In the confectionery industry for coloring products (candies, chocolates, jelly beans, marmalade-Pastila products, some flour confectionery) used dyes harmless nutritionally.
Confectionery industry mainly uses synthetic (artificial) dyes - amaranth, indigo carmine, naphthol yellow.
Because natural dyes are used (in limited quantities) and carmine safflower. Some other friendly natural dyes (chlorophyll, Malvina, saffron, orleans, juices edible berries -. Cranberries, raspberries, currants, etc.) can be also used for coloring foods, but in the confectionery industry, they do not apply.
For coloring products only three krasiteley- red, yellow, blue. The desired color is obtained by mixing in different ratios of the two (or three) colorants. For green yellow and mix blue dye, an orange - yellow and red dye, and so forth..
Food synthetic dye amaranth (C20H11O10N2S3Na3), Available as a paste, it is obtained by purification of technical acid red dye and C is used for coloring of food red. The molecular weight of 604,27.
Food naftozhelty synthetic dye (C10H4O8N2SNa2), Available as a paste, it is a salt dvunatrovuyu
dinitrosulfo-alfanaftola. It turns out the technical cleaning naphthol dye yellow (pasta) and is used for coloring foods yellow. The molecular weight of 358,10.
Indigo Synthetic Food Dye - Carmine (C10H8O8N2S2Na2), Available as a paste, is dvunatrovuyu indigo-disulfonic acid salt. It obtained from the sulfonation of indigo and strong sulfuric acid is used for coloring of food blue. The molecular weight of 466,18.
Table. 102 given specifications for synthetic food dyes.
Preservatives, substances that protect products from damage caused by microbiological processes.
In the confectionery industry preservatives used for fruit and berry preparations (fresh fruit and berries, pulp, puree, etc.).
Health authorities in the USSR allowed two preservative - benzoic acid and sulfurous acid. Salicylic acid and its compounds, formic acid, boric, hydrofluoric acid can also be used as preservatives, but because of their harmful effects on the body in the Soviet Union human use them is prohibited.
Particularly to be allocated preservatives related antibiotic obtained from micro- or macroorganisms. These include penicillin, biomitsin and others. They have a bactericidal effect, causing the death of microorganisms. In the same action the volatile - substance (open Tokin), found in onions, garlic, radish and many other plants.
Byenzoinaya kislota (C6H5COOH) can be used in the preservation of fruit pieces. It has a significant bactericidal effect, especially on yeasts for products with low content of nitrogenous substances and acidic
Specification for synthetic food coloring table. 102
VTU / NKPP * 152
VTU / NKPP * 153
VTU / NKPP * 154
|Appearance||The reddish-black paste nerasslaivayuschayasya||Light yellow paste nerasslaivayuschayasya||Sinevato-chernaya nerasslaivayushtayasya paste|
|Solubility in water||Soluble, forming a magenta-red solution||Dissolved, forming a yellow solution||Soluble, forming a pure blue solution|
|The action of a saturated solution of bleach||Rapid discoloration aqueous dye solution||Discoloration aqueous dye solution on standing||No discoloration|
96% solution of alcohol
|Not only dissolves||-||-|
Едкого натра 32 ° Вё
Caustic alkali to an aqueous solution (to clearly alkaline)
|Dissolves forming a red brown solution||It does not change the color of the solution||It changes the color of the solution in chartreuse|
|Lead acetate (primary)||Precipitated dye; Average lead salt does not precipitate||It gives an orange-yellow precipitate||-|
|Amyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide||Do not remove the||-||-|
|Amyl alcohol with HCl||Partially extracts||Greenish extraction||Overall, the recovery|
|amyl alcohol||-||Do not remove the||Do not remove the|
|Hydrochloric acid concentrated||-||-||Green staining|
|Dryness of the paste, at least in%||35||45||35|
|Chemically pure dye in dry matter,% not less||45||85||70|
|Water-insoluble impurities in dry matter, in% max||0,5||0,5||0,5|
|Sodium chloride in dry matter, in% max||40||14,5||10|
|Arsenic in dry matter, in% max||0,0014||0,0014||0,0014|
|Copper in dry matter, in% max||0,0025||0,0025||0,0025|
|Permissible impurity sulfate and sodium carbonate (dry matter), not more||14,5||Sodium sulfate content with a corresponding decrease of sodium chloride||19,5%, and in the absence of sodium chloride 29,5%|
reaction, optimally at pH 2,5-3,5. The usual dose is sufficient for canning applesauce and other fruit and berry pieces, about 0,1%. The finished food products, jellies, pastes and other confectionery products (with the proviso that applesauce is included in the formulation along with other komponentami- sugar, molasses, etc...) - No more than 0,07% benzoic acid.
