Raw materials for the production of chocolate and fillings.

Kakaovoe derevo (Theobroma cocoa) It belongs to the family Sterculiaceae. Its seeds - cocoa beans - thanks to its specific aroma and taste properties are a valuable raw material for the confectionery industry, from which manufactured the whole group kakaoizdely.
Cacao tree - an evergreen plant that grows in the tropical regions of America and Africa; in small quantities found on the islands of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific.
Homeland cocoa tree are considered the tropics of South America.
For the cocoa tree needs a warm and humid climate and moist soil. It is sensitive to strong winds and direct sunlight, so always grows under the protection of other plants. When breeding of cocoa tree plantations cased the rows or groups of trees that provide shade and protection from the wind. The systematic expansion of the cocoa plantations occurs most often from cuttings, not by seed propagation, which give the germ through 4 weeks.
Cacao tree reaches 15 m in height, trunk diameter 20-30 cm; It begins to bloom and bear fruit through 3-5 years. On plantations tree pruned to 5-8 m.
The length of the dark green leaves of the crown is 35 cm on the trunk and branches of up to 30 50 colors - from white to red. From flowers through 4-6 months turns the fruit, shaped like a cucumber, long 25 cm 10 cm diameter, green, yellow-green, gold, orange, red-violet color. Each fruit contains 30-50 underlying pulp beans. Bob is shaped like almonds. The length of the mature bean 2,5 cm color from light to dark red, the surface is smooth.
Bob consists of four parts: a hard shell, soft endosperm - silver film, double-lobe of the embryo and the solid core.
Harvest. Cocoa beans can practically be harvested throughout the year. However, for economic reasons, only two crops are harvested - basic and intermediate. For example, in Ghana, the main harvest is harvested from October to February; In Brazil - the main in February, in between - from May to June or July. At this time, ripened fruit carefully cut with a knife from branches and trunk and in baskets are demolished in one place. The fruit is opened, the beans are taken out of it together with the fruit pulp, from which they are then, if possible, cleaned. The unfermented beans thus obtained have a weak bitter-tart flavor and contain almost no aromatic substances. They do not have the typical taste and smell of cocoa. Freshly picked cocoa beans of noble sorts have a yellowish white color, in other varieties - from violet to gray, white Baia beans are rare.
Treatment. In order for the cocoa beans have developed specific flavor and aroma, they are treated in a special way. The oldest processing - roasting. It was used by Native Americans prior to its opening. However, roasting the beans do not acquire specific taste; this is achieved only after the fermentation and drying.
Cocoa beans that are exempt from the pulp is subjected to fermentation. Beans poured into piles, excavation pits or special container - wooden boxes, the top layer are covered with banana leaves. Fermentation lasts beans noble varieties 2-3 days potrebitelskih- 5-7 days. During this time, adhering to the bean pulp residues decompose, the temperature in the mass of beans rises to 50 ° C.
There are external and internal fermentation. The chemical reactions that occur when external fermentation plays a subordinate role. Under the influence of alcoholic fermentation of microorganisms transferred to the acetic acid fermentation.
Processes occurring in the enteric fermentation, are of great importance for the formation of flavoring and aromatic substances, but they are poorly understood.
Assays cocoa beans conducted before and after the fermentation indicated that a part of purine substances evaporate, cocoa beans core absorbs acetic acid, slightly modified proteins, tannins and condensation occurs.
