Emulsion, emulsifiers and diluents. Various hydrocolloids. (SK)


Pectin is an integral part of fruits, berries, vegetables, leaves, stems, roots and other plant parts. Fruit and berry raw material used in the confectionery industry, contains pectin, which determines the basic technological properties of the raw material (the ability to studneobrazovaniyu) and the quality of finished products (zasaharivaniya resistance and wet).

Besides pectin used in native form, ie. E. Pectin present in plant tissue, fruit and berries and semi recently become widespread preparations pectin released from the pectin or other materials.

Food pectin, produced in dry and liquid form, is used as studneobrazuyuschego agent in the manufacture of jelly, fruit and berry products (jelly, jam, marmalade, fruit sweets).

For industrial production of pectin commonly used apple processing of waste (pomace, obtained as a waste product of juice and wine) and citrus fruit (peel oranges, lemons and grapefruits).

In Ukraine, for the first time organized the production of a new type of pectin from plant waste - baskets of threshed ( "caps") sunflower.

Ukraine has developed and introduced into practice the technological scheme of production of high-quality studneobrazuyuschego pectin from sugar beet pulp.

Pectin content in various types of raw materials as follows:

Type of raw materialsSoderzhanie pectin in%
Dry citrus crust:
oranges 30-40
grapefruit 35-40
mandarinov 7-10
Dry beet pulp 25-40
Air-dry sunflower basket18-23
Dried apple pomace to 18

Pectin is a mixture of substances of carbohydrate nature, in plants which are obtained as a result of disintegration of cellulose and hemicellulose. Pectin complex is based on the polygalacturonic core consisting of galacturonic acid residues of many interconnected open valences main chain of the pectin molecule.

The carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid residues are saturated in one way or another the radicals methyl alcohol CH30.

Pectin polygalacturonic chain is represented as follows:3.1

Each chain link is a six-membered ring of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

The number of links in the chain in the molecule of pectin reaches 1000.

As related substances in the pectin molecule are involved galactose, arabinose and Araban.

The molecular weight of pectin ranges 25 000- 100 000.

The amount of the molecular weight of the pectin is a measure of its ability to studneobrazovaniyu.

Pectin swells easily, it is dissolved in cold and hot water.

Aqueous solutions have high viscosity pectin.

Alcohol, acetone, precipitated polyvalent metal salt of pectin is its solutions.

When cooking pectin with sugar and water (sugar concentration should be 60-70%), it forms a strong jellies.

Temperature zastudeneniya pectin-sugar solution ranges 65-75 ° and depends on the individual characteristics of pectin.

In order to accelerate and increase studneobrazovaniya pectin jelly strength acid is added.

Optimum pH for studneobrazovaniya pectin is within 3,2 + 0,2.

The above data studneobrazovaniya and conditions are so-called normal, ie. E. Methoxylated pectin (with a content of methoxyl group is not below 7%). Recently, however, created the so-called industrial production nizkometilirovannyh pectin (containing methyl ester groups below 6%).

Feature nizkometilirovannyh pectin is that they are able to form jellies sugar with a small amount (about 35% sugar by weight jelly) or jellies with polyvalent metal ions, sugar-called ionnosvyazannye jellies. These species are used to prepare pectin jellies sweet with a minimum content of sugar or gels that do not contain sugar, and destined for salads, mayonnaise and the like. N.

Pectin is different from agar increased sensitivity to heat, especially at temperatures above 70 °. Increasing the temperature and duration of heating a mixture containing pectin studneobrazuyuschey weakens the ability of the pectin.

Pectin is characterized by a high resistance (compared to agar and agaroid) relative to the acid. It is essential for the production process of fruit products, occurring mostly in an acidic environment.

Requirements for the quality of powdered pectin from sunflower baskets regulated VTU 382 MPPT USSR.

WTU provides powder color from grayish-white to yellowish, taste -slabokisly without foreign taste and odor.

