Berries for the food industry. (Confectioner's Handbook).

To berries are the fruit with juicy flesh, usually growing on shrubs or perennials. There are three sub-berries:

  1. false berries consist of sprawling receptacle, surrounded from the outer surface of seeds: strawberries, strawberries and others;
  2. complex collection of berries are fused together separate small fruitlets: raspberry, blackberry, raspberry and others;
  3. These berries have seeds that have no seed box distributed in the fruit pulp: grapes, gooseberries, currants, berries of the cowberry family.

Berries are found in the confectionery industry for various uses. Of particular importance is the use of many berries as a raw material with high taste qualities, pleasant and strong aroma. Such highly aromatic berries are primarily zamlyanika (and strawberries), raspberries, black currants, cranberries and others. When using it is very important to prepare from them such semi-finished products, in which the taste and aroma of the berries would be better preserved. The best of these semi-finished products can be considered in store - a mixture of berry puree with sugar, preserved by sterilization or by other means. The cakes produced by boiling the mashed sugar mix have a weaker flavor. Berry puree preserved with sulfuric anhydride or another preservative can also be used, but during the inevitable further boiling it with sugar and other components, the flavor of the berries is greatly reduced. Berry semi-finished products are used for flavoring marmalade, pastila, caramel and other fillings (for chocolate, dragee, gingerbread, etc.), candy products, cakes, cakes and other products.

Berries as flavoring raw materials are also used in the whole (or crushed) form; fresh (cranberries in sugar, for decorating cakes), dried (raisins, raisins), spirited (berries in alcohol), boiled in sugar (candied fruits and jam for finishing products), canned in the form of compote (for decorating cakes, etc.), sulphonated (for further puree, cooking jam), frozen. Some berries (red and white currant, gooseberry) can be used in the form of mashed potatoes in the manufacture of fillings of caramel and other fruit-profitable semi-finished products. Puree of berries with gelling ability, made of black currant, gooseberry, grape, cranberry, etc., is of considerable value for production. This puree can be used to make jelly candy and patas.

The main chemical and technological indicators of the quality of berries for confectionery production: good taste and aroma; large size; low content of waste parts (stalks, seeds, etc.); high yield of mashed potatoes; high solids content; sufficiently high acid content, good taste and aroma of the finished confectionery with the addition of mashed potatoes (or supplies) of berries; good persistence of the aroma of berries in confectionery, made with the addition of fruit-bearing blanks; good preservation of mashed potatoes and supplies (blanks) of berries.

These indicators should serve as the basis for breeding the most suitable for confectionery production varieties.

Strawberries and strawberry

Strawberries and strawberries are the most widely used berries in the confectionery industry. They are used to make products such as caramel with strawberry filling, strawberry marmalade, candy with strawberry shells, cakes, cakes, etc., decorated with strawberry semi-finished products.

The main botanical difference between strawberries and strawberries is that strawberries (in everyday life they are called strawberries) are monoecious, and strawberries are dioecious.

Strawberries (Fgagaria) are a perennial herb of the Rosaceae family. Bushes height 18 — 20 cm and width 30 — 40 cm. Reproduced vegetatively by rooting outlets, which are formed in July and August on creeping whiskers.

Strawberries grow in different regions of the USSR, from the southern (Crimea, Krasnodar Territory, Transcaucasia) to the northern (Karelian-Finnish SSR, Leningrad Oblast, central regions of Siberian oblasts). It grows best in the central regions of the RSFSR — in the Moscow and Tula Regions and adjacent areas. Wild strawberries are found in many parts of the USSR.

Strawberries are grown commonly in the same areas as the strawberry, its culture is a little different from the culture of strawberries. However, the yield of strawberries is much lower.

The nutritional value of strawberries is due to the high sugar content, the presence of acid and other valuable components, and a very pleasant strong odor.