If benzoic acid with food falls into the body in small doses, it has no adverse effect, since it is not delayed. It reacts with a common amino acid - glycine - and converted to hippuric acid, which is produced in the kidney and excreted in urine. The reaction proceeds according to the equation
С6Н5SOON SN +2(NN2) = SN SOON2[NH (C6Н5CO)] COOH + H20
Benzoic acid has a molecular weight 122,13, melting point 122,5 °, boiling 250 ° (sublimes above 100 °). Small crystals of white monoklinomernoy system. Solubility in water - 0,30 100 parts in parts of water (cold), when heated dissolves well; in alcohol and ether dissolve well.
Sodium benzoate has good solubility in water - in part 63 100 parts of water. Therefore, when preserving fruit puree, especially with high acidity, prefer not to use benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. Contained in the acidic puree displace the free acids of sodium benzoate in the form of free benzoic acid weaker than acid fruits.
Sodium benzoate may be prepared by mixing the benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate solution, having a ratio of approximately 122: 84 (or about 10: 7) in accordance with the equation C6Н5SOON + NaNS03 = C6Н5Soon + N2С03.
Benzoic acid can yield compounds and certain derivatives which also possess a preservative effect, sometimes even stronger. These include: benzoic acid esters - ethyl, propyl, etc., parahlorbenzoynaya acid (C.6H4ClSOON). Its sodium salt (C6Н4S1SOONa) is called mikrobin and is stronger than benzoic acid, preservative properties against molds.
Sulfurous acid H2SO3 It is widely used as a preservative for the fruit and berry pieces. It has a strong bactericidal effect on yeast and on mold. The usual dose of acid is sufficient for the preservation of apple sauce and other fruit and berry pieces, 0,10-0,12%. For some types of fruits and pieces, this dosage should be increased, for example up to 0,15% -for black currants and apricots, 0,20% - for strawberries, raspberries and cherries.
The sulphurous acid is harmful to the body (at the same doses) than benzoic. It is not derived from the human body and its consumption as accumulated in the body (have a cumulative effect). Consequently, in food allowed its significantly lower dosages than benzoic acid, - no more than 0,002% based on SO2 (No more than 20 mg SO2 1 kg on the finished product). Most of sulfurous acid contained in the semifinished products (fruit and berry harvesting) is destroyed by thermal processing (cooking, drying).
Sulfurous acid is formed by dissolving sulfur dioxide in water: SO2+ N2O → Н2Total sq3 (Table. 103).
Table 103 Solubility S02 in water at atmospheric pressure
|Temperature in ° C||One volume of water dissolves in gas||Temperature in ° C||One volume of water dissolves in gas|
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), The molecular weight of 64,07-colorless gas, the temperature of the boiling-10 °. In liquid form, the proportion of 1,46.
* For the preservation of fruit pieces are used usually 3-6% -s' water solutions of sulphurous acid. The concentration of sulfurous acid in the solution can be determined not only chemically but also via hydrometer - specific weight (Table 104.).
The sulphurous acid canned foods has not only purely bactericidal (the microflora), and in the chemical action. Sulfur dioxide has regenerative properties, oxidized to sulfur trioxide:
SO2+О —► SO3.
