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Raw materials and ingredients

Cocoa beans. (CK)

Characteristics cocoa bean

Commercial cocoa beans are fermented, exempt from the fruit pulp and dried cocoa seeds (Theobroma Sasao L.).

Cocoa beans are the main raw material for making chocolate products and cocoa powder.

Cocoa is cultivated in countries with warm (environments, annual temperature plus 22 - 26 °) and a humid climate.

Cocoa growing areas are located in a strip between the tropics in America, Africa and some Asian islands.

Botanically, the tree species, known as Theobroma Sasao, includes several varieties, of which the main groups are as follows.

Criollo produces a relatively small crop of fruits, but in terms of quality, high-grade cocoa beans (Ceylon, Java, Maracaibo, etc.).

Forastero (Forastero) - yields higher than Criollo, but the quality of the beans is slightly lower than the first group.

The fruit has an oval shape, similar to a large cucumber. Fetal length from 15 to 30 cm and across 6 — 8, see Fetal weight 300 — 500 g.

Fruits contain a pale pink, sweet-tasting pulp in which there are seeds from 25 to 40, similar in shape to beans.

The seeds are white with yellow or pink tint. The taste of bitter and astringent due to the presence in them of a large amount of tannins.

To turn seeds into commercial cocoa beans, they are subjected to special treatment, in which the most important operation is fermentation,

In this process, sweeteners pulp converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Part alcohol, oxidized, converted into acetic acid, which permeates all of the seeds.

Fermentation lasts from 3 to 6 days. The temperature during fermentation reaches 50 °. Fermented cocoa beans lose their ability to germinate.

After fermentation, the fruit pulp is easily separated from the seeds, and the fermented beans usually do not contain pulp on their surface.

As a result of fermentation, significant changes occur in the appearance and taste of cocoa beans.

The color of the beans after fermentation from white or purple becomes brown in different shades.

It appears clearly distinct smell of acetic acid.

Bitter-astringent taste is largely mitigated due to the decrease in the amount of soluble tannin.

After the end of fermentation, the beans are dried in the sun or in special dryers.

On the islands of Ceylon and Java, the cocoa beans are washed with water before drying, so their surface is clean, which is typical of Ceylon and Java varieties.

Cocoa beans Venezuela (America), especially the sort of Caracas, after fermentation usually cover the fine clay. It is believed that after this treatment, they are less exposed to damage by moths and other insects.

Dried cocoa beans are packed in dense bags of 50-60 kg, most often 140 Ang. lb (63,5 kg).

A normally developed pod has a length of 2 to 2,8 cm, a width of 1,2 to 1,6 cm and a thickness of 0,5 to 1 cm. The weight of one bean ranges from 0,8 to 2 g.

The whole bob should be fragile, with the kernel and husk easily separated from each other.

Husk, otherwise known as cocoa shells, is thin or fragile. Under it is a very delicate, transparent film that penetrates into each fold of the core.

The core of a mature bean consists of a large-mass brown mass of varying intensity.

In the expanded part of the bean there is an embryo (or “sprout”). The average size of the germ: length 6 mm, width Г mm.

The main commodity grade cocoa beans

Trade cocoa beans on the quality and value of their cocoa for chocolate production can be divided into the following three groups or classes:

 class - beans of the highest quality;

 class - medium quality beans;

 class - beans below average quality.

Characteristics of the individual grades for each class is given by

Table. 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61.

55 Table. I class the highest quality beans

The name of the country and the variety of cocoa beans

Appearance

Taste and smell

Ceylon island Ceylon The surface is clean, the husks are thin, light brown in color with a reddish tinge. Beans are large, sorted, round shape. The core is light brown in color with a well-developed cellular structure. Taste and flavor is very nice, have a slightly sweet taste
The island of Java Java
North coast of South America

Venezuela

Maracaibo

Puerrto Cabello

Beans large. Husk reddish-brown color. brown kernel Taste and flavor pleasant, pronounced
Caracas Most of the beans are coated on the surface with a thin layer of clay. The beans are large, full. Kernel from light to dark brown Pronounced, pleasant taste and aroma characteristic of chocolate
Karupano Medium sized beans. Husk is brown dense. Kernel from brown to purple color Taste and aroma are good, but coarser than those of Caracas or Maracaibo.
West Coast South America

