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Nutritional Supplements - Natural Dyes

color4Natural (natural) dyes

Natural (natural) dyes (Table 2) are dyes isolated by physical means from plant and animal sources. Sometimes they are subjected to chemical modification to improve their technological and consumer properties. A number of dyes are obtained not only by their isolation from natural raw materials, but also synthetically. For example, p-carotene isolated from carrots, in its chemical structure, corresponds to p-carotene obtained by microbiological or chemical means [46,172,173]. At the same time, natural p-carotene is significantly more expensive and therefore is rarely used in the food industry as a dye [75].

Raw materials for natural food colors can be berries, flowers, leaves, root crops, etc., including in the form of waste from processing plant raw materials in canning and wineries. The content of colorants in plant raw materials depends on the climatic conditions of growth and collection time, but in any case it is relatively small (usually a few percent or a fraction of a percent). The number of other chemical compounds - sugary, pectin, proteinaceous substances, organic acids, mineral salts, etc. - can exceed the content of coloring several times. These substances do not pose a health hazard, and are often even beneficial to humans, but their presence reduces the intensity of coloration of the finished product. In the production of preparations of natural dyes from the side-matter in some degree get rid of. Modern technologies make it possible to obtain preparations of natural food colorings with specified properties and a standard content of the main colorant.

According to the chemical nature, the dyeing substances of plant origin most often refer to flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavones, flavonols) and carotenoids. Anthocyanins (E163) color the petals of flowers of various plants, their fruits and berries in a variety of colors - pink, red, blue, purple. These compounds are found in black currant, grape skin, cherry, strawberry, etc. In the same plant, there is often a whole series of anthocyanins. So, in the flowers and tubers of potatoes they found about a dozen. Flavones and flavonols are widely distributed yellow colorants. They are found in parsley, wheat, rice, chrysanthemum flowers. Yellow and orange coloring plants are most often attached to carotenoids (E160 and E161) [64]. This is a very large group of plant pigments. The most important of these is p-carotene (E160a), which, in addition, is a source of vitamin A and an antioxidant in the human body. It is contained in carrots, from the Latin name of which (sakla) got its name all this group of pigments. The yellow color of the corn seeds is due to three carotenoids: carotene, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin. The red color of the fruits of tomatoes and dogrose is determined by lycopene (E160c1). A natural yellow dye is also curcumin (E100), belonging to the group of halkon and oxyketone dyes. Riboflavin dyes are naturally represented by vitamin B2 in the form of riboflavin or sodium salt of riboflavin-5'-phosphoric acid (Е101). The color of the beet is due to the presence of betanaline dye betanin, which is known as beet red (Е162). Another red dye from the quinone group, carmine (Е120), is obtained from insects cochineal.

Green plant color dye causes the group of porphyrins chlorophyll (E140), formed in the process of photosynthesis. In acidic environments magnesium ion in the chlorophyll molecule is easily replaced with hydrogen, thereby forming feudal phytin, brown substance. Therefore, to make the food more likely to use green more resistant chemically modified chlorophyll, in which magnesium is substituted for copper (copper complexes of chlorophyll crystals (E141)).

The natural decided to attribute sugar or caramel color (E150). He not only paints confectionerygcuyzik70n Product, but, as a rule, gives it a pleasant caramel flavor. Depending on the catalysts used, there are four types of sugar color: E150, E150, E150, E150X1. For the coloring of confectionery in colors ranging from light yellow to dark brown, all types of caramel coloring are used, except E150. The most popular is E150, among the confectioners it is better known as "zhzhenka". It was traditionally prepared directly at enterprises. Despite the simplicity of the name, the chemical processes taking place during caramelization are very complex, and only at the beginning of the last century the caramel dye began to be produced in industry, and industrial caramel or sugar coder came to Russia about 10 years ago. In industrial conditions, caramel encoders are produced using catalysts that accelerate reactions in sugar syrup. As catalysts, acids, alkalis and food grade salts [90,91] are used.

To make the products of black or gray color in the confectionery industry coal plant can be used (E152) and coal (E153). As well as apply some mineral pigments and metals as food colorants. For example, iron oxide (E172) gives a black, red and yellow, and titanium dioxide (E171) and calcium carbonate (E 170) - White. With the exception of calcium carbonate (E17011) is insoluble pigments are resistant to light, temperature, acids and alkalis. Acidic calcium carbonate is highly soluble in water and exists in the form of aqueous solutions.

To decorate the surface of decorative confectionery ingredients sets, cakes, chocolate powders used gold (E175) and silver (E174).

Depending on the type and form of marketable natural dyes sensitive to different acids, including fruit, alkali, air oxygen, temperature and exposed to microbiological spoilage. The advantages of natural dyes is their effect on the taste and aroma of the product (E160s, E150), biological activity (E101, E160a). Also important is the attractiveness of the inscription on the label - because consumers typically prefer products with natural ingredients products with synthetic additives.

Preparations natural food colors can be produced in powder form (crystalline), pastes or liquids, grease, water-dispersible (insoluble) form or in the form of varnish. The content of the basic dye is normalized and tenths of a percent, percent, or even tens of percent. This allows you to always choose the drug that is convenient for dosing and contribute to the product [11,13, 44,60,61].

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