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Raw materials and ingredients

Milk and dairy products. Eggs and egg products. (CK)

In the confectionery industry are widely used milk and dairy products: milk powder and condensed milk, cream, butter.

Cow's milk

Cow's milk is widely used (mostly in condensed or dried form) for making cookies, cakes, cakes, waffles and other flour confectionery products, milk chocolates (toffee), caramel fillings, milk chocolate, and other confectionery products. Milk is not only distinguished by its high nutritional value, but also gives its products a peculiar, pleasant taste.

Among the most important milk proteins, casein value belongs (2,8% milk), it has an amphoteric character due to the presence of amino (NH2) And karboksilʹnyh (SOON) groups. Shematičeskaâ casein formula (NH2) n R (COOH) m. Casein is found in milk in the form of calcium caseinate. Casein coagulates under the action of weak acids (for example, lactic acid) and rennet enzyme (which is used in cheese making). Under the action of acid, calcium is removed from casein as a calcium salt of the acid (for example, under the action of lactic acid, calcium lactate is obtained) with the release of free caseinic acid; it does not dissolve in water and coagulates.

casein in milk is in three forms - α, β and γ:

The α-form (it is about 85% of the total casein) contains about 1% phosphorus; The β-form contains about 0,7%, and the γ-form only about 0,05% of phosphorus. When heated, casein does not coagulate.

Albumen (0,5% in milk) soluble in water, not precipitated by either acid or rennet. When milk is heated to 70 — 75 °, albumin precipitates (a film forms on the milk).

globulin (0,1% in milk) coagulates by heating sour milk to 80 °.

Small amounts of milk contain other proteinaceous and non-protein nitrogenous substances.

In addition to fat, milk contains lipid-phosphatides, lecithin (about 0,1%) and kefalin (about 0,05%), sterides, cholesterol and ergosterol (provitamin B).

The most important milk enzymes are peroxidase (the absence of milk indicates pasteurization of milk), reductase (the larger it is, the stronger the reductase sample is, the worse the milk is in bacterial contamination), catalase and lipase.

The acidity of fresh milk is mainly due to phosphate, citrate salts and proteins (mainly casein). The acidity of fresh milk is usually 16 — 18 °, of which proteins account for about 3 — 4 °, carbon dioxide I — 2 °, and acid salts 10 — 12 °. As a result of the development of microflora in milk, lactic acid fermentation occurs with the formation of lactic acid, the acidity of milk increases. The higher the acidity of the milk, the greater the danger of coagulation of milk during boiling (due to coagulation of casein). Milk with acidity 18 — 22 ° does not coagulate when boiled, it can coagulate with acidity 26 °, and 28 ° coagulates.

Milk usually contains microflora that enters it during milking and from the air, and develops rapidly at normal temperature. Only in the first hours after issuance (up to 3 — 6 or more hours, depending on the temperature of the milk) does the milk have bactericidal properties due to the immune bodies contained in it. Milk should be cooled and stored at the lowest possible temperature, not higher than +, 10 °.

Pasteurization, destroying more than 99,9% of vegetative forms of microorganisms, contributes to the lengthening of the shelf life of milk. Instant pasteurisation is performed by rapidly heating it to 85 — 87 ° without exposure, with quick subsequent cooling, with longer pasteurisation, the temperature is lower (but not lower than 63 — 65 °).

canned milk

Canned milk - condensed milk and dry milk - are obtained by removing a very significant amount of water from milk. Milk powder is used to make chocolate, some varieties of sweets and other products, especially when the confectionary mass is obtained without boiling, baking or drying. Condensed milk is used to make toffee, toffee and other candies and caramel fillings, as well as flour confectionery.

Condensed milk is obtained by boiling milk, preferably in vacuum machines with added sugar, often this process is carried out directly at the confectioneries.

The dairy industry also produces condensed milk without added sugar; it is less suitable for confectionery production because it contains a large amount of water (about 74%, condensed with sugar - about 26%).

Condensed milk can be 'prepared from whole or skimmed (skimmed) milk, sometimes called. obratom. Milk powder is obtained by dehydrating it. Film dry milk is prepared on a roller dryer; at the same time on the rotating rollers heated from the inside, a thin film is formed. Spray milk powder is prepared in spray dryers by spraying milk (using a rotating disk) and quickly drying small droplets in a stream of heated air. Spray milk differs from film milk by its higher solubility in water and better taste.

Good spray milk when dissolved in water at the desired dosage forms a homogeneous colloidal solution to their physico-chemical and organoleptic properties no different from natural milk.