Normal powder moisture%no more 14
Common ash in%no more 3,5
The content of pectin for pectates in%however 68
Number% methoxyl groupshowever 6,0
pH 1% tion of pectin solution3,2-3,5

Ability to studneobrazovaniyu evaluated in a special unit effort (required to break a standard cake jelly> 225 g / sm2.

The dosage of the pectin powder tin of fruit jelly is 1,25-1,5% to the weight of the finished product.

Powdered pectin packed in tin cans, made of durable cardboard or paper casting a net weight up to 4,5 kg.

Transport and storage of pectin should be carried out at a relative humidity less than 85% and at a temperature not higher than 30 °.

Shelf life 6 months.

Агароид ( "черноморский агар")

Agaroid - studneobrazuyuschee substance similar in its physical and chemical properties to Hagar, and in some respects to the pectin.

Agaroid prepared from the crimson algae genus phyllophora, extensive thickets of which are in the north-western part of the Black Sea, in the triangle of Sevastopol-Odessa-Ackerman.

On the basis of these large-scale production of algae created agaroid in Odessa.

Technological processes of production agaroid Phyllophora developed for the first time in Ukraine.

The chemical composition and structure agaroid still insufficiently investigated. According Kobzarenko, comprising agaroid contain galactose, glucose and fructose, sulfur, Ia, Ca M £, a small amount of the acetyl groups. It is slightly soluble in cold water and well in hot.

The aqueous solutions (sols) form after cooling agaroid Jellies (Gels) starting 0,8-1,0% concentration.

In terms of production capacity for confectionery studneobrazovaniyu agaroid 3 approximately less times than agar and 2 2,5-fold lower than the pectin. For agaroid-saharovodnogo jelly (with a concentration of 70% sugar) need about 3% agaroid to the weight of the finished jelly.

Melting point agaroid-aqueous sugar-jelly (3% agaroid, 67% of sugar, 30% water) 40-45 °.

zastudeneniya temperature in the presence of acid is close to the temperature of the pectin jelly, t. e. to 70 °.

Agaroid similar to pectin in their sensitivity to heat and agar on increased sensitivity to acid.

Hydrophilic properties (ability to hold water) are expressed in agaroid weaker than agar and pectin, as a consequence of its resistance against drying jellies saccharification and lower than that of agar and pectin jellies.

Agaroid roller drying is produced in the form of films, and also in the form of rings cut dried in air.

Gelatin 1

Gelatin - gelling agents. animal origin, which is the beginning of the current is gluten. The latter is a complex protein compound obtained by thermal hydrolysis of collagen, or ossein, which is contained in the skins, tendons, cartilage and bones of land animals.

The empirical formula of collagen (ossein)


by the hydrolysis of its merger with one molecule of H20 получается глютин:


Gelatin is insoluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, absolute alcohol and other organic solvents.

When heated, the gelatin softens, swells and char with the release of the odor of burnt horn.

In cold water and in dilute acids gelatin swells, it absorbs at room temperature 10-15-fold amount of water, turning gradually into jelly.

In hot water, gelatin is readily soluble. When cooling the hot solution he studeneet (for the formation of a weak jelly should be not less than 1% gelatin).

Aqueous gelatin jellies by heating to melt a certain temperature, when re-cooling structure jelly restored.

Gelatin Jellies are very sensitive to temperature: when heated above 60 ° ability of gelatin to studneobrazovaniyu weakens when heated with acids and alkalis it loses this ability.

According to current standards distinguish gelatin food, technical and photographic.

Gelatin comes in the form of transparent sheets or plates, powder or grit.

Gelatin should give colorless (yellow to light) solutions. its humidity no higher than 16%, ash content - not more than 2%.

The foaming properties of gelatin.

10% strength solution of jelly in degrees on a special device not less than 500.

Microbial resistance 5% solution is characterized by the persistence of at least 7 days.