Ecuador, Arriba- Gvaâkilʹ

The beans are full, round, large, usually slightly wet with remnants of dried fruit pulp. The husk is thick, thick, brown. The core is dark brown The fragrance is exceptionally strong. The taste is slightly bitter, chocolate
Quarter-Gvayakily Arriba like beans, but less homogeneous The aroma is strong, pleasant. The taste is good slightly bitter

56 Table. Class II. the average quality of beans

The name of the country and the variety of cocoa beans Appearance Taste and smell
West Africa

(Golden shore)

Accra

Beans are medium size,

nesortirovannыe. Sheluha

tan or

grayish brown. The core is dark brown

The smell is weak.

The taste is bitter

astringent, often

with a weak sour taste

S. Tomé Beans are mostly

small, dry, clean,

glossy, flat. Husk and kernel brown

The aroma is strong enough

pleasant. Taste

good

Cameroon

(Plantation)

Pods are flat, solid,

medium size

Husk or yellowish

gray-brown. Core

dark brown

The smell is weak.

The taste is slightly bitter and astringent. Often slightly sour

Fernando-In Pods are flat, unsorted. The nucleus is dark brown The smell is weak.

Taste slabogorkogo-astringent

West Indies

Trinidad

Beans are medium size,

flat, clean, glossy, brown. Kernel brown with a reddish tinge

Aroma and taste

good

Grenada Beans are below average size, uniform, clean,

glossy. Husk reddish-brown. The core is dark purple and blue tint

Aroma and taste

well defined, pleasant

Порторико

Domenico

Martinique

Cuba

South America Brazil

Beans are medium in size.

Husk Brown. Core

dark purple color

The aroma is weak,

but pleasant.

Taste good

Baya (top quality) Pods are flat, the surface is unclean, grayish

Brown color. Core

dark brown

Beans are a good

fermentation

have a satisfactory taste and aroma

Costa Rica

Guatemala

Beans are medium in size.

The husk and the kernel brown

The aroma is gentle, pleasant.

Taste good

57 table. Grade III - beans below average quality

The name of the country and the variety of cocoa beans Appearance Taste and smell
Accra, Afrika Cameroon and Nigeria, Lagos

Bahia America, Haiti, Jamaica, Couple

The beans are heterogeneous in size and quality, mostly small, poorly fermented. Unclean surface The smell is very weak or mixed with foreign odors that are not characteristic of cocoa beans.

The taste is rough, bitter, astringent with a sour taste

note. Beans class III can be in each class. The table contains the most typical in this respect of the variety.

Table 58 average weight of certain varieties of cocoa beans in classes

Grade Weight in g Pieces 100.
Trinidad class I  138
II   120
III 98
Grenada  class I 120
II   95
Caracas I    130
Bhalla I    118
Accra class I 128
II 115
III 105

59 Table. Exemplary indicators of volume and weight of cocoa beans

Grade Weight (g) 1 l beans The number of beans per liter Weight (g) 100 pieces. beans Specific weight of beans
Accra 579 531 109 0,92
600 531 OF 0,95
Bhalla     666 659 101 1,06
Arriba   611 473 127 0,97
Haiti    652 836 78 1,03
Java 525 582 90 0,83
520 496 105 0,82
Maracaibo 556 429 130 0,88
S. Tomé 603 498 120 0,96
683 621 110 1,08
Venezuela     584 464 126 0,93

60 Table. The composition of the cocoa bean commodity of normal quality

Name of parts Quantity in% Note
Core

husk

embryo

89,3 – 85,0

10,0 – 14,5

0,6 – 1,0

In cocoa beans smeared with clay (for example, Caracas variety), the amount of husk reaches 15 — 16%

Table number 61 husk on certain varieties

Grade Husk in% Grade Husk in%
Accra    10,8 – 12,8 Ceylon   9,8 – 10,3
Trinidad 11 – 13,5 Java  9,5-10
S. Tomé 11,5-13,5 Bhalla 11 – 13,5
Grenada 12,5-14,5 Costa Rica 11-13,5
Arriba   12,5 – 14 Caracas 13 – 16