In the confectionery industry, the following varieties; Komsomolskaya, Koralka, Mysovka, Saxon,


Raspberry is highly valued in the confectionery industry for a pleasant delicate and strong aroma, well expressed in such products as caramel with raspberry filling, raspberry marmalade, sweets with raspberry flavor cases, cakes, pies and other products decorated with raspberry semi-finished products.

Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) from the genus Raspberry (Rudus) of the Rosaceae family. The height of the bushes 1 — 2,5 m. It has perennial roots. Berries are usually harvested without fruiting in dry weather and sent without primary processing. Before use, the berries are washed and sorted.

Raspberry grows well and bears fruit in almost all regions of Ukraine, with the exception of the Far North and strongly drylands. By the number of employees under this crop areas should have in the first place.

Recently, Soviet breeders have brought new high-yielding and economically valuable raspberry varieties - Russkaya, Urozhaynaya, Kolkhoznitsa, etc.

The nutritional value of raspberries is due to the high content of sugar, acids and other components in it, a very pleasant strong smell.

Valuable for confectionery manufacture raspberry varieties are:

News Kuzmina - by the high aromaticity of the berries, preserved in the confectionery, and acidity, the large size of the berries, the great yield of mashed potatoes. It consists in the standard assortment of the northern and central regions of the USSR. The berries are dull-conical, pubescent, have a raspberry, rather bright color, a sour-sweet taste, a strong aroma and juicy flesh.

ushankas - by good indicators of chemical composition (dry substances, sugar, acidity), good aromaticity, satisfactory merchandising physical indicators. Usanka is one of the main varieties in the standard assortment of almost all regions of the central part of the USSR and many northern regions. Berries dull-conical, pubescent, raspberry-colored, bright, sweet-sour taste, quite strong flavor.

Marlborough - by good aromaticity, satisfactory commodity performance. One of the main varieties in the standard assortment of almost all areas. The berries are hemispherical, red, the pulp is juicy, often watery, the taste is of medium quality, the flavor is average. Berries are transportable.

Progress - according to satisfactory aromaticity of berries, bright red color, large size, high acidity, high content of solids and sugar, low content of fruit size and moderate amount of waste during processing. The variety was developed by Michurin, interesting for the central and southern regions of the USSR. The berries are dull-conical, elongated, the color is crimson-red, the pulp is juicy, the taste is sweet-sour, the aroma is medium.

Black currant, red and white

In the confectionery industry highly appreciated black currant, which has a strong specific flavor. Black currant puree and supplies are included in the recipes of many products - in the fillings

31 Table. Indicators of the size and weight composition of fruits

NameThe average fruit weight in gramsWeight%



Apple 60-600 972,5to 0,6
Pear28-155 972,50,5
the norm 95-316 and 1000 up and more
agrarian0,41-0,47 973
Kulyturnaya (Nevezhinskaya)0,50-0,7 --
briar-66,44For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.33,56
Baʙan18-90 857,37,7
Peach 78 — 80 and up to 160 — 1808938
Plum 7-68 93,824,2
Vengerka azhanskaya 2995,05,0
Hungarian Italian35-45 96,13,9
Greencloth green 25-40 96,13,9
Cherry plum yellow5,6983,306,959,75
Cultural turn 3-780,419,6
Cherry 2-7 89,12,18,8


Pink flask2,6982,78,98,4
Kizil1,2-2,4 80,719,3
Orange157-161 82,1-82,9 16,7-17,1 0-1,2
Lemon three leaf47,553,932,014,1
Grapefruit duncan43565,031,93,1
Pomeranian81,7-136,450,4-54,035,7-36,1 3,4-7,2
Laymkvat23-31 65,528,16,4
Figs19-58 and more56-6729-431-3,5
Persimmon95-400 -For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.-
Fejxoa9-27 ---
Banana100-400 6040-
Pineapple1000-2000 6733-
Dates (dried) 6,28921
Raspberry1,6-5,3 93,66,4
Black0,75-1,5 95,44,6
Red0,5-1,0 95,54,5
White0,6-0,96 --
gooseberries1,20-20 96,53,5
Cranberries0,46-0,62 -
Şivomikan9,9-28,2 68,130,51,4

Fruits contain from 4,4 14,4% to seed, from 1,67 6% to the core.

