Raw pastry making. (CK)

Sahara

The chemical composition of sugar are carbohydrate group. Carbohydrates are organic compounds that are separated from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with the general formula

CnH2nOn.

Carbohydrates are divided into two main groups: polysaccharides (polyose) and monosaccharides (monosaccharides).

Monosaccharides - a simple sugar, and carbonyl containing one more hydroxyl groups.

By the nature of the carbonyl group1ck divided into aldoses and ketoses.

Aldose contain radical2ck called an aldehyde group; ketosis in a carbonyl group linked to two hydrocarbon radicals and called keto.

According to the number contained in the molecule of the carbon atoms on monosaccharides divided tetroses, which chain consists of four carbon atoms, peptozy - five carbon atoms, hexoses - six carbon atoms, and so forth..

Polysaccharide - a complex sugar that can be cleaved to monosaccharides. Polyose in turn divided into disaccharides, upon hydrolysis yielding two molecules of monosaccharides, trisaccharides, giving three monosaccharide on hydrolysis of the molecule and t. D.

For higher-order polysaccharides containing hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide residues include starch, cellulose, inulin.

sucrose

Sucrose (C12Н22О11) Refers to disaccharides, and is the main raw material of confectionery manufacture. 70-80% solids of caramel, fondant candy and jelly falls on the share of sucrose; about 50% it is a part of other kinds of confectionery (sweets, chocolate, toffee). Sucrose in the manufacture of pastry goods is added in an amount of up to 8 25%, depending on the type of product.

Sucrose is not just a matter of taste, but also need high-calorie foods; moreover, it is a good preservative and therefore is used in the preparation of fruit semi-finished products.

The raw material for the industrial production of sucrose in temperate climates is sugar beet, and in tropical and subtropical countries - sugar cane.

Sucrose consists of two molecules of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) interconnected carbonyl groups.3sk

Physical and chemical properties of sucrose. The molecular weight of sucrose 342, 1,5879 proportion of crystals, the latent heat of melting 8,800 kcal. The melting point of crystals of sucrose, a crystallized from most of the solvents is 184- 185 °, from methanol and 170-171 °.

Sucrose preparations usually have a melting point of up to 160 185 °, depending on the method of purification. Sucrose is highly soluble in water and in mixtures of water and methanol, acetone and glycerol. In ethanol (96% -s) sucrose is almost insoluble.

When dissolving sucrose in water solution decreases the volume. Maximum compression occurs when the sucrose content in water 62,6%; volume reduction in this case is to 13,7 1 cm L solution.

Sucrose solubility increases with increasing temperature (see Table. 1).

When mixed with other sugars and molasses sucrose solubility decreases (Table. 2, 3, 4), and the total solids, soluble in water 100 parts increases. Dextrin exception is that by reducing the solubility of sucrose in water, and reduces the total amount of solids in solution. -

The viscosity of the saturated solutions of sucrose with increasing temperature up to 70 ° decreases at higher temperatures up to 90 ° it increases slightly.

1 Table. The solubility of sucrose in water depending on the temperature in weight. %

% % % % % %
0 64,18 17 66,63 34 69,38 51 72,44 68 75,80 85 79,46
1 64,31 18 66,78 35 69,55 52 72,63 69 76,01 86 79,69
2 64,45 19 66,93 36 69,72 53 72,82 70 76,22 87 79,92
3 64,59 20 67,09 37 69,89 54 73,01 71 76,43 88 80,15
4 64,73 21 67,25 38 70,06 55 73,20 72 76,54 89 80,38
5 64,87 22 67,41 39 70,24 56 73,39 73 76,85 90 80,61
6 65,01 23 67,57 40 70,42 57 73,58 74 77,06 91 80,84
7 65,15 24 67,73 41 70,60 58 73.78 75 77,27 92 81,00
8 65,29 25 67,89 42 70,78 59 73,98 76 77,48 93 81,30
9 65,48 26 68,05 43 70,96 60 74,18 77 77,70 94 81,53
10 65,58 27 68,21 44 71,14 61 74,38 78 77,92 95 81,77
11 65,73 28 68,37 45 71,32 62 74,58 79 78,14 96 82,01
12 65,88 29 68,53 46 71,50 63 74,78 80 78,36 97 82,25
13 66,03 30 68,70 47 71,68 64 74,98 81 78,58 98 82,49
14 66,18 31 68,87 48 71,87 65 75,18 82 78,80 99 82,73
15 66,33 32 69,04 49 72,06 66 75,38 83 79,02 100 82,97
16 66,48 33 69,21 50 72,25 67 75,59 84 79,24

