Raw materials and ingredients

Nuts and oilseeds. (CK)


Nuts are fruits consisting of a lumbering shell - a shell and a kernel enclosed in it.

Nuts (orehoplodnye) divided into:

  • real nuts - hazelnuts, hazelnuts;
  • walnut-walnut - almonds, walnuts, beech walnuts, pine nuts, pistachio, American walnuts, coconut, etc.

In addition, peanuts and apricot kernels are used as nuts.

In the confectionery industry they process sesame, sunflower, soybeans, poppy seeds, gymnosperms and some oilseeds.

The nuts are characterized by a high fat content, which is the main component of them; Nitrogenous (proteinaceous) substances contain in a little smaller quantity, but take the second place on value. The high nutritional value of nuts depends on the high content of dry substances, fat and nitrogenous substances. Carbohydrates in nuts play a secondary role. Nuts have a valuable mineral composition and contain some vitamins, most of the B group, as well as PP, A, and others.

In the confectionery industry nuts can be used very widely and diversely. Their pleasant taste properties (both raw and fried) are well combined with various other raw materials - sugar, honey, milk and butter, chocolate, flour semi-finished products, as well as fruit and berry raw materials and semi-finished products (marmalade mass, jam, candied fruit).

Nuts can be used both in raw (unroasted) and roasted. After roasting, most of the nuts acquire a good, often quite different from the original, taste and aroma. Walnuts after roasting do not acquire good taste and get a slightly unpleasant taste.

Taste properties that appear when roasting nuts depend, apparently, on changes in protein substances. At the same time, a certain amount of hydrogen sulfide appears (in “red-hot” nuts).

The optimum temperature for roasting nuts depends on their type, most of them should be roasted to a temperature of 130 — 140 °.

Nuts can be used as a whole (or crushed) and in a crushed (pounded) form. The use of grated nut masses in the food relation is considered more expedient, since they are better absorbed by the human body in this state.

Peanut flavor, walnuts, pistachios partly confectionery above when used as a whole (or crushed) form.


Hazelnuts - fruits of the bush of the Corryllus tubulosa of the birch family - nuts, which are widely used in the confectionery industry, are known under the name “span core” (Spanish core). Basic hazelnut, the most common nut raw materials for the manufacture of various candy nut masses, nut and chocolate-nut caramel toppings, semi-finished products and products. Most of the recipes for products with nuts contain span core, which is used mainly in the roasted, pounded form. In some products (chocolate with nuts, roasted nuts, gozinaki and other oriental sweets), crushed or even whole hazelnut kernel is used.

Hazelnuts are cultivated in the Crimea and Transcaucasia, as well as in other regions of the Caucasus.

Several varieties of hazelnuts are cultivated; Kudriavchik, Ata-baba, Ganja hazelnuts, Cherkassky 1, etc. can be considered the best for confectionery production.

Hazelnut fruits - hazelnuts - in appearance, chemical composition, taste and aroma are very similar to hazelnuts, but they are inferior in quality both in fresh and in processed form.

Walnut fruits sit in the receptacle (green bell-shaped wrapper-plus). Under the shell is the core, covered with a thin skin. Nuts are cleaned from plyus (on the machine of the Andiyev system), the shells are removed at the nut cleaning plants.


Almond - the fruit of the tree Amygdalus communis from the almond family is one of the most valuable types of nuts for confectionery production. It is used both raw and fried for making high-quality confectionery - sweets, chocolate, caramel toppings, jelly beans, cakes, cakes and cookies,

Almond culture is spreading more and more, mainly in the Caucasus, on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in the Crimea, in Central Asia.

Walnut is covered with green peel (pericarp), which, when ripe, bursts and almonds fall out of it. Under the shell (woody intraplant) in a nut there is a kernel covered with a skin, usually one (sometimes two). The almond shell can be of varying hardness, distinguish paper-shell almonds (the softest shell, crushed by the fingers of one hand), soft-shell, standard-shell and hard-shell.

The main technological requirements for farmed almonds for confectionery production are as follows:

1) high content of kernels of nuts;

2) the large size of almonds;

3) not very hard shell, easily separated without damaging the cores;

4) good kernel performance, beautiful appearance, smooth surface;

5) the absence (or perhaps a lower content) of double nuclei;

6) small amount of skin in the core;

7) high fat content;

8) high content of nitrogenous substances;

9) low fiber content;

10) easy removal of the skin from the kernel with a scar, slight swelling of the almond kernels;

11) light color of peeled kernels;

12) good taste of raw and roasted almonds and products from it.