Peduncle 2,5 — 5,6%,

Fetus 10,2 — 17,3%.

Crests 1,5 — 4,6%,

Combs 0,9%.

Weight stalk, plodolozha and ridges is given in% by weight of fruit with these parts.

different varieties of caramel, marmalade, in the case of different varieties of sweets, glazed and unglazed with chocolate, in fruit and berry semi-finished products for decorating cakes, pies. Red and white currants are very limited, mainly for some caramel fillings; These berries have a very weak aroma.

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and red (Ribes rubrum L.); from the family Saxifragaceae - perennial bushes with a height of 1,5 - 2 m.

Currant grows well and bears fruit almost everywhere, especially in the northern and middle lane, in the Urals, in Siberia, in the Altai and the Far East. Black currant is mainly distributed, red and white currants are less common (they are harder to reproduce).

Cultivars of black currant are many. The most common varieties include: Lia fertile, Neapolitan, Goliath, September of Daniel, Luxton, Coronation, Eighth of Devison.

Varieties of red currant - Varshevich, Dutch red; white currant - Versailles.

Soviet breeders brought new productive and valuable economically varieties.

Black currant grows in the wild.

The nutritional value of black currant is due to the high content of sugar, acids, vitamin C and other components, good strong smell and gelling ability.

The chemical composition is shown in Table currant. 32.

NameDry matterSugarMalic acid onАзотистые вещества NX 6,25








general Included Quantity


Summer — Grushovka Moscow14,618,401,6810,080,75-0,07-0,180,41
Autumn — Cinnamon Striped10,035,950,766,710,500,280,110,650,510,49
Autumn — Slavyanka14,106,395,7712,160,62-0,139---
Early winter — Antonovka ordinary12,907,351,278,620,800,350,170,920,650,34
Late winter — Grandma's13,738,031,249,270,470,220,111,060,950,38
Late winter — Renette Simirenko14,686,902,109,000,54---- /-
Dekanka16,49,381,811,180,31For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.0,0181,671,060,33
Nevezhinskaya 29,5110,270,2910,561,980,610 322,710,670,92
the norm 15,788,590,959,540,80-0,421,30-0,51
Apricot-cheeked 12,73,005,458,451,82-0,0420,450,77-
Peach Elbert13,54,007,1811,180,57-0,1170,350,61-
Plum Vengerka 16,69,621,3811,00,90-0,120,350,88-
Greengage Green15,08,104,212,300,70-0,130,360,60-
alycha 12,05,841,016,852,30,0750,330,65
Cherry Vladimir (Roditeleva)15,099,910,4710,380,801,180,23-0,57
Cherry 20,0--14,00,71,0-0,20-0,4
Kizil 14,276,880,16,981,750,990,380,850,671,04
Turner 30,12--7,071,781,540,781,111,301,69
Grapefruits17,102,76 »0,363,123,14---
Lemons trifoliate 17,670,910,851,762,31-0,10-1,040,64
Laymkvat 10,611,280,351,634,57- --0,40
Fejxoa 18,664,013,746,752,340,880,105,081,340,58
Figs 21,07--15,550,211,38-1,45-0,58
bananas26,2410,788,8819,660,381,33-0,80 0,89
Pineapples 14,173,917,5911,500,600,42-- 0,40
Grapefruit Duncan 8,081,912,714,621,7----0,32
Pompelmus Sheddok 8,281,932,474,401,44----0,23