2 Table. The solubility in the presence of sucrose at different temperatures syrup (corn syrup solids: solids 82,0%, reducing substances 36,2%, ash content 0,22%)

Tempe

ture in ° S

In 100 g solution contained In 100 parts water Total solids on 100 parts water
% sucrose molasses in% sucrose drake
67,09 203,00 203,00
57,54 10,56 180,20 33,10 213,30
20 51,23 17,74 165,09 57,17 222,26
48,51 21,76 163,16 73,19 236,35
43,26 28,80 154,82 103,07 257,89
72,25 260,36 260,36
62,97 10,05 233,39 37,25 270,64
55,05 18,26 208,16 69,01 277,17
50 51,03 24,00 204,37 96,12 300,49
46,81 28,86 193,19 119,52 312,71
44,47 32,02 189,15 136,20 325,35
37,96 40,54 176,56 188,56 365,12
76,22 322,83 322,83
67,43 9,92 207,70 43,70 341,49
70 . 60,60 17,55 277,35 80,32 357,67
55,14 24,95 276,95 125,31 402,26
52,70 28,10 274,48 146,35 420,83
49,69 32,16 273,77 177,19 450,96

Saturated sucrose solution mixed with molasses or other sugars has a higher viscosity than pure sucrose solutions (Table. 5). This is a result of increasing concentration of solids in the saturated solutions of sucrose mixed with other sugars.

Sucrose has the property to crystallize from supersaturated aqueous solutions.

3 Table. Effect of invert sugar at sucrose solubility at different temperatures

Tempe

ture in ° S

In 100 g solution contained In 100 parts water The total amount of sugars in the 100 parts water
% sucrose % invert sugar sucrose

invert

sahara

67,59 0,00 208,55 0,00 ' 208,55
23,1 57,84 11,90 191,14 39,32 230,46
47,31 25,39 173,30 93,00 266,30
38,66 36,90 158,18 150,98 309,16
68,11 213,58 213,58
56,32 14,94 195,96 51,98 247,94
50,97 21,86 187,60 80,46 268,06
49,91 23,21 185,68 86,34 272,02
48,95 24,46 184,09 91,99 276,08
30 46,36 28,01 180,88 109,29 290,17
ou 39,23 37,48 168,43 160,93 329,36
32,06 47,02 153,25 224,76 378,01
31,85 47,62 155,13 231,95 387,08
26,03 56,37 147,90 320,28 468,18
21,18 63,68 139,89 420,61 560,50
20,59 64,47 137,82 431,52 569,34
72,22 260,36 260,36
62,81 11,42 243,73 44,31 288,04
50 53,80 22,65 228,45 96,17 324,62
46,20 32,32 215,08 150,46 365,54
35,75 46,05 196,43 253,2 449,45

The crystallization process consists of two phases; The first phase - the primary nucleation of crystals, the second phase - the growth of crystals is, a certain speed. Crystal nucleation is accelerated when the solution has dust, air bubbles, suspended solids, as well as by mechanical shaking.

4 Table. The solubility of sucrose in the presence of glucose at 30 °

In 100 g solution contained In 100 parts water Total sugar 100 parts water
% sucrose % Glucose sucrose GLUCOSE
68,50 217,5 217,50
60,40 9,70 202,07 32,45 234,52
53,19 18,58 188,41 65,82 254,23
48,50 24,61 181,41 91,86 273,27

5 Table. Sucrose solubility in water and its viscosity aqueous saturated solutions

Temperature in ° C 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
The sucrose 100 parts water (parts) 202,3 217,5 237 261,4 291,1 327,1 370,3 422,0 483,7

The sucrose content in the aqueous solution saturated

AT %

66,92 68,50 70,33 72,33 74,43 76,59 78,74 80,85 82,87
The viscosity in centipoise 224 168 126 102 90 82 85 90 -

If the supersaturated solution does not fall impurities (dust, sugar crystals), and no vigorous mixing, the sucrose may be adjusted to high supersaturation therein without formation of crystals.

