Raw materials and ingredients

Fats. (CK)

In the confectionery industry, natural vegetable fats, artificially cured (hydrogenated) vegetable fats and emulsions like butter are mainly used.

Fats increase the nutritional value of confectionery products, improve their taste, contribute to the preservation of the aroma of products and structure.

Depending on the chemical composition, the fats may be solid, liquid or ointment-like.

The chemical composition and properties of the fat

Fats are a complex mixture of different triglycerides.

In general terms, triglycerides are in the form:1

where R1, R2 and R3- residues of fatty acids.

The composition includes triglycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

The composition of acids varies in different fats. Glycerin is a permanent part for all fats.

The individual properties of fats are determined by the nature and relative quality of the fat-forming triglycerides, whose properties depend on the quality and location in the molecule of the fatty acids that make up their composition.

Liquid vegetable oils contain a significantly larger number of unsaturated fatty acids than solid fats.

Substance related fats

In addition to a mixture of triglycerides, fats contain substances that are soluble in the same solvents, but have a different chemical composition.

Related substances include phosphatides, sterols, lipochromes (coloring matter) and vitamins. These substances increase the value of fat as a food product and contribute to the normal development of the body.


Phosphatides are substances that are very close to fats. By chemical nature, they are esters formed by glycerol and fatty acids, but differ from fat in that their molecules include a phosphoric acid residue and a nitrogenous compound.

The fats usually contain lecithin phosphatide (see. P. 181).


From sterols in animal fats mainly contains cholesterol in the free and bound state. Vegetable fats contain phytosterols.

A characteristic feature of fats is their ability to easily change under the influence of various external influences or under the action of reagents.

Fat splitting is a hydrolytic process that results in the breakdown of fat into glycerol and fatty acids; if splitting is done with alkali solutions, then the fat forms glycerin and alkali salts of the fatty acids of the soap.

Schematically, splitting and saponification process is expressed by the following equations:2

Hydrolysis of fats can be caused by the action of water, water vapor, acids, alkalis, and enzymes.

Saponification of fats with an alcoholic solution of potassium alkali is used in determining the numbers of saponification and acid.

Fats containing unsaturated fatty acids, readily react with halogens, hydrohalic acids and Rodan, which join them at the place of the double bonds. These properties

MIs are used in determining iodine and rhodan numbers, which characterize the degree of unsaturation of fats and allow us to decide on the quantitative composition of a mixture of unsaturated acids in fats.

The food value of fat

High nutritional value of fats is determined by the fact that they are the least oxygenated compounds capable of the complete oxidation (to CO2 and H2O) highlight the “greatest amount of heat.

The heat of combustion of fats compared with proteins and carbohydrates is characterized by the following values:

1 g fat gives about 9500 mud
1 g protein 5500
1 g carbohydrate 4000

During the combustion of fats, more water is formed than when other nutrients are burned, due to the higher hydrogen content:

1 g fat forms 1,07 g of water
1 g carbohydrate 0,55
1 G protein 0,41

The perceived fat is hydrolyzed by the body and is emulsified in the digestive tract. The ability of a fat to emulsify and absorb by the body depends on its melting point. Most digestible fats with a melting point of up to 37 °.

By digestibility, we understand a certain part of the fat (in%), which is beneficially perceived by the body. The digestibility of some fats by the human body is as follows (in%) •

Oil cocoa About 95
Butter 93 – 98,5
Margarine      94 – 97

Characteristics of the individual fat used in the confectionery industry

Oil cocoa

Belongs to the group of solid fats that do not contain volatile acid glycerides.

The oil is extracted from cocoa beans that contain up to 58%-cocoa butter.

The cake remaining after the oil has been pressed contains 18 — 22% butter and is used to produce cocoa powder.

Cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolate, candy cases, fillings, as well as in the pharmaceutical and perfume industries.

Fresh cocoa butter has a yellowish color and a pleasant smell of cocoa. Oil well crystallized at temperatures below 20 ° has a high hardness, brittleness, non-spotting surface and crystalline structure.