This phenomenon gives a partial explanation to the processes occurring during fermentation. However, these data do not explain the origin of the flavor of cocoa beans. Despite the studies conducted, a complete answer to the question of the formation of the flavor of cocoa beans has not been obtained. It is shown that fermentation at 50 ° C is necessary to activate enzymes, and to obtain a good cocoa bean flavor, carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation should be constantly removed. Properties. The mature, well-fermented and dried beans are large, relatively easily separated shell (husk - cocoa shell). The nucleus at a small effort easily disintegrates. The color of well-fermented cocoa beans from light to dark brown, the taste is bitter, slightly tart, and in some cases (especially in the fermented beans) a slightly sour taste is felt. Beans have a characteristic aroma. Different types of cocoa beans have their own specific flavor, therefore cocoa beans are distinguished by their flavor and taste, and also by the place of their growth.
In the first case beans are divided into noble and consumer varieties. Well-fermented beans of noble sorts have a delicate taste, a pleasant delicate aroma with many shades. Cocoa trees of noble sorts are very sensitive and begin to bear fruit rather late. Botanically, they refer to the hybrids Criollo-Forastero or Trinitario-Type. A pure cacao Criollo is very rare. Its fruits are distinguished by their unusual taste and pure floral aroma. Harvest from these trees is small - 5 thousand tons per year, with a total world crop of 800 thousand tons.
Fermented cocoa beans varieties Forastero (consumer) have a tart flavor and a very strong flavor. The trees are hardier than the trees with the fruits of noble varieties, and give an early and abundant harvest.
On a geographical basis the following varieties are distinguished cocoa beans.
Central America: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama.
South America: Venezuela (Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, Caracas Carupano), Colombia (Cauca, Cumana), Ecuador (Guayaquil, Arriba, Bala Mahal Karakves, Esmeraldas, Brazil (Bahia, Pará).
West Indies (Antilles): Cuba, Sande, Santo Domingo, Trinidad, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica.
West Africa: Sao Tome, Fernando Po, Ghana (Accra), Nigeria (Lagos), Togo, Cameroon, Congo, Ivory Coast.
East Africa: Madagascar.
Asia: Ceylon, Java.
Australia: Samoa.
By noble cocoa beans include varieties of Venezuela (Caracas, Karenero, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello), Ecuador (Guayaquil Arriba), Nicaragua, Mexico, Costa Rica, Trinidad, Grenada, Java, Ceylon and Samoa. They all belong to a class or Sgіoііo Tgіpіїagіo Tour. The exception is Ecuadorian varieties, which together with conventional varieties of African and Brazilian varieties (Bahia, Pará) are Forastero variety.
A precise description of certain varieties of beans in terms of their external properties, flavor and taste can not be given. The ability to distinguish one variety from another is a result of years of experience. Fig. 2-7 attempt to show the most common varieties of cocoa beans.
Varieties. Beans Arriba most varieties are very different from all the other beans. They are relatively large, often not fully fermented, from purple to gray terpkogorkogo taste, with a strong aroma.
Venezuelan beans as big, but differ considerably more delicate flavor and delicate aroma.
From the noble varieties of beans should highlight the variety of Java, Ceylon and Samoa. Beans of medium size with a delicate flavor and golden core of a light brown color. Thanks to their properties, they are used for preparing dairy cream and chocolate varieties.
Among conventional varieties should distinguish beans Bahia. They are medium-sized, flat and contain a high percentage of poorly fermented beans violet color. They pronounced tart and bitter, sour taste and a faint aroma. Approximately the same properties have beans in Ghana and Nigeria.
Evaluation of cocoa beans. Cocoa beans were evaluated in accordance with the quality of their fermentation, the so-called index. For a completely flawless parties index is 100. In the presence of defective beans - purple, wormy, cracked, moldy removed scores.
The index is determined by the method Office International du Cacao et du Chocolat: 100 g of cocoa beans are weighed and converted. For each bean in excess dumped 98 0,25 points; if the number of beans is less t. e. the individual beans longer, then it is ignored.
100 beans are cut with a knife along to assess each core. For each moldy bean reset 2 points for grubby - 1,5 points, and for every rastresnuty - 1 score. Depending on the number of purple beans are removed scores.