The rate of crystallization is the quantity of crystallized sugar in milligrams per minute per 1 1 m2 surface.

The crystallization rate increases with the degree of supersaturation of sugar in the solution, but to a certain limit. At excessively high supersaturation solution increases and its viscosity (ƞ), retards the growth of crystals.

The crystallization rate increases with increasing temperature; at higher temperatures pure sugar solutions per 10 ° crystallization rate increases approximately 2 times.

Boiling point sucrose solutions increases with increasing concentration (Table. 6) and pressure (Table. 7).

Boiling point sucrose solutions depending on the concentration can be calculated from the formula4sk

where: P-amount in the solution% sucrose;

E - the amount of water in the sugar solution in%;

The boiling point of sucrose solutions in a concentration-dependent

K - coefficient equal to 2,33.

Table 6

The sucrose content in% The boiling point in ° C The sucrose content in% The boiling point in ° C
10 100,1 60 103,0
20 100,3 70 105,5
30 100,6 80 109,4
40 101,0 90 119,6
50 101,8

sucrose solutions rotated plane of polarization of the light beam to the right. If no solution other optically active compounds, then, determining the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization can be set and the concentration of sucrose in the solution. This definition is based on the fact that the angle of rotation of polarization plane is almost proportional to the solution concentration.

If the aqueous solution of sucrose in which at 1 1 ml of accounts g of sucrose, polarize the tube length at 1 20 dm °, the angle of rotation of the polarization plane of a circular scale polarimeter will be equal to 66,5. This value is called the specific rotation and is expressed as follows:5sk

Specific rotation depends on the kind of solvent. Knowing the specific rotation of sucrose in water, it is possible to determine the content in% by the formula6sk

where: l - tube length in the polarization dm; α - polarimeter reading on the scale.

Polarimeter with wedge compensation, arranged specifically for the determination of sucrose, are the so-called scale Ventske.

7 Table. Increasing the reflux temperature of sucrose solutions at various pressures (as Buharov)

boiling water in ° C Temperature The pressure in mm Hg. Art.
92,51 149,38 233,7 355,1 525,76 760
sucrose concentration% 50 60 70 80 90 100
5 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06 0,06
10 0,10 0,10 0,11 0,11 0,12 0,12
15 0,17 0,18 0,18 0,19 0,19 0,20
20 0,26 0,27 0,28 0,28 0,29 0,30
25 0,39 0,40 0,42 0,43 0,44 0,45
30 0,52 0,54 0,55 0,57 0,58 0,60
35 0,69 0,71 0,73 0,76 0,78 0,80
40 0,80 0,85 0,90 0,95 1,00 1,05
45 1,02 1,10 1,18 1,25 1,32 1,40
50 1,32 1,40 1,52 1,61 1,72 1,80
55 1,70 1,82 1,94 2,06 2,18 2,30
60 2,30 2,45 2,60 2,75 2,90 3,05
65 2,80 3,00 3,20 3,40 3,60 3,80
70 3,65 3,90 4,18 4,46 4,75 5,05
75 5,05 5,40 5,80 6,20 6,60 7,00
80 (6,80) 7,30 7,85 8,35 8,90 9,40
85 - (10,00) 10,75 11,50 12,25 13,00
90 - - (16,00) 17,20 18,40 19,60

Ventske scale shows the percentage of sucrose directly, if you take a normal linkage (g 26 100 ml) and polarization is performed in a tube length mm at 200 20 °.

Rotatory power pure sugar solutions little varies with concentration and temperature. If a sugar solution other solutes are present, the rotational ability of the solution changes significantly.

Sucrose quantity can also be determined by the specific gravity (Table 8 and 9.), Refractive index - refractometric (Table 10 and 11.), Recovery after mednoschelochnoy liquid sucrose inversion.