Agrobiological and technological indicators of the best varieties of almonds grown in our country include: Nikitsky 62, VXL, as well as standard shell (but it contains a lot of shell and has small kernels).

Bitter almond - the fruit of the tree Prunus amygdalus amara and several species of wild almond - contains from 2 to 8% amygdalin, has a bitter taste, is poisonous and is unsuitable for confectionery production. VKNII has developed a method for dehydrating such an almond, based on the splitting of amygdalin with an acid or an enzyme emulsion, with the release of glucose, benzaldehyde, and hydrocyanic acid as the final products, which is removed with water vapor when heated. After this treatment, almonds can be used to make candy and filling masses of marzipan type.

Wild almond, which gives the bitter kernel grows in many parts of the country.

According to the structure and appearance of the fruit bitter almond often has no significant differences from the sweet almond.


Walnuts or hairy nuts - fruits of the tree Juglans regia L. from the family Juglandaceae Lind - are used in confectionery production in limited quantities for caramel toppings in shredded and crushed form, or in the form of halves for candy and flour confectionery (such as oriental sweets) cake decorations. The use of walnuts in the confectionery industry can be expanded under certain conditions (the use of crushed nuts in fondant, jelly, candy masses, grated nuts in candy masses with low humidity, etc.).

Walnuts grow in a wild state and in cultivated plantations in many regions, their large tracts are found in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, they are bred in the Crimea, in the Ukraine, in the Moldavian SSR and in the Caucasus.

The nut is covered with fleshy green peel (containing a large amount of vitamin C), which dries when the nut is ripening, bursts “and two parts and a walnut falls out of it, dressed in woody intraplant (shell). The kernel of the walnut has a sinuous shape, on top of it is covered with a thin skin of yellow color.

There are many varieties of walnuts, differing in the chemical composition of the kernel; Great value when used is the content of the shell in the nut and its thickness.


Pistachios - fruits of the pistachio tree Р1з1as1а vega L. from the turpentine tegrebinthaceae family - have long been used in the confectionery industry, but in a small amount, they have a good characteristic flavor that goes into the products. They can be used in raw and roasted, pounded form for making nut semi-finished products (caramel toppings), as well as in the form of crushed or whole kernels for adding to flour confectionery, chocolate and candy products. The greenish color of the kernels gives them an attractive look.

In the wild state, pistachio grows on the Black Sea coast, in Transcaucasia (especially in the Azerbaijan SSR), in the Crimea, in Central Asia. Recently, in the Soviet Union pistachios began to be cultivated more, new varieties of them were bred. Pistachios of domestic origin are of good quality and are quite suitable for confectionery production.

The pistachio fruit is a drupe, surrounded by a fleshy reddish shell, under it is a firm bivalve shell, inside a seed greenish with a violet sheen, consisting of two cotyledons, covered with a peel.


Peanuts, peanuts or Chinese walnuts - the fruit of the annual Agahis hypogea L. plant from the moth family - are widely used today in the confectionery industry. Raw peanuts have an unpleasant bean flavor; this taste disappears after roasting. Therefore, peanuts should be eaten only in fried form. Good results for obtaining products from peanuts are provided by a simple method of treating nuts with a solution of salt followed by roasting them so that the salt content in nuts is from 0,2 to 0,4%. It should also remove not only the shell, but the skin and germ of peanuts (they have a bitter taste). Roasted grated peanuts are widely used for making caramel nut fillings, candy masses, halva, pastry baked goods (for example, almond cookies). Crushed and whole roasted peanut kernels can be used to make chocolate with nuts, roasted nuts and oriental candy sweets.

Peanuts are cultivated in the southern regions (Central Asia, the Caucasus, Ukraine). Soviet breeders brought new varieties of peanuts, some of them (Perzuvan 46 / 2, Adyg, Tashkent 112, VNIIMK 433 and 1657) were quite suitable for confectionery production. Very valuable properties for confectionery production (good taste, large size of kernels, valuable chemical composition of food) have peanuts coming from the People's Republic of China. Peanut fruits have a soft shell with a rough surface (shell), inside there are usually two to four kernels covered with a skin of dark yellow or red color.

The nutritional value of peanuts is very high due to the fat content, nutritionally valuable proteins, vitamins, minerals.