Cream is a thick liquid extracted from milk that contains much more fat (usually 20 — 35%) than milk. The part of the milk with a very low fat content remaining after cream discharge is called skim milk. The cream is separated from the milk using a separator, the action of which is based on the use of centrifugal force.

The confectionery cream used for the preparation of creams, for decoration of cakes and pies. Skim milk can be used in the production of sweets, candy fillings and other confectioneries.

77 Table. The average chemical composition of cow's milk (in%)

Components Average content in% Fluctuation in%
from to
Water 87,5 84,0 90,0
Fat 3,8 2,0 6,0
Protein 3,3 2,0 5,0
Milk sugar 4,7 4,3 5,3
Minerals 0,7 0,6 0,9

78 Table. The composition of the minerals of milk

Minerals Content

ash

100 in parts of milk
Sodium chloride 10,62 0,09
Potassium chloride 9,16 0,08
Odnokalievy phosphate 12,77 0,10
dipotassium phosphate 9,22 0,08
potassium citrate 5,47 0,05
Dvumagnievy phosphate 3,71 0,03
magnesium citrate 4,05 0,04
dicalcium phosphate 7,42 0,06
Trikalʹcievyj phosphate 8,90 0,08
calcium citrate 23,55 0,20
Calcium associated with casein 5,13 0,05

79 Table. The content of trace elements in milk

The name elements Quantity (in mg per kg 1)
Cobalt 0,25
Copper 0,66
Zinc 0,42
Hardware 0,65
Lead 0,11

Table 80. Composition of milk proteins (in%)

The name elements casein Albumen globulin
Carbon 53,5 52,5 51,9
Hydrogen 7,1 7,1 7,0
Oxygen 22,1 23,0 24,6
Nitrogen 15,8 15,4 15,4
Sulfur 0,7 1,9 0,9
Phosphorus 0,7 Tracks 0,2

Table 81. Amino acid composition of milk in%

Title amino acids casein Albumen
Gistidin 2,5 2,1
lysine 7,9 9,6
tryptophan 1,8 2,5
phenylalanine 5,2 5,4
cystine 0,3 4,1
methionine 3,5 3,1
threonine 4,1 5,4
leucine 9,9 10,4
Isoleucine 6,6 6,4
tyrosine 6,9 4,4
arginine 4,2 3,9
valine 6,7 6,4
glycine 0,6 0,0
alanine 2,8
series 7,5 4,9
Glutamine 24,2 13,4
Aspara 6,3 9,7
Lrolin 8,0

82 Table. The average content of vitamins in some dairy products

Vitamin (in gammas) in 1 л
name of product at, at, с RR
whole milk 453 1587 12,3 1550
skim Milk 435 1028
Serum 532 1115 4,7 1047
Powdered Milk Spray 447 1099 2,2 1405
Condensed milk with sugar 418 1012 391 1173
Butter Tracks Tracks Tracks 2818

83 Table. The chemical composition (in%) and some calorie dairy products

Name Water dry

substances

Nitrogenous substances (NX6,25) Fats Carbohydrates

(general

amount

c)

Ash Gross calories 100 g
Whole cow's milk 87,7 12,3 3.4 3,7 4,5 0,7 66,8
Cow milk Skim 90,7 9,3 4,0 0,1 4,5 0,7 35,8
Cow milk whole milk powder 3,0 97,0 28,5 26,1 36,7 5,7 510,1
Cow milk skimmed 5,0 95,0 37,0 1,0 50,5 6,5 368,1
Cow milk sweetened condensed 25,7 74,3 7,5 9,0 56,0 1,8 344,0
Cream (20% fat) 72,8 27,2 3,0 20,0 3,5 0,7 212,7
Whey 8,5 91,5 14,0 4,5 66,0 8,0 365,8
Ice cream (soufflé) 70,4 29,6 3,2 3,5 22,2 0,7 136,7
Butter (unsalted) 15,4 84,6 0,5 83,5 0,5 0,1 780,7
heating oil 1,0 99,0 99,0 920,7

Some physical properties of milk

84 table. Storage mode of milk and dairy products with air humidity 80 — 85%

name of product Storage temperature in ° Storage time
from to
Fresh milk in bottles +1 +2 1-2 days
Cream fresh bottled -1 +2 1 – 2
Condensed milk:

in banks

in barrels

-1

-1

+1

+1

10 — 12 months 6 — 8
Dry milk banks -1 +1 8 – 12

Eggs and egg products

Chicken eggs and their products (egg melange and egg powder) are widely used in the confectionery industry, especially in the manufacture of flour confectionery products — cookies, waffles, cakes, pies and cupcakes. Eggs increase the nutritional value and taste of flour confectionery products, improve their structure, make them more porous, crumbly, and also give them a beautiful yellow color.