8 Table. Proportion of sugar solutions depending on the concentration and temperature (for water at 4 ° C)

° с Saharza wt%
0 5 10 15 30 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
0 1,000 1,020 1,040 1,062 1,085 1,108 1,132 1,157 1,183 1,210 1,238 1,266 1,296 1,326 1,357 1,390
5 1,000 1,020 1,040 1,062 1,084 1,107 1,131 1,156 1,182 1,208 1,236 1,264 1,294 1,324 1,355 1,388
10 1,000 1,019 1,040 1,062 1,083 1,106 1,130 1,155 1,181 1,207 1,234 1,262 1,292 1,322 1,353 1,385
15 0,999 1,019 1,039 1,060 1,082 1,105 1,129 1,154 1,179 1,205 1,232 1,260 1,290 1,320 1,351 1,383
20 0,998 1,018 1,038 1,059 1,081 1,104 1,127 1,152 1,177 1,203 1,230 1,258 1,287 1,317 1,349 1,381
25 0,997 1,016 1,037. 1,058 1,080 1,102 1,126 1,150 1,175 1,201 1,228 1,256 1,285 1,315 1,346 1,378
30 0,996 1,014 1,035 1,056 1,078 1,100 1,124 1,148 1,173 1,199 1,226 1,254 1,283 1,313 1,344 1,376
35 0,994 1,013 1,034 1,055 1,076 1,098 1,122 1,146 1,171 1,197 1,224 1,252 1,281 1,310 1,341 1,373
40 0,992 1,012 1,032 1,053 1,074 1,096 1,120 1,144 1,169 1,194 1,221 1,249 1,278 1,308 1,339 1,371
45 0,990 1,010 1,030 1,050 1,072 1,094 1,117 1,141 1,166 1,192 1,219 1,247 1,275 1,305 1,337 1,368
° с Sucrose in Wes%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
50 0,988 1,008 1,028 1,048 1,070 1,092 1,115 1,139 1,164 1,189 1,216 1,244 0,273 1,302 1,334 1,365
55 0,986 1,005 1,025 1,046 1,067 1,089 1,112 1,136 1,161 1,186 1,213 1,241 1,270 1,300 1,331 1,362
60 0,983 1,003 1,023 1,043 1,065 1,087 1,110 1,134 1,158 1,184 1,210 1,238 1,267 1,297 1,328 1,360
65 0,981 1,000 1,020 1,041 1,062 1,084 1,107 1,131 1,155 1,181 0,208 1,235 1,264 1,294 1,325 1,357
70 0,978 0,998 1,018 1,038 1,059 1,081 1,104 1,128 1,152 0,178 1,205 1,232 1,261 1,291 1,322 1,354
75 0,975 0,995 1,015 1,035 1,056 1,078 1,101 1,125 1,149 1,175 1,202 1,229 1,258 1,288 1,319 1,351
80 0,972 0,992 1,012 1,032 1,053 1,075 1,098 1,122 1,146 1,171 1,199 1,226 1,255 0,285 1,315 1,347
85 0,969 0,989 1,009 1,029 1,050 1,072 1,095 1,119 1,143 1,168 1,195 1,223 1,251 1,281 1,312 1,344
90 0,965 0,985 1,005 1,026 1,047 1,069 1,092 1,115 1,140 1,165 1,192 1,220 1,248 1,278 1,309 1,341
95 0,962 0,982 1,002 1,022 1,043 1,065 1,088 1,112 1,137 1,162 1,188 1,216 1,245 1,275 1,305 1,338
100 0,958 0,979 0,998 1,019 1,040 1,062 1,085 1,108 1,133 1,158 0,185 1,213 1,241 1,272 1,302 1,334