62 Table. The chemical composition of cocoa beans commodity of normal quality

Name components Quantity in%
core husk embryo
Water (loss in weight on drying) 4-6 6-12 5-7
Fat (Crude)   48-54 1,2-4 2,3 – 3,5
Protein substances 11,8 – 15,2 12,2-15,8 24,5
Starch 6,5 – 10 3,6 – 5,4
Tannins 3,2-5,8 0,7 – 1,3
theobromine     0,8 – 2,1 0,4 – 1 1,7
Caffeine   0,05 – 0,34 0,11-0,19 0,2
Fibre     2,8 – 3,5 13-18 2,6-3
Pentozanı 1,2 – 1,8 7,5-10,6
organic acids 0,7 – 2,3 _
Including volatile acids (for acetic acid) 0,05 – 0,5
Acidity% in total 10 – 18 17 – 24
Ash total    2,2-4 6,5 – 9 6,2 – 7,2
Ash does not dissolve in 10% strength NS1   0,07 – 0,2 0,2 – 1,1 0,02 – 0,04
Nitrogen-free extractives 7,0 – 10

The basic properties of the components of cocoa beans

theobromine (With 3,7dimetilksantin5Н2(SN3) 2N4О2). Crystalline powder (colorless needles of rhombic system), bitter taste. It is sublimated without melting at 290 °. It is difficult to dissolve in cold water (1: 1700), even harder - in cold alcohol. When heated, the solubility increases slightly. It is dissolved in warm chloroform. It is difficult to form compounds with acids and easily with bases. It excites the nervous system.

Caffeine (1, 3, 7 - trimethylxanthine C5H (SN3)N4O2 • n2ABOUT).

Forms shiny needles. Melting point 234 — 235 °. Soluble in 80 parts of cold water, 2 parts of hot water, 50 parts of alcohol and 9 parts of chloroform. It acts stimulantly on the central nervous system.

Tannins. In fermented beans, tannins are products of varying degrees of catechin condensation. Soluble in water and have a pronounced astringent taste. As a result of further condensation under the influence of heat, exposure to oxygen in the air and acids, high-molecular, amorphous, reddish-brown, water-insoluble substances are formed - phlobaphenes.

Pigments are dyes of cocoa beans, known as red cocoa (cocoa), very similar in composition and properties to catechin and flobaphene. Red cocoa is slightly soluble in water, has astringent and bitter taste, dissolves when heated in alcohol.

Determination of the quality of cocoa beans

If a batch of cocoa beans arrived at the warehouse consists of several varieties, it is divided into individual varieties by marking on the bags. Separately, samples are taken from each variety for 100 — 150 g, but not less than from 10% of the number of bags.

The selected portions are thoroughly mixed and an average grade sample is taken from them in approximately 1 kg, which is subjected to a bean quality test in the following order.

  • Determine the appearance and smell. The beans should not be foreign smell and especially mold.
  • The beans with normal smell determine the average weight of 100 pieces, which should be based on the type and grade in the range of up to 100 160, the
  • Determine the moisture content of the beans, which should be no more than 8%, since at higher humidity the beans grow moldy.
  • Determine the number of beans with external defects. To do this, the average of the sample is weighed 200 or 300 g cocoa beans and share them on the grounds set out in

Table. 63.

Table 63

Character defects grade beans Accra The approximate amount in weight. %
With fruit pulp      3
On the surface mold 2
Skinny and underdeveloped    2
Conjoined     1
broken 1

Determine the amount (in wt.%) Beans from internal defects.

64 table. To do this, we average 100 or 200 of whole beans from an average sample and, cutting them along with a knife, sort them out by the characteristics given in table. 64.

Defects bean varieties Accra Estimated quantity in weight. %
Beans not fermented (purple or black color) 3
Beans from the inner mold 1
Beans damaged by pests, indicating whether an active pest has been detected (caterpillar, moth, testicles, bugs, etc. insects)   

1

(Active pests not found)

The quality assessment of the beans is done in accordance with the general technical specifications for the acceptance of the beans and the special ones specified in the contracts.