In the confectionery industry, nuts that do not grow in the USSR can be used, for example, American nuts (fruits of the tropical tree Bertholetia excelsa growing in the Orinoco and Amazon regions) with a core of excellent taste; from them receive products of good quality; coconuts (fruits of tropical palm Cocos nucifera L.), having a kernel (copra), suitable for processing in the confectionery industry.


Cashews - fruits of the tree Anacardia orientale. They are grown not only in Brazil (their homeland), but also in India, Egypt, East Africa. Central America, West Indies and other places. Their casing, which is removed after harvest, contains toxic substances (cardol and anacardic acid), but the nuts themselves do not contain these substances at all and do not possess toxic properties. Nuts have a curved shape (buds), are aromatic, slightly sweet, their taste resembles the pleasant taste of almonds. They are used in the same cases as almonds and nuts and are equivalent to them.

apricot kernels

Sweet apricot kernels (see page 62) are widely used in the confectionery industry. By taste and purpose, they are similar to almonds, but somewhat inferior to him in quality. Bitter apricot kernels, like bitter almonds, can be used in the confectionery industry to produce nut masses like marzipan, only after special processing and obtaining permission from the health authorities.

A small number are also used sweet peach kernel; nuclei of other stone fruit are not used.


Oilseeds are the seeds of various oilseeds (cleaned in the right cases from the shell). In the confectionery industry are usually used mainly as nuts.

For oilseeds, relevant for confectionery manufacture, they may include: sesame, sunflower, soybean,

poppy seeds pumpkin gymnosperms and pedunculate laurel.


Sesame - the seeds of the annual plant Sesamum indicum - is a very valuable raw material for confectionery production and is widely used mainly for the production of halvah, as well as for making caramel nut (halvik) fillings, candy masses and in general form for oriental sweets (roasting, kozinaki) .

Sesame is a heat-loving plant, cultivated in the USSR in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Ukraine. Soviet breeders brought new high-yielding varieties with good agro-biological indicators. For confectionery production, such varieties as Kubanets 55, VNIIMK 81, Pervovents, Confectionery 2058, D S 23, Odessa 539, Tashkent 122, etc. have value.

The fruit of sesame is a box containing very small seeds, in which white kernels are found under a thin elastic shell. When used, the sesame shell must be removed.


Soybean - the seeds of the annual Soja hispida plant of the legume family - finds some use in the confectionery industry, it is used to make caramel toppings, halva, candy masses, toffee and long loafs, both uncooked and fried. Soy flour is added to pastry flour products - cookies.

Soybean is cultivated in the USSR (in a relatively small amount) in the Far East, Ukraine, and the North Caucasus.

Soybean fruits - pods that contain 2 — 5 seeds of white, yellow or dark color; under the thin shell is the core of white or light yellow color. Soybean seeds have a peculiar unpleasant bean odor and flavor that is removed by steaming, boiling and washing in water. Special methods of processing soybeans for the removal of soybean odor have also been proposed, for example, by pepsin treatment. Confectionery made of soybeans do not have a pleasant nut flavor and are inferior in quality to products with nuts.

Soy has a high nutritional value due to the significant content of high-grade protein, fat, as well as lecithin, vitamins, minerals.


Sunflower - the seeds of the annual sunflower plant Helianthus annuus of the Asteraceae family - is used in the confectionery industry mainly for the production of halva, can be used for the preparation of candy masses and in whole or crushed form for oriental sweets (kozinaki). It is usually used in roasted form.

Sunflower is a widespread culture in the USSR (for making butter), cultivated in the south, mainly in the Ukraine and the North Caucasus.

Confectionery suitable olives and sunflower mezheumok; gryzovoy sunflower less valuable.

Sunflower seeds are located in disc-shaped heads (baskets); have a woody shell, inside - a cream-colored core. When processing the shell is removed, the kernels are used. Products with sunflower have a specific flavor. Various ways of treating sunflower have been proposed to remove this flavor. These methods to a greater or lesser extent, improve the taste of the sunflower and confectionery products from it. However, the quality of the products is still significantly lower than that of nuts and sesame. The nutritional value of a sunflower is good (the content of fat, protein substances and other components).


Poppy - seeds of the annual plant Papaver somniferum L. - is used in the confectionery industry for the manufacture of poppy seeds and other candy products such as oriental sweets and in the manufacture of some flour confectionery products (in muffins, cookies, flour oriental sweets); in a grated form can be used for caramel fillings.