9 Table. The share of sugar solutions at 20 ° d 20 / 20

The weight. %Sahara 0 1 2 з 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 1,0000 1,0004 1,0008 1,0012 1,0016 1,0019 1,0023 1,0027 1,0031 1,0035
1 0039 0043 0047 0051 0055 0058 0062 0066 0070 0074
2 0078 0082 0086 0090 0094 0098 0102 0106 0109 0113
3 0117 0121 0125 0129 0133 0137 0141 0145 0149 0153
4 0157 0161 0165 0169 0173 0177 0181 0185 0189 0193
5 1,0197 1,0201 1,0205 1,0209 1,0213 1,0217 1,0221 1,0225 1,0229 1,0233
6 0237 0241 0245 0249 0253 0257 0261 0265 0269 0273
7 0277 0281 0285 0289 0294 0298 0302 0306 0310 0314
8 0318 0322 0326 0330 0334 0338 0343 0347 0351 0355
9 0359 0363 0367 0371 0375 0380 0384 0388 0392 0396
10 1,0400 1,0404 1,0409 1,0413 1,0417 1,0421 1,0425 1,0429 1,0433 1,0438
И 0442 0446 0450 0454 0459 0463 0467 0471 0475 0480
12 0484 0488 0492 0496 0501 0505 0509 0513 '0517 0522
13 0526 0530 0534 0539 0543 0547 0551 0556 0560 0564
The weight. % sugar 0 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9
14 0568 0573 0577 0581 0585 0589 0594 0598 0603 0607
15 1,0611 1,0615 1,0620 1,0624 1,0628 1,0633 1,0637 1,0641 1,0646 1,0650
16 0654 0659 0663 0667 0672 0676 0680 0685 0689 0693
17 0698 0702 0706 0711 0715 0719 0724 0728 0733 0737
18 0741 0746 0750 0755 0759 0763 0768 0772 0777 0781
19 0785 0790 0794 0799 0803 0807 0812 0816 0821 0825
20 1,0830 1,0834 1,0839 1,0843 1,0848 1,0852 1,0856 1,0861 1,0865 1,0870
21 0874 0879 0883 0888 0892 0897 0901 0905 0910 0915
22 0919 0924 0928 0933 0937 0942 0946 0951 0956 0960
23 0965 0969 0974 0978 0983 0987 0992 0997 1001 1006
24 1010 1015 1020 1024 1029 1033 1038 1043 1047 1052
25 1,1056 1,1061 1,1066 1,1070 1,1075 1,1079 1,1084 1,1089 1,1093 1,1098
26 1103 1107 1112 1117 1121 1126 1131 1135 1140 1145
27 1149 1154 1159 1163 1168 1173 1178 1182 1187 1192
28 1196 1201 1206 1210 1215 1220 1225 1229 1234 1239
Bec. caxapa% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
29 1244 1248 1253 1258 1263 1267 1272 1277 1282 1287
30 1,1291 1,1296 1,1301 1,1306 1,1311 1,1315 1,1320 1, 1325 1,1330 1,1334
31 1339 1344 1349 1354 1359 1363 1368 1373 1378 1383
32 1388 1393 1397 1402 1407 1412 1417 1422 1427 1432
33 1436 1441 1446 1451 1456 1461 1466 1471 1476 1481
34 1486 1490 1495 1500 1505 1510 1515 1520 1525 1530
35 1,1535 1,1540 1,1545 1,1550 1,1555 1,1560 1,1565 1,1570 1,1575 1,1580
36 1585 1590 1595 1600 1605 1610 1615 1620 1625 1630
37 1635 1640 1645 1650 1655 1660 1665 1670 1675 1680
38 1685 1690 1696 1701 1706 1711 1716 1721 1726 1731
39 1736 1741 1746 1752 1757 1762 1767 1772 1777 1782
40 1,1787 1,1793 1,1798 1,1803 1,1808 1,1813 1,1818 1,1824 1,1829 1,1834
41 1839 1844 1849 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1881 1886
42 1891 1896 1901 1907 1912 1917 1922 1928 1933 1938
43 1943 1949 1954 1959 1964 1970 1975 1980 1985 1991
