Sugars In terms of chemical composition, sugars are classified as carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with the general formula: CnH2nOn. Carbohydrates are classified into two main groups: polysaccharides (polyoses) and monosaccharides (monoses). Monoses are simple sugars containing one carbonyl and several hydroxyl groups.
Sugar, both beet and cane, is divided by the size of the crystals into five sizes (Table 13). In the USSR, according to GOST 21-40, granulated sugar is divided into the highest and first grade. In terms of organoleptic characteristics, granulated sugar of both varieties is homogeneous crystals with distinct faces, has a sweet taste, without any foreign smell or taste as in dry [...]
Natural honey Distinguish between natural and artificial honey. Natural honey is a product of processing flower nectar in the bee's body. Nectar of various plants gives honey of different colors. Light honey includes linden, acacia, maple and others. To the dark - buckwheat, cornflower, etc. Each type of honey has its own taste and aroma. There are honey: a) by the method of obtaining [...]
Fruits and berries are widely used in the confectionery industry due to their delicate flavor, delicate, pleasant aroma and high nutritional value.
Berries include fruits with a juicy pulp, usually growing on shrubs or perennials. There are three subgroups of berries: false berries consist of an overgrown receptacle surrounded from the outer surface by seeds: strawberries, strawberries and others; complex berries are a collection of individual small fruits that have grown together: raspberries, blackberries, raspberries and others; real berries, which in the fruit [...]
Wheat flour is obtained by grinding wheat with pre-cleaning and separation of shells.
Dextrins, molasses, glucose and other products widely used in the confectionery industry are produced from starch. Starch is a carbohydrate, its chemical formula (C6H10O5) n The starch content in various raw materials is given in table. 49. Starch is obtained from potatoes, corn and much less from wheat and rice. Starch is most easily extracted from potatoes and much more difficult from other raw materials, [...]
Characteristics of cocoa beans Commodity cocoa beans are fermented, freed from fruit pulp and dried seeds of the cocoa tree (Theobroma Sasao L.). Cocoa beans are the main raw material for the manufacture of chocolate products and cocoa powder. Cocoa tree is cultivated in countries with a warm (Wednesday, annual temperature plus 22 - 26 °) and humid climate. Cocoa cultivation areas are located in the strip [...]
Nuts Nuts are fruits consisting of a woody shell - shell and a kernel enclosed in it. Nuts (walnut) are divided into: real walnut - hazelnuts, hazelnuts; drupenokolodny - almonds, walnuts, beech nuts, pine nuts, pistachios, American nuts, coconuts, etc. In addition, they are used as peanuts and apricot kernels. Sesame is processed in the confectionery industry, [...]
In the confectionery industry, natural vegetable fats, artificially cured (hydrogenated) vegetable fats and emulsions like butter are mainly used.