Natural cocoa butter figures

Specific gravity:
at 40 ° 0,9206
   100° 0,857-0,858
melting 32 — 36 °
pour 22 — 27 °
Refractive index:
at 40 ° 1,4560 – 1,4578
„60 ° 1,4489-1,4496
Physical indicators of cocoa butter acid
melting 48 — 52 °
pour point (titer) 45 — 51 °
refraction coefficient 1,4475
Chemical-cocoa butter figures
saponification number 192 – 200
The number of generators 95-96
Number Reichert-Meysslya 0,1 – 0,4
number Polensky 0,5-1,0
Iodine number 34 – 36
Rodanovoe number 32 – 35
The acid number is around 1,0 – 1,5
Acid composition (in%)
Palmytynovoy acid 23-24
Stearinovoy 34 – 35
Oleinovoy 39-40
linoleic to 2
Glyceride composition (in%)
Dioleopalmitin 4
Dypalmytostearyn 2,5
Oleodypalmytyn 7,0
Oleopalmytostearyn 53,0
Oleodistearin 18,5
Dioleostearin 4 5
Oleolynoleopalmytyn 4,5
Oleolinoleostearin 4,5
Free fatty acid 1,1
unsaponifiable 0,4

Triglycerides of cocoa butter to form a solid solution, therefore, cocoa butter, like the triglyceride individual possesses polymorphisms.

Polymorphism is the ability of a substance with a constant chemical composition to form various crystalline forms with different physicochemical properties — a crystalline structure, melting point, density, transparency, etc. Cocoa butter has the following four points of polymorphic transformations.

γ - Phase (Metastable, amorphous) 18°
α - Phase (Metastable crystalline) 26°
β1 - Phase (Metastable crystalline) 28°
β - Phase (A stable, crystalline) 32 - 36 °

When tempering and casting chocolate, the metastable forms of the oil turn into a stable one with simultaneous disruption of the homogeneity of the solution. This process continues in the finished chocolate and causes fat bloom, which can be delayed or prevented by the addition of surfactants.

Coconut oil

Belongs to the group of fats containing significant amounts of glycerides of low molecular weight acids.

The consistency of coconut oil at room temperature is close to that of baked ghee. The color of the oil is white.

Coconut oil is used in the production of many varieties of chocolates and caramels and fillings for wafers.

Physical indicators of coconut oil

Specific gravity at 15 ° 0,925 – 0,926
melting 20-28 °
pour 14-25 °
Refractive index at 40 °. 1,4478-1,4497

Physical indicators acids of coconut oil

melting 24-27 °
pour 16 — 25 °
Chemical indicators of coconut oil
saponification number 242 – 269
The number of generators 86-92
Iodine number 5 – 10
Rodanovoe number 7,5 – 9,6

Acid composition (in%)

caproic acid 0,2 – 2,0
Kaprilovoй 4,5 – 9,7
capric 4,5-10,0
lauric 45 – 51
myristic 13-18,5
Palmytynovoy 7,5 – 10,0
Stearinovoy 1 – 3
Oleinovoy 5 – 8,3
linoleic Until 2,6

The composition of coconut oil includes 15 — 20% volatile acids, of which soluble to 2%.


It is not a homogeneous chemical composition of the product and consists of the same substances as milk. The approximate composition of butter is as follows (in%).

Protein       1,1
lactose       0,5
Minerals       0,2
Water      15,2

Acid composition of milk fat (in%)

butyric acid 2,93
kapron 1,90
Kaprilovoй 0,79
capric 1,57
lauric 5,85
myristic 19,78
Palmytynovoy 15,17
Stearinovoy 14,91
arachidic 0,60
Oleinovoy 31,89

The melting point of milk fat is 28 — 30 °, the pour point is 15 — 25 ° (this pour point refers to milk fat separated from milk and re-melted, that is, to the fat in the form of a solid fat phase), the saponification number 218 — 235, iodine number 25 — 47, the number of volatile soluble acids 23 — 35%.