The weight. % sugar 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
44 1996 2001 2007 2012 2017 2023 2028 2033 2039 2044
45 1,2049 1,2054 1,2060 1,2065 1,2070 1,2076 1,2081 1,2087 1,2092 1,2097
46 2102 2108 2113 2118 2124 2129 2135 2140 2146 2151
47 2156 2162 2167 2173 2178 2184 2189 2194 2200 2205
48 2211 2216 2222 2227 2232 2238 2243 2249 2254 2260
49 2265 2271 2276 2282 2287 2293 2298 2304 2309 2315
50 1,2320 1,2326 0,2331 1,2337 1,2342 1,2348 1,2353 1,2359 1,2364 1,2370
51 2376 2381 2387 2392 2398 2403 2409 2415 2420 2426
52 2431 2437 2442 2448 2454 2459 2465 2471 2476 2482
53 2487 2493 2499 2504 2510 2516 2521 2527 2533 2538
54 2544 2550 2555 2561 2567 2572 2578 2584 2589 2595
55 1,2601 1,2606 1,2612 1,2618 1,2624 1,2629 1,2635 1,2641 1,2647 1,2652
56 2658 2664 2670 2675 2681 2687 2693 2698 2704 2710
57 2716 2721 2727 2733 2739 2745 2750 2756 2762 2768
58 2774 2779 2785 2791 2797 2803 2809 2815 2821 2826
The weight. % sugar 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
59 2832 2838 2844 2850 2856 2861 2867 2873 2879 2885
60 1,2891 1,2897 1,2903 1,2909 1,2914 1,2920 1,2926 1,2932 1,2938 1,2944
61 2950 2956 2962 2968 2974 2980 2986 2992 2998 3004
62 Zoe 3015 3021 3027 3033 3039 3045 3051 3057 3063
63 3069 3075 3081 3087 3093 3100 3106 3112 3118 3124
64 3130 3136 3142 3148 3154 3160 3166 3172 3178 3184
65 1,3190 1,3197 1,3203 1,3209 1,3215 1,3221 1,3227 1,3233 1,3239 1,3245
66 3252 3258 3264 3270 3276 3282 3288 3295 3301 3307
67 3313 3319 3325 3332 3338 3344 3350 3356 3363 3369
68 3375 3381 3387 3394 3400 3406 3412 3418 3425 3431
69 3437 3443 3450 3456 3462 3468 3475 3481 3487 3494
70 1,3500 1,3506 1,3512 1,3519 1,3525 1,3531 1,3538 1,3544 1,3550 1,3557
71 3563 3569 3575 3582 3588 3594 3601 3607 3614 3620
72 3626 3633 3639 3645 3652 3658 3664 3671 3677 3684
73 3690 3696 3703 3709 3716 3722 3729 3735 3741 3748
The weight. % sugar 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
74 3754 3761 3767 3774 3780 3786 3793 3799 3806 3812
75 1,3819 1,3825 1,3832 1,3838 1,3845 1,3851 1,3858 1,3864 1,3871 1,3877
76 3884 3890 3897 3903 3910 3916 3923 3929 3936 3942
77 3949 3955 3962 3969 3975 3982 3988 3995 4001 4008
78 4015 • 4021 4028 4034 4041 4048 4054 4061 4067 4074
79 4081 4087 4094 4101 4107 4114 4121 4127 4134 4140
80 1,4147 1,4154 1,4160 1,4167 1,4174 1,4180 1,4187 1,4194 1,4201 1,4207
81 4214 4221 4227 4234 4241 4247 4254 4261 4268 4274
82 4281 4288 4295 4301 4308 4315 4322 4328 4335 4342
83 4349 4355 4362 4369 4376 4383 4389 4396 4403 4410
84 4417 4423 4430 4437 4440 4451 4458 4464 4471 4478
85 1,4485 1,4492 1, 4499 1,4505 1,4512 1,4519 1,4526 1,4533 1,4540 1,4547
86 4554 4560 4567 4674 4581 458S 4595 4602 4609 4616
87 4623 4629 4636 4643 4650 4657 4664 4671 4678 4685
88 4692 4699 4706 4713 4720 4727 4734 4741 4748 4755
89 4762 4769 4776 4783 4790 4797 4804 4811 4818 4825
90 1,4832 - - - - - - - - -