Poppy is grown in small quantities in some areas (Western Siberia and other places).

Poppy fruits are boxes containing small poppy seeds of a dark (gray, blue) or light (white) color.

Pumpkin seeds are gymnosperms

Seeds of pumpkin gymnosperms can be used after roasting and grinding for the production of halva, caramel toppings and candy mass nut type.

The seeds contained in a pumpkin, in contrast to the usual, have leathery shells, they can be processed without purification, but it is better to clean from the skin after the locks on the type rushalnyh machines (for sesame).

In the confectionery industry, not only oilseeds and nuts can be used, but also the cake remaining after squeezing the oil from these seeds at the oil mills (soybean cake, peanuts and other nuts). Cakes can be used to add flour products to the confectionery (cookies, gingerbread), as well as to the candy mass, caramel fillings of the nut type, usually with the simultaneous introduction of fat into them, better than solid.

For confectionery production, oilseeds containing solid fat may be of interest, their properties approaching cocoa butter - solid fat, which is very valuable for chocolate and candy production. Of particular value is the fat of the petiolate laurel, which has a melting and freezing point close to cocoa butter, similar to it in hardness (the absence of a spreading consistency) and viscosity in the molten state

Chereshchatыy bay

Indicators of the size and weight composition of nuts and oil seeds

The black laurel or Japanese browntail (Сinnamomum pedunculatum) is a perennial tree that grows well and bears fruit in the region of the Soviet humid subtropics. Its small fruits have a soft pericarp, inside - the core (containing about 70% solid fat), surrounded by a small dense shell (shell).

65 Table. Indicators of the size and weight composition of nuts and oil seeds

Name of nuts and oil seeds Weight 100 of nuts (seeds) in g Content in% of nuts





Hazelnut Almond 214,0 45,10 54,90  1.26
Funduk Cherkassky 168,0 45,92 54,08  4,29
Hazel (hazelnut) 183,5 34,5-47,3 52,7-66,5 2,1 – 3,4

Almond sweet Nikitsky 62

316 38,0 62,0 6,6
Walnut 917 40,8 59,2
Fistashka 40 – 103 47,3 52,7 6,46 – 6,89
Peanut 153 55 – 75 25 – 45 1,64- 2,65
Apricot stone 13 – 70 87-30
Sesame 0,27 – 0,35 85 – 91 9-15
Sunflower 40 – 100 41-46 54 – 59
Soy 10-35 92 – 93 7 – 8
Gymnosperm seeds 16,5 96,25 3,75
Semen European Lavra 40 – 50 47,4 52,6

100 weight of 28 cores — 202 g.

Table 66. Chemical composition of kernels of nuts and oil seeds in%

Name of nuts and oil seeds Water Dry matter Fat




Fibre Ash
Hazelnut Almond 4,79 95,21 66,92 16,06 3,02 2,26
Funduk Cherkassky 4,77 95,23 64,98 16,32 4,01 2,03
lenses 8,12 91,88 58,28 19,80 3,10 2,36
Almonds 6,30 93,70 53,20 21,40 3,60 2,30
bitter Almonds 5,63 94,37 49,55 25,69 3,46 2,36
Walnut 3,71 96,29 63,72 19,35 2,60 1,34
Fistashka 7,93 92,07 45,75 22,58 2,99 3,14
Peanut 7,32 92,68 47,21 22,15 2,53 1,88
Brazil nut 5,94 94,06 67,65 15,48 3,21 3,59
apricot kernels 7,08 92,92 35,28 24,90 3,10
Sesame (Kuban 55) kernel 3,24 96,76 56,24 30,96 0,89 3,42
Sunflower 55,84 27,44 3,28 3,30
Soy 10,00 90,00 17,50 36,50 4,50 5,50
Poppy 4,50 95,50 48,02 22,68 5,18 7,14
Pumpkin seeds are gymnosperms 49,51 37,59 1,83 4,81
Chereshchatыy bay 3,75 96,25 70,49 10,16 1,81 1,68
cashew nuts 3,52 96,48 51,21 18,06 0,74 2,56