By its ability to studneobrazovaniyu under confectionery manufacture gelatin weaker 5-8 times agar and pectin. Gelatin-sugar jellies are highly sensitive to acids.

In the food industry the gelatin used for making sweet jelly and fillings for fish and meat dishes and canned goods, ice cream, for clarification of wine, beer and others.

On confectioneries USSR gelatin, agar previously used as a substitute in the production of marshmallow.

In practice abroad confectionery manufacture gelatine used as antikristallizatora in the manufacture of fondant chocolates and as a structure for special products called marshmelou close in structure to our marshmallow.


Algina - short for preparations of alginic acid obtained from brown seaweed species Laminaria digitata, Laminaria Hyperborea and kind of fuchsias.

Alginic acid, derived from processing of algae is the polymerization product of mannuronic acid consisting of mannuronic acid anhydride C5Н704 SOON.

By Yevtushenko alginic acid is an equilibrium mixture of polymannuronic acid and polyanhydride.3.2

Currently, a number of options for industrial production method of alginic acid and its preparations.

Alginic acid and its salts, with the exception of alkali metal salts and magnesium, it is difficult to dissolve in water.

Cold water soluble alginic acid compound in a concentration-dependent form viscous solutions or jellies.

Strong acids (NS1 or H2SO4) Alginic acid precipitated from its aqueous solutions to form a gel or solid precipitate fibrillation.

The alcohol solutions with alcohol concentrations above 50%, chloroform, glycerin, ether and other organic solvents alginic acid is practically insoluble.

Strong bases and potassium and sodium salts thereof have an effect on algin depolymerization. The latter is also very sensitive to the action of an acidic medium with a pH <5,5.

alginic acid drugs marketed in the form of alkali metal alginates, often in the form of NH4 salt. They have recently been widely used in various branches of food industry as a stabilizer or emulsifier, in particular in the manufacture of ice cream, mayonnaise, dairy industry and others.

Greater sensitivity to alginates to acid (pH of the medium should be at least 6,0) and heating limits their use in the confectionery industry.

In the production of confectionery alginates may be applied only when it is not required to prepare a strong jellies amenable to cutting knife, t. E. Only for weak gels, creams, do not suffer in the process of production of the action of strong heat. In some cases, alginates can be used as antikristallizatorov.

alginates formulations are prepared in powder moisture content of about 20%. Quality control their viscosity 1% solution.

Powder studneobrazovaniyu ability to degrade during storage. Neutral or slightly acidic preparations are more resistant in storage than the drugs that are slightly alkaline reaction.

Insoluble salts such as calcium alginate dry, have good storage stability.

Extract carrageenan (Irish moss extract)

Carrageenan-extract - studneobrazuyuschee substance obtained from the crimson algae species Chondrus crispus (the so-called Irish moss), which grows on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean (in the UK, Ireland, France, USA).

Studneobrazuyuschim current start-carrageenan extract is carrageenin, which is a polysaccharide sulfate ester consisting of galactose residues t. E. It is similar in composition agar.

Gelling agents of the carrageenan has recently become widespread in the United States, France, England.

Dry extract (5-6% humidity) soluble in water at -nagrevanii. According to reports, the ability to studneobrazovaniyu close to that of agar and pectin. It is used as a stabilizer for milk (add it in an amount in 0,04% milk at 70 ° ensures the formation of a solid suspension of casein).

0,5% of dry extract carrageenan-dayut- milk durable jelly, which is used as a basis for milk puddings and other products.

There are indications that the application-carrageenan extract in the confectionery industry as gelling agents for the so-called pipe jelly fillings marshmelou, as a stabilizer in the production of milk chocolate, ice cream and biscuit creams.

Various hydrocolloids

Also gelling agents in the confectionery industry uses a variety of hydrophilic colloids, which are closer to the considered group of substances in certain respects. Primarily this includes modified (modified) starch, as well as the so-called gum (gum) - water soluble adhesives plant carbohydrate nature. Of the latter should indicate: tragacanth, acacia, cherry gum glue and other.