10 Table. The refractive indices of solutions of sucrose (sugar wt.% Y / 100 g)

%

sahara

ND20

%

sahara

ND20

%

sahara

ND20

%

sahara

ND20
0 1,33299 22 719 44 76 66 55
1 443 23 888 45 96 67 79
2 588 24 1,37059 46 1,4117 68 1,4603
3 733 25 1,3723 47 37 69 27
4 880 26 40 48 58 70 51
5 1,34027 27 58 49 79 71 76
6 176 28 75 50 1,4200 72 1,4700
7 326 29 93 51 21 73 25
8 477 30 1,3811 52 42 74 49
9 629 31 29 53 64 75 1,4774
10 783 32 47 54 85 76 99
AND- 937 33 65 55 1,4307 77 1,4825
12 1,35093 34 83 56 29 78 50
13 250 35 1,3902 57 51 79 76
14 408 36 20 58 73 80 1,4901
15 567 37 39 59 96 81 27
16 728 38 58 60 1,4418 82 54
17 890 39 78 61 41 83 80
18 1,36053 40 97 62 64 84 1,5007
19 218 41 1,4016 63 86 85 33
20 384 42 36 64 1,4509
21 551 43 56 65 32


11 Table. Amendments to the refractometric determination of sucrose in the retreat from the normal temperature (20 ° C)

° С Sucrose in Wes. %
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Take away from the percentage found as well as x p o s s
10 0,50 0,54 0,58 0,61 0,64 0,66 0,68 0,70 0,72 0,73 0,74 0,75 0,76 0,78 0,79
11 0,46 0,49 0,53 0,55 0,58 0,60 0,62 0,64 0,65 0,66 0,67 0,68 0,69 0,70 0,71
12 0,42 0,45 0,48 0,50 0,52 0,54 0,56 0,57 0,58 0,59 0,60 0,61 0,61 0,63 0,63
13 0,37 0,40 0,42 0,44 0,46 0,48 0,49 0,50 0,51 0,52 0,53 0,54 0,54 0,55 0,55
14 0,33 0,35 0,37 0,39 0,40 0,41 0,42 0,43 0,44 0,45 0,45 0,46 0,46 0,47 0,48
15 0,27 0,29 0,31 0,33 0,34 0,34 0,35 0,36 0,37 0,37 0,38 0,39 0,39 0,40 0,40
16 0,22 0,24 0,25 0,26 0,27 0,28 0,28 0,29 0,30 0,30 0,30 0,31 0,31 0,32 0,32
17 0,17 0,18 0,19 0,20 0,21 0,21 0,21 0,22 0,22 0,23 0,23 0,23 0,23 0,24 0,24
18 0,12 0,13 0,13 0,14 0,14 0,14 0,14 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,16 0,16 0,16 0,16
19 0,06 0,06 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,07 0,07 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08
Add to that found the percentage of sucrose
21 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,07 0,07 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08
22 0,13 0,13 0,14 0,14 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,16 0,16 0,16 0,16 0,16 0,16
23 0,19 0,20 0,21 0,22 0,22 0,23 0,23 0,23 0,23 0,24 0,24 0,24 0,24 0,24 0,24
24 0,26 0,27 0,28 0,29 0,30 0,30 0,31 0,31 0,31 0,31 0,31 0,32 0,32 0,32 0,32
25 0,33 0,35 0,36 0,37 0,38 0,38 0,39 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40
26 0,40 0,42 0,43 0,44 0,45 0,46 0,47 0,48 0,48 0,48 0,48 0,48 0,48 0,48 0,48
27 0,48 0,50 0,52 0,53 0,54 0,55 0,55 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56 0,56
28 0,56 0,57 0,60 0,61 0,62 0,63 0,63 0,64 0,64 0,64 0,64 0,64 0,64 0,64 0,64
29 0,64 0,66 0,68 0,69 0,71 0,72 0,72 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73 0,73
30 0,72 0,74 ,0,77 0,78 0,79 0,80 0,80 0,81 0,81 0,81 0,81 0,81 0,81 0,81 0,81