Butter has caloric 7672, high digestibility, contains vitamins A, D and E.

Butter is classified according to the method of manufacturing (Table. 70).

70 Table. Classification of butter

Type of oil Characterization
Vologda butter Unsalted butter made from sweet pasteurized cream, having a taste and aroma of pasteurized cream (nutty flavor)
sladkoslivochnoe Salted or unsalted butter made from sweet pasteurized cream
Kisloslivochnoe Salted or unsalted butter, made from pasteurized cream, fermented with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria
cheese Salted, sweet creamy or sour cream made from cheese pasteurized cream obtained during the separation of cheese whey

Each type of oil, depending on its quality, refers? one of the following varieties: Extra, the highest, the I, II.

The composition of the butter shown in Table. 71.

71 Table. The composition of butter (in%)

Type of oil Water Fat Salt Fat-free solids
Kisloslivochnoe, salty 13,8 83,9 1,3 1,00
Kisloslivochnoe, without salt 14,3 84,6 1,10
sladkoslivochnoe 12,8 85,9 1,20

In the confectionery industry, butter is used for the production of various creams, individual varieties of candy, toffee, biscuits and cakes.


Margarine is called an artificially prepared food product similar to butter to taste, color, aroma and texture. Margarine is an emulsion of water in oil, or oil in water, or a mixed emulsion.

Margarine on digestibility is almost equivalent to butter (Table. 72).

72 Table. Assimilation of margarine and butter

Nutrient content% Digestible content in% Calories

of 1 kg



water protein fat Corner


ash protein fat Corner


gross net
Sour cream, salted butter 13,15 0,60 83,80 0,5 1,95 0,57 80,95 0,49 7841 7573
Margarine salty 12,25 0,45 84,85 0,4 2,35 0,43 80,49 0,38 7900 7521

Lack of vitamins in artificially prepared margarine is compensated for by the special introduction of vitamins A, B and vitamin B complex.

The raw material for the production of margarine are:

  1. animal fats: oleo-stock, oleo-oil, lard, fat of marine animals and fish;
  2. vegetable oils: coconut, palm, arachid, sesame, cottonseed, soybean, sunflower, maize, hydrogenated fats (salomas);
  3. butter;
  4. fresh whole milk and skim milk; cream; condensed and dried milk;
  5. Auxiliary materials: emulsifiers, table salt, beet sugar or glucose, preservatives, paints, indicators, flavoring substances and starters.

The production process of margarine is reduced to the creation of a stable emulsion of two main components - the fatty base and milk.

The composition of the fatty basis of margarine can be very diverse and depends on the raw materials and the destination of the finished product.

Main margarine following component ratio (in%):

Grease about 82,5
Water 16
Auxiliary materials 1,5

In tab. 73 shows approximate formulations (in%) of the fat base of margarine based on animal and hydrogenated vegetable fats.

Table 73 formulations margarine fat base

name of fat First




The third


Salomas 65 60 75
Olyeo oili 10 10
Cottonseed oil 15 10 15
Sunflower oil 10 10 10
Coconut oil 10
Total 100 100 100

According to GOST 240-53 physico-chemical characteristics of margarine should be as follows (Table. 74).

Table 74 Physical and chemical properties of margarine

Indicators Characteristics and standards
milk and cream margarine dairy-free margarine
Fat in% not less 82,0 82,5
Moisture in% max 16,0 16,0
Sol% max 1.2 1,2
Acid number mg KOH, not more than 1,5 1,0
Nickel Tracks Tracks
Benzoic acid in% max 0,07 0,07

Margarine is used in production of some kinds of pastry products.

Hydrogenated fats (hydrogenated fat)

In hydrogenated fat, unsaturated fatty acid bonds are more or less saturated with hydrogen.

Hydrogenation is used to cure liquid vegetable oils in order to expand the possibilities of their use, as well as to cure and destroy the unpleasant smell of wooly.

Food hydrogenated fats are used in large quantities in the production of margarine. In the confectionery industry, hydrogenated fats are used as additives in the production of candy cases, fillings and in the manufacture of flour confectionery.