67 Table. The content of vitamins and some mineral elements in the nut kernels

and oilseeds

Name of nuts and oil seeds thiamine (VC) in mg%


(In2) Mg%

Nicotinic acid


pantothenic acid


carotene in mg% Well in mg% biotin in the Gamma 1 kg Mineral substances in mg% Note
are Р D
Funduk 0,37 – 0,90
lenses 0,80 280 44 230 1,0 C - 1,4 mg%; As - 95 gamma in 1 kg; J - 15 gamma in 1 kg
Almonds 0,15 – 0,25 0,67 4,6 0,02 254 475 3,9 C - 1,2 mg%; J - 20 gamma in 1 kg
Walnut 0,48 0,13 1,2 0,04 61 510 2,3 C - 1,0 mg%; J - 30 gamma in 1 kg
Fistashka _ C - 1,2 mg%
Peanut 0,54 – 0,85 0,15 16,2 4,0 – 6,3 400 61 365 2,0
Brazil nut 0,3 – 0,6 123 602 2,8 C — 0,7 mg%
Coconut 0,20 0,1
apricot kernels
Sesame (kernel) 1,08 0,6 128 83,4 7,8
Sunflower 1
Soy 4,9 1,2 0,5 830 -

68 Table. Indicators nut oils and oilseeds

Name of nuts and oil seeds Specific weight



temperature at оС Number





measuring the temperature




measuring the temperature





saponification acid
Funduk 0,913 20 1,4698 —17; —20 187-192 _ 84 – 90
Hazelnut 0,9165 15 1,4682 25 189 0,18 82,5
Almond sweet 0,915-0,921 15 1,4612-1,4643 20 —18; -20 188-195 93 – 105
Bitter almonds 0,9183 15 1,4693 25 190 0,28 93
Walnut 0,925-0,927 15 1,4758 20 —14; —25 186 – 197 142-152
Fistashka 0,9185 15 —8; —10 191-192 87-88
Peanut 0,911-0,9256 15 1,468-1,472 20 4-3; -7 185-207 0,03-2,24 83-105
Apricot Kernels 0,915-0,921 15 1,4712 – 1,4722 20 —14; —20 189-198 93-105
Brazil nut 0,9170-0,9185 15 __ 0 193,4 95-105
Coconut 0,925-0,938 15 1,4478-1,4: 97 20; 28 240-269 7,7 – 10
Sesame 0,944-0,926 15 1,455-1,476 25 -3; -7 185-198 1,4-10,6 103,0-116,0
Sunflower 0,921-0,931 15 1,4736 – 1,4862 20 —16,0; —18,5 188 - 194 0,1-11,6 119-141
Soy 0,920-0,934 15 1,4722-1,4754 20 —15; —18 180-202 114 – 138,5
Poppy 0,924-0,937 15 1,472-1,478 20 —15; -20 189 – 198 132 – 158
Gymnosperm seeds 0,920-0,928 15 1,4748 -15; —16 188 – 196 113-131
Shell Laurel Seeds 0,8726 – 0,9135 100 1,44847 40 29


(31- —35)

276,9 1,2



69 Table. The composition of the oil nuts and oil seeds

oil Name Acid content in%



at %















Funduk 1,7 3,2 91,2 3,0 myristic 0,2
Almond 1,5 -5,0 75 – 80 15 – 20 0,5
walnut 2,5 5,1 23,8 47,4 15,8 0,9
peanut 2-6 6 – 11 5-7 50-70 13-26 0,3 – 1,0
Sesame 5 7 0,4 48 37 1
Sunflower 9 9 39 54 0,3 – 0,6
Soybean 3 – 5  6-8 0,4 – 1,0 25-36 53 – 65 2 – 3 0,2 – 2,0



Grunier V.S., Reznikova, S. B., and I. I. I., Technological Grade Testing of Almonds for Confectionery Production, Proceedings of VNRII, vol. X, Pischepromizdat, 1954.

Reznikov SB, D ryuver VS Technology Variety test sesame for confectionery manufacture. VKNII Proceedings, vol. VIII, Pishchepromizdat, 1952.

R p u n e r VS, Reznikov SB, Afanasyev NV, technological hazelnut variety testing, collection of scientific works Minh them. Plekhanov, Gostorgizdat, 1957.

Starostina I. A., Chukhrova T. I., Lyubimov P. V., Grüner V. V., Improving the quality of confectionery with peanuts, Technical Information Bulletin, UPPT USSR, 1953, No. XXUMX.

Tserevitinov FV, Chemistry and commodity research of fresh fruits and vegetables, Vol II, Gosorgorgdat, 1949.

Add a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to combat spam. Find out how your comment data is processed.