33 Table. Average chemical composition of berries%

Strawberries Roshchinskaya13,697,390,678,061,230,170,31
Forestry 14,322,831,03,831,741,650,312,46-0,95
ushankas15,965,160,505,661,240,93 0,960,53
Blackcurrant Leah fertile 14,224,971,346,313,50,150,87
Forestry 16,46,20No6,202,492,470,433,050,820,88
Red currants
Chulkovskaya 14,34,561,095,652,71-0,10--0,61
white currant
Versalʹskaâ17,878,16No8,161,630,26[0,20 0,20
gooseberries vïnogradnıy 11,807,371,689,052,190,750,15-0,880,42
Winograd Xusajne17,8416,8No16,80,27-0,200,40

34 Table. The average chemical composition in%

NameDry matterSugarАзотистые вещества NX 6,25





number of


Rhubarb Victoria8,52_ 1,601,811,231,23
Watermelons 10,0--5,5-9,8 0,760,40,36
Melon Dubovka7,54--5,190,460,390,52
Pumpkin Mozoleevskaya7,75--5,220,370,700,44

Glucose, fructose (prevails) and sucrose (relatively little, in red and white - very little) are found in sugars, of organic acids - citric (prevails) and malic; wild currant juice has a pH of 3,22.

Vitamin C black currant contains from 300 to 400 mg%, in red from 25 to 38 mg% and in white from 32,5 to 44,4 mg%. The September Curly variety (320 mg%), Neapolitan (306,4 mg%), Leah is fertile (293,8 mg%) richer in vitamin C grades of black currant. The content of vitamin C varies quite significantly (sometimes - below 100 mg%) depending on the place of growth, climatic conditions, etc.

Carotene (up to 2 mg%), vitamin B are also found in black currant1

The seeds in black currant are from 1,3 to 11,6% (depending on the variety), in wild-growing 4,35%, fat 15,26%, in red currant seeds 4,45% and fat 16 — 18,5%.

Color black currant depends on the colorant from the group of anthocyanins.

Valuable for confectionery manufacture currant varieties include:

Leah fertile - as a standard, widespread old variety, giving products with high taste and aromatic qualities, berries with very high acidity, high content of dry substances.

The berries are black, rounded, the skin is dense, durable. The flesh is greenish, juicy. The taste is sweet and sour, with a predominance of acid, the aroma is strong. Used mainly for processing, in fresh form - less.

Neapolitan - as a standard, widespread old variety, giving products with high taste and aromatic qualities, berries with a high content of dry substances, acids and vitamins, rather large size. The berries are black, rounded, the skin is dense, the flesh is greenish, juicy.

35 Table. The content of some vitamins and minerals in fruits and vegetables

The name of the fruit Ascorbic acid in mg%







A nicotinic acid


Citrine in mg% (R)Cal






scales in 1 grammg%
Apples 5-501,25-30,4-0,8 0,55,02967120,34-1-21
wild Apples26-80 ----2912---gamma in 1 kg Az-10 — 27 gamma in 1 kg Cu ​​— 0,12 mg%
pears 3-17Tracks0,6-1,71,11,432015180,3
Rowan forest20-145 80---2857-—.-
Rowan Nevezhinskaja81-102 ------
briar100-4500 41-0,3-Do5770--
Ajva- 10-20-------1,01
Apricots3-10 20-100 0,60,06--151240,6MIX 3
peaches1050,250,69,5-10190,30,40% to the weight of the ash
plums 0-7 6-211,6-20,56,7108020270,5
alycha 7-13 2-28
Cherry 13-20 3-5,5 For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.---17220,6Mp804— 0,82% to
Kizil 50-60 -705---ash weight
Tangerines30-5061,2-For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.-41180,6
oranges 40-66 30,70,50,7-'24180,5
Lemons 40-55 40,3-09 --23422110,6
grapefruit 40-50 -0,56-0,8 0,2-1 --21200,3
Persimmon Until 140-------0,3
Figs 230,8-1,0 0,82--53360,9
dried dates 3-7 1,80,6-1,0 -22For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.72603,6
prunes 0-8 10-30 0,18----- '-
bananas 0,6-0,9 101,20,0729,0-8280,6
PineapplesTracks0,5-0,60,2-0,5 15200,31
strawberry 33-66 Tracks0,250,9-17223230,7Mp3 04 — 0,67% By weight of ash
Strawberry timber173-5-------
Raspberry 10-2530,25--82-150241270,8C — 0,3 * g%
Blackcurrant96-4007-20 0,3--1000-2138---
Red currants30Tracks---45026380,6
white currant50---310-For any inquiries, We're here to answer you._
gooseberries15-50 1-10 0,5-0,9 ---35310,5
Grapes0,4-120,2-1,2 0,30,95,047315213,0
Cranberries 12-31 0---242-100013110,4
Rhubarb 11-361,20,20,3--44180,5L — 0,0138 mg%
Fizalis 17-28 --------C — 0,09
Watermelon 5-10100,230,4--7130,2mg%