The use of sulfurous acid as a preservative favors the preservation of the color of canned product during.
|The proportion of the solution SO2 при 15 ° С||The content of SO2 % in solution||The proportion of the solution SO2 при 15 ° С||The content of SO2 % in solution|
Storage (darkening occurs due to oxidative processes) and its addition gives bleaching of the product. In addition, in sulphonated products, thanks to the reducing effect of sulfuric acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is well preserved (not oxidized); However, the vitamin B1 (thiamin) in the presence of sulfuric acid is less stable and more rapidly destroyed. As a result of the reducing effect of sulfuric acid in the canned product, it is partly oxidized to sulfuric anhydride (converted to sulfuric acid). Therefore, as well as due to the partial volatilization of sulfurous anhydride in sulphonated products, when they are stored, the total amount of sulfuric acid gradually decreases. In addition to the total amount of sulfuric acid, the product distinguishes between free and bound sulfuric acid (in sum they give the total amount of sulfuric acid). Associated is that sulfuric acid, which enters into the compounds with some substances of the preserved product, mainly with monosaccharides - glucose, fructose. The greater the proportion of sulfuric acid is in the form of bound, the lower the bactericidal action of the preservative (at the same concentrations of total sulfuric acid).
Sulphurous anhydride is usually produced by burning sulfur. It is stored in metal (cast-iron) cylinders, where it is in a liquid state under pressure. Sulfuric acid solution is obtained by passing a sulphurous gas from the cylinder (which is formed when the reducer is opened-lowering the pressure to atmospheric pressure) through rubber hoses in a water bottle or in drums. On a sulfitometer mounted on a cylinder with sulfurous anhydride, measure (by volume of liquid ESD) and discharge through the hose the amount of sulfur dioxide that is required to obtain the desired concentration in the bottles or barrels of a solution of sulfuric acid.
Under standard sulfur dioxide coming for food preservation, must be sufficiently clean and free from impurities "especially arsenic,
Ground talc is in the confectionery industry use as an auxiliary material in the formulation of candies and jelly beans. Talc is not wetted by water, adding it reduces friction (slip increases) products - jelly beans, caramel - and sticking caramel mass and products.
Talc is a mineral-approaching in chemical composition to the formula 4SiO2 • ЗМgО • Н2O. Talc is usually included as the main component in the rock, talc, which is subjected to grinding and getting trade ground talc. Talcites deposits occur in different areas, the largest - in the Ural (Miass), Armenia, Republic of Karelia.
Talc has a kind of scaly shale aggregates with a distinct foliose cleavage. It can be white, greenish or yellowish color.
In the production of talc, depending on the degree of purity (impurities), the starting material (talcites) and a method for processing prepared talc four marks: A, B, and medical. Confectionery is talc grade A high purity, it has the additional labeling of "food." Talc A brand must have a guaranteed high whiteness: I grade - white for at least 80% (compared with white barite plate), II grade-at least 70%.
The basic properties of talc following. In conventional calcination it loses a little weight, no more than b-8%, its melting temperature - about 1200 °. Humidity of ground talc (grade A) - no more than 0,5%. Very little soluble in acids and alkalis. According to the standard I sort of talc grade A after calcination and treatment with hydrochloric acid should give a residue (in% to take) at least 87% (this figure is not standardized for grade II).
The proportion of talc 2,7-2,8. Specific heat (for 0-100 ° temperature) 0,21. Thermal conductivity low.
For confectionery manufacture talc must be finely milled: I sort of sieve number 75 should not give more than 5% residue, II grade on a sieve № 90 - no more than 2% of the residue.
Talc usually contains some impurities:. Iron (in the form of oxides to 6-8%), manganese, nickel, calcium (CaO 1% less), etc. The talc grade A content of these impurities are very small, not specified by the standard. Important for the confectionery industry is the lack of arsenic impurity in talc: standard no more than 0,0014%.
Paraffin in the confectionery industry is widely used as an auxiliary material. He is an essential part of the "gloss" for panning of confectionary products. Paraffin often contain and lubricants (for example, cans, into which is poured the mass of candy, caramel for forming machines) used to eliminate sticking caramel mass. Paraffin wax is used for waxing paper that goes to the wrapping and packaging of confectionery products.
