process of developing a new product must be oriented to its different applications. This can be called a parallel development, but only in terms of synchronizing the development of a new product with its possible application in different sectors of the market. An example is the automotive industry (in particular, the Japanese): on the basis of the basic design it is easy to design a family, sports car, pick-up truck, etc.
Adequate structuring of projects. Innovative projects should be properly divided into subprojects. An important principle of such structuring is that sub-projects develop relatively autonomous subsystems of the entire product. The technical characteristics of the subsystems are regulated in order to ensure the coordinated operation of the entire product, and this imposes restrictions on the work on the components. Of course, constant adjustments are needed, but as a result, the overall design consists of relatively autonomous modules. What is applicable to the project as a whole, it is applicable to its parts, that is, the leader who has relatively broad powers and responsibility should lead the subproject.
Autonomy and clear delineation of tasks. Work on any innovative project, in particular in the field of fundamental research and development, requires a certain degree of autonomy in accordance with its nature and the people involved in it. This is also true for other organizations working in the professional fields, for example, in health care; In this sense, the presence in them of R & D units and individual researchers is not something unique. Nevertheless, autonomy is often confused with absolute freedom, an unstructured approach and isolation. It seems that within a large project, a greater degree of autonomy should be accompanied by a clear division of tasks. Jelinek and Schoonhoven  have shown that an organic structure with its inherent autonomy, characterized by blurred links between hierarchy levels with associated accountability and assignment of responsibilities, can be effective for organizing new developments.
STABILITY AND CHANGES IN HIGH-TECH ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
Studies Jelinek and Schoonhoven  five electronic companies operating in the field of high technology, have shown that there are well-defined relationship to reality within companies. People are well aware of whom they are subordinate who obeys them, to whom, and what they need to be accountable. There are formal structures that play a very important role, but they do not stay in the same state. Constantly adapts and reorganizationszation and stability periods alternate with periods of change.
If the situation is stable, and changes formally and clearly defined in the organization there is a dynamic tension (as it is called Jelinek and Schoonhoven). Clear organization is needed to really monitor the situation, make it more predictable and employees can adapt to changes both inside and outside the company.
ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION
What is leadership and ordinary guide? What are their main similarities and differences? How do they relate to the management of an innovative organization?
How is the quality of human resource management affects the efficiency of an innovative organization? What distinguishes an innovative company?
Why do we need management professionalization and specialization of technological functions? What is the difference between professional managers and technical (functional) specialists? Do they complement each other?
What is leadership development? What are the main and best way of leadership development in an innovative organization?
What is the robustness and integrity? Apply these concepts to innovative organizations.
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