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Nutritional Supplements - Flavors, Essential Oils, and Extracts

postolit_shutterstock.com_583326101300981669Flavors, essential oils and extracts

Flavours - additive is introduced into the food product to enhance its aroma and taste. Natural essential oils and extracts (oleoresins) introduced into the foods for the same purpose.

Fresh or dry shredded spices, juices, jams, wines, brandies and other similar products used in the confectionery industry, do not belong to those flavors and are not considered food additives, since they can be used as food or food ingredients typical.

Flavoring (essence)

Each food product is inherent in individual, characteristic only for it taste and aroma. Hundreds of harmonizing compounds formed during the growth of plants (essential oils), in the production of food products under the influence of microorganisms or under the action of enzymes (sauerkraut, cheese, sour-milk products), cooking (roasting, smoking, Baking) [96, 146]. More than 5000 different aromatic and flavoring substances have been isolated from food products: hydrocarbons, heterocyclic and carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, ethers, etc. Over 200 flavoring substances were found in the bread, in tea - over 300, in coffee - about 500 , In wines - about 400, in apples - about 200, in citrus - over 300, etc. Despite such a variety of aromatic components, their total content in the product can be only a thousandths of its mass. Usually, some of these compounds are physiologically insensible concomitant substances. One or more compounds determine the main flavor, and the rest - its nuances. It is known that citral, raspberry-p-hydroxyphenyl-3-butanone, apple-ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, vanilla-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), bitter almond-benzaldehyde, banana- Isoamyl acetate, etc. The word "aroma" in this case is further understood as the general perception of taste and smell, denoted in English by the term "flavor."

Food flavoring, the terms "essence" or "dry spirits" earlier in the Russian language to them have been adopted - is usually up to 5 30, and sometimes more than 100 agreed among themselves the individual components. These components may be either natural or nature-identical and artificial flavorings.

Natural flavors are extracted by physical methods (pressing, extraction, distillation) from raw materials of plant or animal origin. For various reasons, the production of food using only natural flavors is impossible: first, because of the high cost of raw materials, secondly, because of the limited natural resources, thirdly, because of the weakness or lack of stability of existing natural Aromas. Solve these problems with "natural" aromatic substances.

Identical to natural means "the same as the natural." The composition of the main aromatic components and their chemical structure identical to natural flavors completely correspond to the natural ones. At the same time, part of the components or even the whole flavor is obtained by artificial means. Chemical synthesis produces, for example, vanillin and hydroxyphenyl-3-butanone (the main aroma-forming component for the raspberry flavor). Optimization and targeted action on enzymatic processes and the development of certain microorganisms, for example, produce flavors of cheese, butter. For most identical to natural flavors are characterized by high stability, intensity and relative cheapness. Thus, vanillin, which is a product identical to natural, fully corresponds to vanilla, contained in vanilla pods. In this case, the flavoring of the product requires 40 times less vanillin than expensive vanilla. In addition, the need for vanilla flavor is so great that in nature there is simply no necessary quantity of this plant.

Artificial flavoring agents comprise at least one artificial material, which does not exist in nature. It is produced by chemical synthesis. Artificial flavors are characterized by high stability, intensity and cheapness. For example, artificial flavors in a long time widely used in the confectionery industry arovanilon (ethyl vanillin).

Flavors are available in the form of liquids or powders, sometimes pastes. Historically, liquid flavors, produced in Russia by the OST 18-103-84, were called edible aromatic essences. Under this name, they appear in unified recipes for confectionery. At the same time, the term "essence" in the conventional sense means only the extraction of volatile aromatic substances from plant materials, for example, from the rind of citrus fruits, petals of flowers. At present, Russian food flavors are produced according to the current GOST R 52177-2003 "Food flavors. General technical conditions "and technical specifications and are called flavors, as is customary throughout the world.

The most popular in confectionery products is the aroma of vanilla. Vanilla flavor can give the confectionery product vanillin, ethyl vanillin or vanilla flavorings. The first two are individual chemical compounds. Vanillin is referred to identical natural flavors, because it is completely identical to vanillin, found in vanilla rosaries. Ethyl vanillin (arovalylon, vinyl, bourbonal) is considered an artificial flavor, although this substance is found in trace amounts in fruits of Haitian vanilla. Ethyl vanillin gives the product a slightly sharper flavor and flavor than vanillin; The dosage of ethyl-vanillin to achieve the same intensity of flavor is required in 2-4 times less than vanillin.

Both flavors have long been used in the Russian confectionery industry. There are many unified recipes with vanilla and vanilla essence. It should be noted that this vanilla essence is a solution of vanillin in ethyl alcohol. Do not confuse this vanilla essence with vanilla flavors. The latter, as a rule, contain a whole complex of specially selected aromatic substances and differ in the flavor and flavor profile from each other and from the essence prepared from the vanilla extract.