These products differ from typical gelling agents in that they are (does not have the ability to form a strong structure without a strong Gelatinous prescription boiling mixtures.

Modified (Modified) Starch, Prepared according to the VKNII scheme, is obtained from ordinary (native) starch by weak acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. The modified starch differs from the ordinary ability to form a paste with a lower viscosity compared to that of a conventional starch paste, so it is convenient for them to use confectionery production (for cutting and casting). With the introduction of modified starch (with moisture up to 10%), it is possible to receive candies such as shaped jelly marmalade in the formula mixture. The amount of starch introduced is about 10% by weight of finished products. Candies of this type must be cast into soft forms (starch or sugar). In addition, conventional starch is used for the preparation of products such as rahat-lukum, etc.

Gum (gum) - Resinous substances isolated from plants as amorphous mass capable of hardening in air. According to their chemical nature, these substances occupy an intermediate position between hemicellulose and pectin. The bulk of these substances comprise carbohydrates (hexoses and pentoses), galactose, arabinose, xylose and uronic acid and other (mostly galacturonic).

The confectionery industry of Ukraine used the following gums: tragacanth, acacia, cherry gum adhesive.

Tragacanth collected from the branches shrub species Astragalus plant, native to Asia Minor countries (Syria, Lebanon and others.). Embossed on the surface of the bark plant liquid mass hardens within a few days to a state of the horny substance, taking a particular form with random color changing from pale yellow to brown.

Hydrolysis gives pentose and metilpektozy. Slowly soluble in water, to accelerate dissolution of powdered tragacanth moistened with alcohol and water in a ratio poured 1: 75, 1: 100.

Gum arabic (acacia) It obtained from various

species of acacia trees, which grow mainly in Africa. According to recent studies, an important component of the gum arabic is aldobionovaya acid C12Н20О12Which gives the acid hydrolysis d-glucoronic acid linked to galactose.

Cherry gum glue secreted by cherry, plum and

apricot trees. The chemical composition is very similar to gum arabic.

Gums are used in the confectionery industry as adhesives and stabilizers for jewelry, for making special products with rezinoobraznoy type structure chewy sweets for diabetic confectionery.

In practice abroad confectionery manufacture are used edible vegetable gum, known by various names: chicle-gum, gum karaya, Jeollanam-gum and others.


VTU 382 MPPT USSR. Pectin food.

GOST 6470-53. Agar.

Zikeev BV, Water Recycling non-fish raw, Picard schepromizdat, 1950.

Ognyan new Il., Karakolev T., M. Marinov, VTRHU, Some peculiarities of pektinovato zheleobrazuvane. Sofia, 1952.

Confectionery Technology, ed. prof. AL Rapoport, Part I, Pishchepromizdat, 1951.

Advances in Chemistry Series 11, Natural Plant Hydrocolloids, ACS, Washington, 1954.

Hottenroth example, the pectins and their use, Munich, 1951.

Kertesz Z. L., The Pectic Substances, New York, 1951.

Maass H., The pectins, Braunschweig, 1951.

Emulsion, emulsifiers and diluents

Under emulsions realize a uniform mixture of two mutually insoluble and immiscible liquids together. The emulsions * individual small droplets of one liquid surrounded by another liquid.

Fluid in fragmented condition is called the dispersed phase and the liquid forming the continuous phase, called the dispersion medium.

Fats with water can form two types of emulsion: oil in water, generally denoted "oil-water" or "oil-water" in the fat and water, usually denoted "oil-water". The emulsions "oil-water" oil is the dispersed phase and water is the dispersion medium, and emulsions "oil-water", in contrast, water is the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium fat. Emulsions of one type can move in an emulsion of another type. For example, when churning the cream emulsion "oil-water" emulsion of partially converted into "oil-water".