Hydrogenated fats used in the confectionery industry may have different characteristics.

So, hydrogenated edible fats must have the following physico-chemical parameters according to VTU 280-50:

% Fat no less 99,0
Moisture% No more 0,3-0,5
Transparency in the molten state transparent
Acid number mg KOH No more 0,5-1,0
Melting point in ° 36-42
(In summer, the melting point should not be below 38 °)

Confectionery fat

Confectionery fat is called specially hydrogenated vegetable fat with increased hardness compared to conventional hydrogel at a melting point of up to 37 °. Confectionery fat is used in the form of small additives in the production of chocolate, candy, chocolate products and gives good results in the manufacture of sponge cake.

According to WTU 172-55, “Confectionary fat for chocolate products” should have the following characteristics:

Fat melting point in ° 32 – 37
Pour point in ° not less than 29
Osminin hardness at 15 ° in g / cm not less than 500

According to VTU 173-55 on “Confectionary fat for toppings and waffles,” the melting point of the fat should be 28 — 31 ° for the summer period, and not lower than 26 ° for the winter period.

Compound fats

Compound fats - a mixture of fats of plant and animal origin, such as: lamb, beef, pork, oleostearin; hydrogenated fats and liquid vegetable oils - cotton, sunflower, soybean, etc.

Available under various names depending on the composition of the mixture. Used in small quantities in the manufacture of biscuits.

New types of fats for the confectionery industry

Fat Chocolate

The raw material for the production of new fat for chocolate is beef fat.

The process of production of this fat is reduced mainly to the following: beef tallow is hydrogenated to the melting point 52 — 53 ° and then a low-melting different acid fraction is separated from its solution in gasoline.

The acidic fraction of hydrogenated beef tallow is a chocolate fat that is similar in composition and properties to natural cocoa butter.

Physical and chemical properties of fat for chocolate

Melting point in ° 35 – 36
Pour point in ° 28 – 29
Iodine number 37-39
Titer 42 – 43
coefficient of saponification 190-195
Osminin hardness at 15 ° in kg / cm 1
The acid composition of the fat in chocolate%
Palmytynovoy 24,3
Stearinovoy 3153
Oleinovoy 44,4

Fat for chocolate can be used in the production of chocolate glaze, slab chocolate, candy cases, fillings for individual caramel varieties, completely or partially replacing cocoa butter.

Hlopkovыy palmytyn

The raw material for the production of cotton palmitin is cottonseed oil, demargated. The isolated solid fraction is hydrogenated.

The resulting product, called cotton palmitin, can be used in the manufacture of candy, toppings and waffles, and the remaining liquid fraction of cottonseed oil is high-quality salad oil.

The advantage of such fat for the confectionery industry is that it can be obtained with predetermined indicators and can replace coconut oil in confectionery products.

Liquid vegetable oil

Liquid vegetable oils are usually administered in the confectionery with oil-containing nuclei independent value and as fat additions have little.

The composition and properties of liquid vegetable oils are summarized in Table. 75.

Corruption fats

Fats during processing and during storage may undergo various chemical changes.

The basis of fat damage lies in changes caused by physical, chemical and biological factors. There are the following changes that cause fat damage:

  • hydrolysis (increased acidity);
  • oxidizing to form:

a) peroxide,

b) aldehydes (rancidity - the appearance of a specific unpleasant taste and smell),

c) ketones (rancidity)

g) hydroxy acids (osalivanie).

Changes in the process of fat deterioration generated while foods and damage detection methods are listed in Table. 76.