The composition of the fragrance is constant. It is determined by a specialist in smells (flavorist, flavourist). Just as there are, for example, dozens of varieties of cherries, dozens of different "cherry" flavors have been created. In different versions of the fragrance, the flavourist emphasizes one or another tone and selects a different combination of them: in one version a sweet note dominates, in the other version - a stone one, in the third there is light bitterness, etc. In addition, there are fragrances with the scent of freshly cut fruits and Berries; Recently in the market there were fragrances that imitate the aroma and taste of fresh fruits and berries. Indeed, the taste and aroma of fruit hanging on a branch, freshly preserved and stored for several hours differ among themselves. As soon as the fruit is ripped off, it begins to "die," and its chemical composition, including the composition of aromatic and flavoring substances, immediately begins to change.

The share of flavoring components in the flavoring accounts for only 10-20%. The remaining 80-90% - solvents, or carriers. They determine whether the flavoring liquid or powdered.

Quality, durability liquid flavor and the scope of its use to a large extent determined by the solvent, which is always included in its composition. Flavors often dissolved in edible alcohol (ethanol), propylene glycol (E1520), triacetin (E1518) or other special solvents that give them certain properties.

Powdered aromas are most often mikrokapsulirovani- it, which is carried out mainly by co-spray drying the liquid flavor and a carrier solution. Carriers for flavorings are generally hydrocolloids: gelatin, modified starch, dextrin, and sugar or salt.

 Natural Essential Oils and Extracts

Essential oils have been known since ancient times. Egyptians for 6000 BC were able to get out of the turpentine plant and some essential oils. In Japan more 2000 years not only prepared peppermint oil, but isolated from it and menthol. Essential oils are used for the sweet incense, like cosmetics and medicines, with the embalming.

Unlike fatty oils, essential oils are multicomponent mixtures of volatile organic compounds (aromatic, aliphatic and alicyclic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, and the like. D.), Produced by specific cells in the different plants and determine their smell. Often predominates in the mixture, one or more

Substances that improve the color, flavor and taste of the main components. For example, peppermint oil over 100 components, main of which are menthol, menthone, menthyl and cineole; anise oil on 80-90% consists of anethole and lemongrass contains 75-80% citral.

Ethereal flora has more than 2000 plant species, of which in our country grows around 1000, but only 150-200 species are of industrial importance. Most essential oils are obtained from tropical or subtropical plants, and only a few (coriander, anise, mint) are cultivated in more temperate latitudes. Especially rich in essential oils are numerous species of the labiate family (mint, lavender, sage, basil, patchouli, etc.), as well as umbrellas (anise, fennel, cumin, coriander, azhgon, etc.). Essential oils in the free state or in the form of glycosides are found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots, seeds, bark and wood. The content of essential oils in plants varies widely: so, in the flowers of the rose 0,02-0,1% of essential oils, and in the kidneys of the carnation - 20-22%. The greatest amount of essential oils accumulates in most plants during the flowering and maturation of seeds. Essential oils are called, as a rule, according to the types of plants from which they are obtained (mint, orange, lemon, etc.).

Raw materials for separation of essential oils using either raw (green mass of geranium, lavender flowers, and others.), Slightly dried (mint), dried (sweet flag root, iris, etc.) Or pre-fermented (rose flowers, oak moss). In plants such as bitter almonds, aromatic substances are contained in a bound form. To release them, it is necessary to destroy the cell structure of the plant, and only then extract the flavors.

It is known that plants in different periods of their vegetation smell differently. The reason is that the composition of the essential oil that determines the aroma of the plant is unstable. Thus, the oil of young green non-flowering mint contains a lot of mentofuran, and in essential oil of flowering mint it is almost nonexistent. The composition of the essential oil and extract depends on the location and climatic conditions of the growth of raw materials, on the time of its collection and technological features of processing. Essential oils and extracts, offered on the world market, have a standard content of the main components, which is achieved by mixing different batches of oils and extracts.

The main methods of obtaining essential oils for food purposes are distillation with water vapor or water and cold pressing. Extraction with solvents (alcohol, vegetable oil, carbon dioxide, etc.) produces extracts (oil or oleoresins). After extraction, the extracting agent is usually almost completely removed, but during the distillation of the solvent, volatile aromatic substances are lost. As a result, the original fragrance of the original product is only partially preserved, but the taste of the extracts is quite intense. Extracts of spicy plants were most widely distributed. One of the advantages of extracts is that they contain coloring and non-volatile flavors. Such substances, for example, acuminating components, do not occur in the corresponding ester oil obtained by distillation from the same plant.

The extracts are transparent or dull colored (yellow, orange, red, green, brown, brown) fluid, often with sediment. In the latter case they must shake before use.

Essential oils are transparent colorless or colored (yellow, green, brown) liquid with a density typically less than unity. They are optically active, for the most part not soluble in water (they form a film on the surface) are readily soluble in vegetable oils, under the action of light and atmospheric oxygen to quickly oxidize, changing the color and smell. Unlike edible oil, most essential oils are vaporized, leaving no "fat spots" on the paper (except oils obtained by compression).

The high cost of essential oils often provokes their falsification. The most common methods of falsification are as follows:

 1) dilution of essential oil with vegetable;

2) dilution of an expensive essential oil with a cheap one, for example, peppermint oil with fieldmint oil;

3) dilution of one essential oil with natural components of another, for example, lemon oil with orange terpenes;

4) adding synthetic substances to the essential oil, for example, synthetic linalool to neroli oil.

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