Egg whites separated from yolks, is widely used as a blowing agent in the production of pastes, whipped candy and caramel toppings products, semi-finished products for the finishing. pastries and cakes.

Eggs of various poultry have different value and application. Duck eggs can be used in confectionery production in small quantities. Before use, they must undergo a certain heat treatment, as they are often infected with microflora (Salmonella). In the confectionery industry, chicken eggs are mainly used ...

An egg weighs an average of 40 to 60 g. Under the shell (about 11,5% by weight of the egg) there is a layer of egg white (about 58,5%), inside - the yolk (about 30%).

85 Table. Physical indicators eggs

Indicators Squirrel yolk
Specific weight 1,045 1,028-1,030
pH (at svezhesnesennogo eggs) 7,9 6,2
Freezing point in ° -0,45 -0,65

The chemical composition of the protein, and egg yolks generally are given in Table. 86.

86 Table. Chemical composition (H) and caloric eggs and products

Name Water Dry matter Nitrogen

substances

(IKh6.25)

Fats Carbohydrates Ash Gross calories on 100 g
Eggs chicken whole (without shell) and egg products 74,0 26,0 12,5 12,0 0,5 1,0 164,9
Yolk 53,5 46,5 16,0 29,0 0,5 1,0 337,4
Protein 80,5 13,5 12,5 0,5 0,5 53,3
Egg powder 8,5 91,5 52,0 36,0 3,5 548,0
Eggs duck whole (unshelled) 70,8 29,2 12,8 15,0 0,3 1,1

Egg white contains proteins: ovomucine (about 7% of total protein), ovomucoid (about 10% of all protein), ovalbumin (about 50% of all protein), ovoglobulin, conalbumin, and also amino acids. The protein coagulates at temperatures between 63 and 75 °. Ovomukoid when heated does not coagulate. Egg protein contains little (about 1%) nitrogen-free organic matter - fats, lipids and their derivatives, carbohydrates (glucose), and also has enzymes catalase, diastasis, peptidase, oxidase. The composition of the mineral substances of the protein are mainly sodium, potassium and chlorine.

In the egg yolk, protein substances consist mainly of ovovitellin (about 78% of all proteins), which gives globulin reactions. It is in chemical combination with lecithin. Creatinine belongs to other nitrogenous substances of the yolk. The fat composition includes oleic (34,5%), palmitic (29,3%), stearic, linoleic, myristic, arachnic acids, lecithin, kefalin, cholesterol and glycerol phosphoric acid. The total lecithin in the egg yolk is about 10%. The yolk dye consists of lutein (about 70%) and zeaxanthin (30%).

The yolks are vitamins A, B1 В2, D, E. In the ash includes iron, phosphorus, copper and others. Yolk contains the same enzymes and the protein that, in addition, lipase zymase, gistozim.

Eggshell consists mainly of SaS03 (91,6— 95,76%), as well as MgSO3 and others. Inshell organic matter — from 3,55 to 6,45% ;.

Melange yaychnыy - frozen mixture of yolk and protein. To get his eggs break, remove the shell, then using a stirrer get a homogeneous mixture, pour it into

tin boxes or cans are frozen at –23 °. You can add sugar to the egg mixture.

Chemical composition melange is different from the chemical composition of whole eggs, egg products used (after thawing) in the same manner and in the same dosages as whole eggs.

Egg powder get, drying a mixture of yolk and protein on roller (film egg powder) or spray (powdered egg powder) dryers. It is used as well as fresh whole eggs with recalculation at dosages on dry substance. It is important that the egg powder has good solubility. In pulverized solubility in accordance with GOST 2858-49 of the highest grade is not less than 85%, in Grade I - not less than 70%; in top grade film - at least 80%, in grade I - at least 60%.

Dried egg white (egg albumin) I get varieties, - drying the egg whites separated from yolks. Used as a good foaming agent.

References

David RB, Milk and dairy business, Sel'khozgiz, 1953.

Davidov, R. B., Dairy Handbook, Selkhozgiz, 1952.

And of them in GS, Biochemistry milk Pishchepromizdat, 1956.

Podlegaev MA, Tongur VS Assumption A. Technology AG poultry, Pishchepromizdat, 1948.

Table of chemical composition and nutritional value of foods, Medgiz, 1954.

Confectionery Technology, ed. prof. AL Rapoport, Part I, Pishchepromizdat, 1951.

Commodity food, ed. Tserevitinova FW, ed. 2-e, Vol. III and IV, the Gostorgizdat, 1949.

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