The composition and properties of liquid

n / n name oils acid content in% Specific Gravity


Pour point in ° Refractive index at 20 °
1 2 3 4 5
1 Almond (Prunus amygdalis) Limit 1,5 — 5,0

Oleinovoy 75-80

Linoleic 15 — 20

0,915- 0,921 About

18 – 20

1,4702 – 1,4715
2 Арахидное (Arachis hypo- geae) Palmytynovoy 6-11

Arachidic, behenic and lignocaine 5-7

Stearinovoy 2-6

Oleinovoy 50-70

Linoleic 13-26

0,916 -0,921 About


1,468 – 1,472
3 Sesame — Sesame (Sesamum indicum)


Palmytynovoy vicinity of 7

Stearinovoy 5

Oleinovoy Linolevoy 48 37 0,4 Arahinovoy

0,921- 0,925 About


1,473- 1,476
4 Sunflower Helianthus annus) Limit around xnumx 0,925-


From —16 to —18,5 1,474- 1,476
n / n Number






Non-saponified residue in% The number of gene Titer Engler viscosity at


The average molecular weight of acids
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 190 – 195 92 – 102 82-85 0,5 95,8 – 96,6
2 188-197 83 – 103 70,1 -


0,3-1,0 94-96 25-32 10 – 12
3 188 – 195 103 – 112



About 1 95 – 95,9
4 186-194 127 – 136





95 8,2 278,4
n / n 1 2 3 4 5
acid content in% Specific

weight at 15 °

Pour point in 0 Refractive index at 20 °


Walnut oil

(Juglans rgia)

Oleinovoy 39,0 54,0 Linolevoy

Palmytynovoy 5,1

Stearinovoy 2,5

Oleinovoy 23,8

linoleic 47,4

linolenic 15,8

0,925 – 0,927 From — 14

up — 28

6 Soya

(Soja hispida)

Palmytynovoy 6-8

Stearic 3 — 5

Arahinow 0,4 — 1,0

Oleic 25-36 Linoleic 52-65 Linolenic 2,0 - 3,0

0,922 – 0,934 Around —18 1,472 – 1,475
7  The oil of hazelnuts and hazelnut. Palmytynovoy


Stearinovoy 1,7

Oleinovoy 91,2



linoleic 3,0

At 20 ° 0,913

From —17 to —20

Melting temperature

22 – 25

n / n Number






Undovided residue in% Number


Titer Engler viscosity at


The average molecular weight of acids
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
5 188-197 143 – 162 0,9 96 – 97 г 273-


6 188 – 195 114-139 81 – 84 0,2-2,0 94 – 96 8,5 290,0
7 187-192 84 – 90


76 Table. Changes in fat when they perish

Character fat changes Causes of damage Products produced in spoiled fat Changing constants Changes in organoleptic characteristics Methods for determining the deterioration of fats
Hydrolysis Called





lots and


Go up

and an acid number of

melting temperature

The sour smell,

soapy taste

for butter

butter, margarine and coconut


Organoleptically by smell,

taste and color

Oxidation Called by the addition of oxygen at the site of double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Acid number



a) Peroxide

b) alidyegidov

c) alidyegido-

and dicarbonate kitty


The process is activated by light,

particularly ultraviolet

and purple

rays, heat, and


(Copper, iron, and

their salts) as well

the autocatalyst

formed peroxides

Peroxide, oxide, ozonide, aldehydes,


Go up the peroxide value,

acid number,

melting point, refractive index,

unsapable, volatile and

water soluble fatty acids

Iodine and rhodan down



pungent taste and







cheski- smell,

taste and color


determinations: peroxide

number, iodine





fat changes

Causes of damage products formed e spoiled fat Changing constants Changes in organoleptic characteristics Methods for determining the deterioration of fats
ketone rancidity

Ketone Formation as unsaturated and from Vysokomol

lar saturated acids

Caused by exposure to microorganisms or by purely chemical means. ketones Vitamins A are destroyed and glycerin is partially destroyed


Also Also



Called by the action of light

The process is activated by the action of metals (iron, lead, cobalt, manganese and copper), especially in an acidic environment.

Acids: oxide and dioksistea

Rinow et al

Melting and freezing temperatures rise.

Iodine and rhodan numbers decrease

An unpleasant greasy taste and smell





by smell, taste and


Atsetilynoe and

iodine number




Physiological actions Rancid fat.