Table 36 Essential oils and fragrances of fruits

The name of the fruitThe content of essential oilsThe substances included in the essential oils (or fragrances)


Esters of amyl alcohol and acids - formic, acetic, caproic and caprylic
the norm-Ethyl-heptanoic, pelargonic, ethyl ester
Rowan-Oksigidrosorbinovoy acid lactone
peaches0,00074Linalovol ester formic, acetic, valeric and caprylic acids; acetaldehyde and others
oranges1,2-2,1 (in the skin)d-Limonene (about 9%), citral, normal decyldehyde, citronellal, linalol, a-terpineol, normal nonyl alcohol, anthranilic methyl esters, esters of butyric and caprylic acids.
Tangerines1,9-2,5 (in the skin)d- Limonene, methyl methyl anthranilic acid
Lemons1,5-2,0 (in the skin)d-Limonene (90%), citral (3,5-5%), α-pinene, l-camphene, phellandrene methylheptenone, octyl and nonylaldehydes, citronellal, α — terpineol, acetic-geraniol ether
Pomerantsы1,2-2,0 (in the skin)Like orange oil

Table 37 optimum conditions and shelf life of fruits and berries

Name of fruits and berriesOptimal storage conditionsApproximate (maximum) period of storage under optimum conditions (months) toFreezing point average in °The storage period before processing factories (in hours)
Temperature in °relative air humidity in%
pears 0+18590May-2,4548-168
the norm0+1859012-2,22-
Cherries 0+0,585902 week-3,5112
Lemons + 4+ 58085July-1,29-
Tangerines+ 2+38085May-1,08120
Tangerines green+6+ 88085May--
Strawberries and strawberry0+0,585902 week-0,958
Raspberry 0+0,585902 — 3 weeks-1,458
Currant 0+0,585902-1,6024
Grapes0+ 18090May-3,79-
Cranberries0+ 17580May-1,36-
Fejxoa ----½-1--

The taste is sweet and sour with a predominance of acid. Used mainly for processing, in fresh form - less.

The september Daniel - for a fairly high taste and aromatic properties in the products, a small amount of waste during processing, a high content of solids and acid. In the standard assortment of Moscow, Kaluga and other areas has not yet been widespread. The berries are black, rounded, dense skin. The pulp is dense, greenish, juicy. The taste is sweet and sour with a predominance of acid. Use both for processing and fresh.

Coronation - on high taste and aromatic properties in products in large dosages (fillings), on the high content of dry substances, acids and vitamins, on a small amount of waste during processing. The variety is new, allocated to the selection station of the canning industry, still less common. Berries are black, shiny, rounded, uneven in size. The taste is sour. The skin is very dense. Differ in good transportability. Valuable grade for processing.

Quite satisfactory varieties of black currant for processing in the confectionery industry - Goliath, Luxton, Eighth Devison.


Gooseberry (Ribes grossularia) is a shrub up to 1,5 — 2 m.