12 Table. Hygroscopicity mixture of sucrose with other sugars at different relative humidity

sugar title Relative humidity in% at 25ос
81,8 62,7 43,0
The amount of moisture in% absorbed through the
1 hour 24 hours 3 day 5 days 10 days 1 hour 24 hours 3 day 5 days 10 days 1 hour 24 hours 3 day 5 days 10 days
sucrose Negigroskopichna Negigroskopichna Negigroskopichna

Sucrose + 10% glюkozы

0,90 2,57 3,49 9,88 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 Negigroskopichna

Sucrose + 10% fruktozы

0,44 6,03 9,71 11,06 13,87 1,73 3,46 3,42 3,38 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,04
Sucrose + 10% invertnogo sahara 0,66 5,36 8,91 11,11 14,19 1,57 2,23 2,33 2,27 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08
Sucrose + 10% malьtozы 0,28 0,38 0,68 6,78 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,06 0,06 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,04 0,04


Sucrose in crystalline form and molten hardly conducts electric current. The dielectric constant of a crystalline sucrose at 15 ° equal to 4,19.

To determine the specific heat of solutions, which contain sweeteners, use the formula

where: t - solution temperature in ° C;

Bx-weight content of sugar in the solution%.

When dissolved in water sugar its specific heat increases dramatically. Specific heat capacity of crystalline sugar in 20 0,3 ° is kcal / kg • deg, and the specific heat capacity of the sugar-0,43 solution.

The thermal conductivity of aqueous solutions of pure sucrose is calculated by the formula

K = Kω(1 — 10-5 α Bx;),

where: K - thermal conductivity of the aqueous solution of sucrose with 20 ° C kcal / m • h • °;

Кω- Thermal conductivity of water at the same temperature;

α -коэффициент; при 20 ° α = 556;

Bx-weight percentage of sugar.

The thermal conductivity of the solution concentration of sucrose 80 0,28% Equal kcal / m • h • °.

Thermal 4,93 * 10 crystalline sucrose-4 м2/time.

Pure sucrose is almost no hygroscopic. Only at a relative humidity over 90% sucrose begins to absorb moisture. In a mixture of sucrose with other sugars hygroscopicity increases.

Table. 12 provides data hygroscopic properties of sucrose.

sucrose solutions have negligible restoring capability therefore referred to sucrose non-reducing sugars.

Restoring the ability of sucrose is due to the manifestation of her in terms of heating a weak acid properties (constant electrolytic dissociation of sucrose as an acid at 25 ° equal to 3 • 10 ") and the appearance of reducing sugars as a result samoinversii sucrose.

When heated, aqueous solutions of sucrose it is inverted to form two molecules of monosaccharides (glucose and fructose)

C12H22O11+ N2O = C6Н12О6 + C6H12O6.

The reaction proceeds with the addition of a sucrose molecule, one molecule of water.

In the presence of acid greatly accelerates inversion of sucrose, as the acid in this case acts as a catalyst.

Sucrose is quite resistant to thermal effects, and its inversion products (glucose and fructose) are less resistant. When heated, especially fructose is easily destroyed.

A main chemical changes faced sucrose when heated, can be represented as follows:

Depending on the concentration of the heated sucrose solution will be formed in a variety of quantitative and qualitative changes in products.

When heated, concentrated solutions of sucrose, most often used in the confectionery industry, among monosaccharides condensed decomposition products are formed (reversion products).

In dilute solutions, other than sucrose inversion is extensive degradation to monosaccharides hydroxymethylfurfural and almost no reversion products are formed.

The amount and composition of decomposition products depend on the degree and duration of the temperature effect on sucrose. When the pH of 4 and below the decomposition processes are particularly intense.

Alkalis not ferment sucrose or osmolyayut, since it does not contain free aldehyde or ketone group. Alkalis with sucrose to form the so-called saccharate - sugar compounds with the metal; for example sucrose to calcium compound can be expressed as C12H22O11CaO or C12H22O11 * SAO.

Vladimir Zanizdra

Founder Baker-Group.net site. More than 25-years of experience in the confectionery industry. More than 20-five years of management experience. Experience in the organization and design of the production from scratch. Site: baker-group.net/contacts.html El. mail This e-mail address is protected from spam bots. You need JavaScript enabled to view.

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