Stray fats contain products harmful to the human body that have an unpleasant taste and odor. In these fats, organic peroxides destroy vitamins A, D and carotene. Stray fats cause indigestion, heartburn, irritate the mucous membrane of the digestive tract.


Antioxidants are substances that slow down the oxidation process of products. Antioxidants are characterized by their high efficiency, even with an insignificant content (hundredths and even thousandths of a percent) in oxidized products.

In the confectionery industry, they are important for protection against rancidity of fats, preserving vitamins and aromatic substances.

Antioxidants protect products only for a limited time, as they oxidize themselves and lose their effectiveness. This time is called the induction period. After the end of the induction period, the product into which the antioxidant was introduced begins to oxidize.

With an increase in the content of antioxidants to a certain limit increases the resistance of the oxidized product. As the concentration of certain antioxidants increases above a certain limit, the resistance decreases. A typical example of antioxidants in vegetable fats are tocopherols.

Many substances themselves do not possess antioxidant properties, but together with antioxidants act synergistically, i.e. they enhance their action. These include ascorbic, citric, phosphoric, malic, maleic, malonic, pyruvic, fumaric acids and kefalin.

Natural antioxidants include tannins, specially prepared oat flour, tocopherols, which are found in animal fats in amounts from 0,02 to 0,1%, in most vegetable fats and in wheat germ oil, even to 0,5%.

Artificial antioxidants include catechol, mono- and di-ethanolamines, sugar amines and their derivatives, aldehyde carboxylic acids (for example, glucuronic and galacturonic acid), aliphatic amino acids.

Tocopherols are strong antioxidants. Γ-tocopherol has the greatest antioxidant properties, β-tocopherol has the weaker properties, i.e. antioxidant activity goes in the reverse order of their activity as vitamins. Tocopherols are mainly used to increase the durability of animal fats. They are administered no more than 0,03% by weight of fat. Tocopherols are inactivated in baked goods during baking.

Good antioxidants are cocoa mass and tahini mass with the introduction of about 5 — 10% to the weight of fat.

Packaging for fats

Fats should be stored and transported in the following types of packaging.

Oils - coconut, vegetable, butter, margarine: in dry and clean wooden barrels made of oak, beech or aspen staves (GOST 4637-51) - barrels can be enameled and unenameled; in plywood drums (GOST 5239-52).

Margarine, butter, cocoa butter: in clean wooden boxes (GOST 8130-56); in plywood boxes (GOST 8129-56); in cardboard boxes (GOST 8254-56).

Hydrogenated fat: in railway or tank trucks, or iron barrels with tight stoppers.

Storage fats

For a short time, fats should be stored in dark, dry, odorless, refrigerated rooms at a temperature of 5 — 6 ° and relative humidity of 80%.

During long-term storage, they use refrigerators whose temperature does not exceed minus 8 ° and the relative humidity is not higher than 90%.

The cells storage boxes, barrels and other containers are stacked on the pads and wooden lattice.

Loading 1 m3 cargo volume of the chamber should be the storage of fat in boxes 0,65 t and stored in barrels 0,54 t.

The distance from the wall to the stack should be 0,15 m. A wall width 0,4 m should remain on the walls on which wall batteries are located. A gap of about 0,4 m should remain between the ceiling batteries and the top edge of the stack to clean the batteries from frost. Stacks are made separately for each type and grade of fat.

Can be stored in a refrigerator at a normal quality of fat is allowed to 6 months.

Joint fat storage with other products that have the smell is not allowed.


Zinoviev AA, Chemistry fat Pishchepromizdat, 1952.

Kozin, NI, Commodity Chemicals and edible fats, gos torgizdat, 1949.

Lieberman SG and VP Petrovsky, Handbook of fats production, Pishchepromizdat, 1952.

Confectionery Technology, ed. prof. AL and Prof. Rapoport. AL Sokolovsky, Part II, Pishchepromizdat, 1952.

Tyutyunnikov BN, Naumenko PV, T o b and n in IM, and Fan s GG, Technology of fats, Pishchepromizdat, 1956.

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