Technical conditions of acceptance of cocoa beans

For the confectionery industry of the Soviet Union, cocoa beans are imported raw materials and therefore the technical conditions for their acceptance are subject to the requirements of international trade.

These requirements in relation to the quality of cocoa beans are as follows:

  •  beans must not be musty, must not have a foreign smell;
  •  cocoa beans must be fully mature and well fermented (mature beans are characterized by a highly developed cellular structure, which is clearly visible in the longitudinal section);
  •  The number of lean, fused, broken, glued and contaminated beans should be minimal;
  •  Cocoa beans have to be rounded, full, healthy, with intact shell;
  •  humidity should be no more than 8%;

 under standard contracts, the quality of cocoa beans is characterized by:

a) fermentation of the beans good (good fermented);

b) conventional fermentation beans (fair fermented);

 cocoa beans for good fermentation tolerance of no more than 5% underfermented and not more than 5% damaged beans;

 for cocoa beans, the usual fermentation allows for no more than 10% underfermented and no more than 10% damaged.

For underfermented beans are purple, slate color. Damaged beans are those damaged by pests and mold.

Storage of cocoa beans

During storage, cocoa beans can mold and be damaged by pests - insects (moths, bugs, etc.). Therefore, the organization of their proper storage requires the creation of such conditions under which these harmful phenomena would be eliminated or in any case their appearance would be as small as possible.

Basic conditions for storage of cocoa beans.

  1. For the storage of cocoa beans required isolated from other warehouses. Apart from the general facilities, a warehouse must have two or three separate chambers for temporary storage of beans infected by pests.
  2. Floor, ceiling and walls of the warehouse should be smooth, without cracks, which could serve as a place to stay moth

Such requirements are well suited stone building, covered in plaster and whitewashed chalk paint.

The storage area is best covered with asphalt. Use is not recommended for interior decoration of open timber.

  1. The cocoa beans contain acetic acid, which during storage beans gradually evaporates. therefore the coloring inside the warehouse should be done with paint without lead compounds.
  2. The warehouse should be dry, bright, equipped with a heating device (heaters) for heating the air in cold weather in order to avoid dew.

There should also be well ventilated, capable of creating a strong enough air circulation in the stock.

Ventilation (exhaust) should provide (in dry weather) a threefold exchange of air in the room for an hour, bearing in mind that the intensive movement of air greatly interferes with the development of moths and molds.

  1. Humidity in the stock must not exceed 80% (relative humidity).
  2. The temperature in the warehouse should be as low as possible (the temperature below 8 ° significantly retards the development of moths and molds) without violating the specified humidity rate.
  3. Bags of beans are placed on racks in stacks in loose rows, so that each of them may be more weathered air.
  4. When releasing cocoa beans from the warehouse, the consumption system should be observed, according to which batches are supplied to the production in the order in which they arrived at the warehouse. An exception is made to those parties that need urgent processing.
  5. For normal storage of cocoa beans for each ton, an area of ​​at least 1 м2 is required. Such a rule provides for the height of the warehouse stack 8 — 9 rows and space for passage between the piles and walls of the warehouse.
  6. The most effective pest control measure is the heat treatment of each batch of beans received by the warehouse.

Both the beans and the bags are heated to 60 — 65 ° and kept at this temperature for 10 — 15 minutes. Only after such processing, the beans arrive for long-term storage in the warehouse,

This heat treatment is performed in this specially constructed using cells or continuous drying machines.

The affected party must be temporarily stored in a separate chamber and must be applied to the production in the first place.

In order to avoid insect infestation in the production premises of the workshop, the sorting and roasting of cocoa beans should be carried out in isolation from further cocoa chocolate production operations.

 Cocoa beans, the humidity of which is higher than 8%, are sent for drying or, if they do not smell, mold - for production.

 At least once a year, warehouse premises are in turn freed from beans, and sanitary institutions perform disinsection, disinfection and whitewashing of the ceiling and walls.

References

Confectionery Technology, ed. prof. AL Rapoport, Part I, Pishchepromizdat. 1940.

F i ncke H., Handbook of Kakaoerzengnisse, Berlin, 1936.

С h a 11 M., Cacoa, New York, 1953.

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