Recently carried out works in VKNII showed that gooseberry puree has good gelling ability. It should be attributed to a gelling candy puree, i.e., its mixture with sugar (and other components): it can be reduced to a residual moisture content 15 — 20% and, after cooling, gives a gel-like product. This mashed potatoes can be used to make jelly-like products such as jelly sweets, candy cases, marmalade pata, pastila, marshmallows, etc. Gooseberry puree has almost the same gelling ability and same gelation features as apricot puree, therefore it can replace in recipes. The gooseberry puree differs from the apricot chemical composition by its higher acidity, so when using it, the dosage of the added acid should be reduced accordingly.

Higher gelling ability gooseberries have collected several immature state.

Gooseberry grows well and bears fruit in the USSR almost everywhere. It has a relatively high winter hardiness, it can grow in the northern regions (“northern grapes”). Under the gooseberry are occupied in largely smaller areas than under other berries. There are a lot of gooseberry varieties. The most common varieties include:

Warsaw, Bottle Green, dates Green, Grape, English, yellow, green and English Bochenochny.

Soviet breeders brought new fruitful and economically valuable varieties - Black Negus (Michurin), Shtambovy (Michurin), Five-Year Plan, Mysovskiy and others.

The nutritional value of gooseberry is due to the high content of sugar, acids and other components, good gelling ability.

Valuable for confectionery manufacture gooseberry varieties include:

Warsaw - as common in the USSR, giving mashed potatoes with a high gelling ability.

Green bottle - as the variety introduced into the standard

assortment of almost all regions of the European part of the USSR, giving mashed with significant gelling ability.

Green date - as an old Russian variety, giving mashed potatoes with high gelling ability. The berries are large, not pubescent, green in technical ripeness, dark red in botanical, spikes are weak and few. The flesh is green, taste sweet and sour, without aroma.

Mysovsky 37 - as a variety that gives mashed potatoes with high gelling ability. The variety was recently bred at the Moscow Experimental Station. Introduced into the standard assortment of Moscow and its neighboring areas. Frost resistance is big. Advantage over other varieties - it multiplies lignified cuttings. The berries are small, rounded, without omission, when fully ripe, they are dark red, the skin is thick, there are few seeds and they are not large, the flesh is greenish. The taste is sweet-sour, the acidity is high.


Cranberries are the fruits of the creeping shrub Vaccinium oxycoccus L. of the cowberry family Uassіnіaseae. A very valuable raw material for confectionery production. In general, it is used for cooking jam, making cranberries in sugar and other products.

Cranberry puree with a weak gelling capacity is used to make pastila, caramel toppings, fruit and berry semi-finished products and finished products. According to VKNII, cranberries should be processed in such a way that they can be obtained by wiping mashed potatoes suitable for producing cranberry cakes and fillings, and wiping them by digestion to obtain gelling mashed potatoes (for jelly cases of sweets, blending in marmalade mixtures).

Cranberries grow in the wild state in large sizes in the northern peat bogs, throughout the northern and middle belt. Fruits - round, red, juicy, very sour berries with small seeds.

Nutritional value due cranberry sugar, acids, vitamin C and particularly R and other components, a good flavor, gelling ability.

Cranberries are usually harvested when it is cold. Snow cranberry is considered the best (winter spent under the snow and collected in early spring). Fresh cranberries (frozen) are preserved throughout the winter, which is favored by its high acidity and benzoic acid content.


Lemongrass (Schizandra chinensis B) - a vine with climbing stems of the Magnoliaceae family, grows wild in the Primorsky Territory. The berries are red, round, juicy, with a sour, tart, even bitter taste and characteristic aroma. Fruits (as well as the bark) of lemongrass have a special stimulating, strengthening effect, restore strength and invigorate the body. According to the works of VKNII and other data, the fruits of lemongrass can be used (through the production of mashed potatoes from them) for making caramel fillings and other fruit and berry semi-finished products and products.