Paraffin is a mixture of the Cathedral of saturated hydrocarbons methane series of the general formula CnН2n + 2. Paraffin is produced from heavy oil fractions (paraffin oil), as well as of the products obtained in the dry distillation of lignite, oil shale, from coal and peat tar. Confectionery is further refined paraffin.
The food (peeled), paraffin is a colorless or white, more or less transparent mass, hard, brittle (when cold), slightly oily to the touch, odorless and tasteless. The melting point of paraffin 49-60 °. Specific gravity (at 15 °) 0,907-0,915.
Paraffin is readily soluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, carbon disulfide and mineral oils and can be easily mixed (liquid heated state) with vegetable oils, molten wax and m. P. Paraffin is not soluble in water.
As a saturated hydrocarbon wax is very resistant to chemical agents, does not oxidize, it does not go rancid. Acids, alkalis, oxidizers no effect on paraffin.
Beeswax is used in the confectionery industry as an auxiliary material. He is an essential part of the "gloss" for panning and confections often found in lubricants, such as boilers and basins, in which the mass is filled with caramel, caramel and molding machines; these lubricants are applied in order to eliminate the sticking of the caramel mass.
Wax has a complex structure, it consists of: esters of acids (palmitic, and cerotic melissic) and monoalcohols (ceryl and myricyl); number of wax esters in about 70-75%; saturated hydrocarbons present in an amount 12-15%; free acids - at about 15%.
Wax is a solid body with a grainy fracture, often white or yellow in color with a distinctive, slaboaromaticheskim smell. When heated it first melts, then becomes viscous and ignited (at 242-250 °), luminous flame burns.
Wax dissolved in ether, gasoline, benzene, acetone, amyl alcohol and other solvents for fats. The molten (hot) mixed state (mutually soluble) with vegetable oils, fats and waxes. The wax is insoluble in cold water and alcohol.
Physico-chemical parameters of wax
|The refractive index (at 75 °)||1,4398—1,4451|
Due to the low iodine number of beeswax is resistant to chemical changes, oxidation, it does not go rancid.
Wax obtained peretaplivaya honeycomb with water (crude wax). For cleaning and whitening whitening solar wax used its handling molten wax or adsorbents (e.g., animal charcoal). Svezheotbelenny colored wax in air yellowing over time.
Furthermore beeswax, waxes and other known origin. They consist of a high molecular weight esters of fatty acids and high-molecular monohydric alcohols.
Some waxes may find application in the confectionery industry, for the same purposes as the beeswax, and as well as components for the preparation of food coatings (for chocolate pieces for covering foil, cellophane, etc.).
By the vegetable wax include carnauba wax (collected from palm fronds Crypha cerifera L., growing in South America). The main component of it - alcohol and ether myricyl cerotic acid. It melts at 83-86 °, solidifies at 80-81 °. Soluble in alcohol (boiling) and ether. Palm wax that covers the trunk of the palm (Seroxylon ondiso1a). It melts at 102-105 °. Soluble in alcohol and ether.
Of the waxes of animal origin special significance for confectionery manufacture has spermaceti. It is obtained from marine species, whale sperm whale, whose head in the upper part contains fat. After removal from the sperm whale oil is subjected to rendering, then during cooling is separated from the liquid fraction has - sperm oil and solid - spermaceti. Spermaceti purified by subjecting the solution treated with a weak alkali.
The composition includes spermaceti esters of fatty acids (palmitic, lauric, myristic, stearic, etc.), Mostly-palmitin-cetyl ether.
Spermaceti looks solid, almost transparent, with a unique pearly gloss and low odor. His constant:
|Melting temperature||44-45 °|
Spermaceti as practice shows drazheynogo production is a valuable component of the "gloss" going to pelleting.
Kozin, NI, prof., Chemistry and Commodity edible fats, Gostorgizdat, 1949.
Confectionery Technology, ed. prof. AL Rapoport, Part I, Pishchepromizdat, 1951.