To obtain a stable concentrated emulsion mixture should be administered stabilizers (emulsifiers), which form a protective layer on the adsorption surface of the individual droplets of the dispersed phase.

When administered emulsifiers, soluble in water, it forms an emulsion "oil-water" but when administered emulsifiers, fat-soluble - "oil-water".

Particularly good emulsifying ability possess so-called balanced emulsifiers, in which the ratio of the lipophilic (hydrophobic) groups (fatty acid radical) and hydrophilic groups corresponds emulsion type.

Balanced emulsifiers are the breakers of chocolate and candy mass. The role of the breakers, according to Academician PA Rehbinder, is to ensure that they are adsorbed on the solid particles coagulation centers, causing a complete solvation of the dispersion medium, eliminating the possibility of coagulation clutch, and determine its highest turnover.

Dilutes the ability of diluent is determined by any viscometer and calculated according to the formula3.3

where: - diluting capacity;

ƞ1-viscosity in poise chocolate before the introduction of diluent;

ƞ2- viscosity in poise after the introduction of diluent.

To determine the diluting capacity necessary to take the chocolate mass (well mixed) temperature 40 °, containing 30-32% fat.

Characteristics émwlgatorov and razjïjïteley

In the confectionery industry as emulsifiers used proteins, phosphatides kamedb and saponins, that are part of the mixture and prescription specifically as emulsifiers are not introduced.

As emulsifiers and diluents normally added specifically phosphatides and synthetic surfactants.

Phosphatides from soy lecithin is used. Soy lecithin is obtained by hydration of soy oil. It is a mixture of lecithin and kephaline3.4

where R1 and R2 -ostatki fatty acids.

Kefalonia belongs to the same group of compounds as lecithin, but its members instead of choline [HO (CH3) 3NСН2SN2OH] number includes an amine (NH2SN2SN2HE). Kefalonia is a derivative of a-glitserinofosfornoy acid.

Product lecithin contains about 60% lecithin and Kefalonia and about 40% fat. The oil increases the resistance of lecithin in storage. Soy Lecithin is a good emulsifier and a diluent. His diluting the ability of the introduction of 0,3% by weight of chocolate mass not less than 3.


emulsifier VNÏÏJ

(Gidrofilʹnye Lipiny the polyglycerin)

Hydrophilic Lipiny on polyglycerol obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oils polyglycerol.

Typically, for an emulsifier ARSRIF originate from triglycerides with some content of diglycerol.

Primernaя formula gidrofilьnыh lipinov of poliglicerinah3.5

where R-fatty acid radical.

Dilutes the ability of the introduction of 0,3% by weight of chocolate mass at least 2,4.

Tverdıy emulsifier T1

T1 solid emulsifier is mainly a mixture of mono- and diglycerides. He is a weak diluent.

emulsifier T2

The approximate formula is as follows:3.7

The approximate formula is as follows:3.6

Hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of an emulsifier depends on the ratio of mono- and diglycerides.

where R - radical of stearic acid.

Emulsifier T2 is very weak diluent.

Oxidized oil (polymerized)

These emulsifiers are obtained by oxidation of vegetable oils with high iodine number at about 250 ° prior to gelation at room temperature. They provide an emulsion of the "oil-water".

These oils are good emulsifiers and diluents.

Oxidized oils for bakery products

These oils are prepared by oxidation of a mixture of equal amounts of oils with high iodine number and a low temperature 160- 170 ° for 6 hours.

They are used to improve the structure of the baked goods.


Clayton V., emulsions. Their theory and technical application. Translation from English ed. Acad. PA Rehbinder, ed. Foreign Literature, 1950.

Kozin, NI, Food emulsion Pshtsepromizdat, 1950.

Berkman S. and Е g 1 о f f G., Emulsions and Fooms, Edit. Reinhold.. New York, 1947.

Kuhn A., colloid chemical Tasö ^ ienbuch, 4, edition,

Akad. Publishing Company, Leipzig, \ l 953.

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