Some vegetables, as practice and scientific research work of the VNIII shows, can be used in confectionery production.

We give some data about the vegetables used in the confectionery industry.


Rhubarb (Rheum rhapoticum L. et al.) Has a relatively long been used in the confectionery industry for cooking jam, for the preparation of mashed potatoes suitable for fillings and so on. N.

Rhubarb is a perennial plant, as vegetable crops can be grown everywhere almost everywhere in Ukraine. Petioles are used, which must be separated from the leaves (the leaves are not harmless, contain oxalic acid more than petioles).


Physalis, the fruit of the plant Physalis aequata Jacq, has, as shown by the work of the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Hydrocarbons, the gelling ability due to the presence of pectic substances. Puree of physalis, as a gelatinous mash of candy type, is suitable for making patas, jelly candies. Physalis is the only type of vegetable that gives a jelly puree.

Physalis can be grown in many regions of the USSR, up to the north. Alpatyev (Gribovskaya vegetable breeding station) developed new varieties of Physalis (Confectionary, Moscow Early, Gruntovoi Fungi), distinguished by properties that are valuable for confectionary production - good taste, gelling ability, yield.

Melons, watermelons, pumpkins

The fruits of melons and vegetables - melons (plants Cucumis melo L.), watermelons (plants Citrullus vulgaris Schard), pumpkins (plants Cucurbita maxima D., C. pepo D. and others) have been used for a relatively long time in the confectionery industry. The skin of watermelons and, to a lesser extent, melons and pumpkins goes for candied fruits and jam. Pumpkin puree, as well as melon (made from pumpkin and melon pulp) can be used to make caramel filling, jam, etc. From the pulp of watermelons, watermelon honey (nardek) is obtained (boiling) suitable for making various sweet products.

The culture of melons, watermelons, pumpkins is very common in the southern regions. Thanks to the work of Soviet breeders and agricultural leaders, new varieties of melons and watermelons were developed and their culture was advanced to the north (Moscow region and more northern areas). Pumpkin is a cold-resistant plant and grows in the northern regions. Valuable for confectionery production are considered pumpkin varieties: Honey, Mozoleevskaya, also Muscatnaja.


Gruner VS Afanasyev NV, Lyubimov II. V. Preparation of jelly confectionary gooseberry. Collection of scientific works IIC them. Plekhanov, vol. 6, Gostorgizdat, 1955.

Gruner V.S., Lebedev V.V., Starostina I.A., Afanasyev N.V., Kadzhaya MP, Nikitina L.M., Lyubimov II. V., Comparative technological assessment of the suitability of certain varieties of apples of the middle strip of the USSR for confectionery (marmalade) production. Collection of Scientific Works of the Ministry of National Economy G.V. Plekhanov, vol. 5, Gostorgizdat, 1954.

Gruner V.S., Starostina I.A. and Reznikova S. B., Afanasyeva N.V., Osmolovskaya V.A. and Nikiforova G.V., Budorag M.G. and Lyubimov P.V. , Technological variety testing of berries for confectionery production, Proceedings of VNII, vol. X, 1954.

Gruner VS, On improving the quality and expanding the range of confectionery products, Collection of scientific works, INH them. G.V. Plekhanov, Gosstorgizdat, vol. 11, 1957.

Saburov N. V. and Antonov M. V., Storage and processing of fruits and vegetables, Selkhozgiz, 1951.

Varieties of fruit and berry crops, ed. AN Venyami new, vol. I, and And Gostorgizdat, 1949.

Table of chemical composition and nutritional value of foods, Medgiz, 1954.

Commodity food, ed. FV Tserevitinova, Vol. I and II, the Gostorgizdat, 1949.

T at r to and V. A N., Use of wild-growing fruit and berry and nut-bearing plants, Selkhozgiz, 1954.

- Tserevitinov FV, Chemistry and commodity research of fresh fruits and vegetables, Gosorgizdat, vol. I and II, 1949.

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