Quantity

leguminous

mark

Quantity

leguminous

mark

0-5

0

21-25

4

6-10

1

26-30

5

11-15

2

31-35

7

16-20

3

36-40

9

Then take 500 g cocoa beans and define waste and fight. When the waste is removed in the 1 1,5% points, and for every percent over 5% of combat - on 0,5 points. In order to get a good average score, it is necessary to index each sample checked three times.

Cocoa beans "Ghana" brand TREE

mark

100 r = 94 bean ………………… ..

_

14% purple beans .....................

2

4% of cracked beans .....................

4

8% wormy beans …………………….

12

1% moldy beans .....................

2

0,4% Bean Scrap …………………

0,5

3% combat ............................

20,5
index 79,5

mark

100 g — 99 bean ……………… ..

0,25

13% purple beans .....................

2

3% rastresnutыh. . .

3

3% moldy ……………………… ..

1% wormy ………………………….

1,5

0,4% waste ……………………………………………

0,5

3% combat .....................


13,25

index 86,75

mark

100 g - 93 cocoa beans ………………………………

-

11% Purple Cocoa Bean ………………

2

4% of cracked ... ... ...

4

2% wormy ……………………………………………… ..

3

- moldy ………………………………………… ..

For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.

0,4% waste ……. ……

0,5

3% combat ............

9,5

index 90,5

Composition. During the processing of the beans has a special influence on the fluidity or viscosity of the chocolate glaze and the fat content in the core, as well as the amount of cocoa shells and moisture.
Numerous studies of fat and cocoa shells in imported cocoa beans were conducted in a central laboratory, and now the Institute of the confectionery industry in the city of Leipzig.
Table. 2 shows the average data in terms of dry matter, obtained by 1953 1957, the

Table 2

Fat content cocoa shells and cocoa beans in various

cocoa beans

Cocoa shells

Fat

The number of samples analyzed

%

Noble

Arriba (Ecuador) …………………………….

12,96

51,90

46

Caracas (Venezuela) ……………………… ..

15,58

50,77

23

Grenada ………………………………………………….

13,87

53,58

4

Samoa ……………………………………………………

11,57

50,74

4

Trinidad ……………………………………….

14,55

52,38

9

consumer

Baya ……………………… * * …….

14,02

53,48

96

Ghana ……………………………………………………….

12,24

54,48

348

Cameroon …………………………………………………

12,73

54,43

28

Nigeria…………………………………………….

13,59

51,68

8

Sao Tome ……………………………………………….

13,33

52,79

25

Humidity cocoa beans of all varieties of 4- 6%, shell - on average 12%.
Also the fat content is of great importance theobromine, which defines the bitter taste of the cocoa beans. Along with the theoretical brahmin impart a bitter taste, and other substances - tannic and the like.23.25
In addition theobromine in cocoa beans contain caffeine, which is purely a bitter taste. The ratio of theobromine to caffeine as a 10: 1.
Theobromine and caffeine are purine group of e di tions. Their content ranges from fermented cocoa beans to 0,9 1,6%, unfermented and - from 0,2 to 0,3% (Table 3.).

Table of Contents 3 purine compounds in cocoa beans

Cocoa bean variety

Purine content,% of dry matter

Fermented

Arriba ………………………………………………………………………………

1,58

Carenero (Venezuela) ………………………………………… ...

1,15

Bahia superior (supreme) …………………………………………………….

1,48

Congo …………………………………………………………………………………….

1,09

Ghana (well fermented) ……………………………… ..

1,45

Renada ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

1,39

Sao Tome ………………………………………………………………………………

1,09

Togo…………………………………………………………………………………

0,96

unfermented

Baya - Couple ……………………………………………………………………… ..

1,67

Baya - Katongo …………………………………………………………………….

1,84

Tannins and the like cocoa beans give a specific taste and color. They consist, according to the latest data from the condensation product of catechins and Anto-cyano. Catechin and cyanidin found in unfermented and poorly fermented cocoa beans. Detect them using paper chromatography.
Tannin content, soluble in methanol, in various grades of cocoa beans can be seen from Table. 4

Tannin content, soluble in methanol

Cocoa bean variety

Tannins, soluble in methanol,% of dry matter

Noble

Arriba ……………………………………………………………………….

7,54

Caracas (Venezuela) ………………………………………………….

5,30

Carereno ………………………………………………………………… ..

5,14

Samoa ……………………………………………………………………… ..

4,65

consumer

Baya ……………………………………………………………………………

6,55

Congo …………………………………………………………………………

4,00

Ivory Coast ……………………………………… ..

3,56

Ghana ………………………………………………………………………… ..

3,42,

Cameroon …………………………………………………………………….

3,82

Nigeria …………………………………………………………………… ..

4,44

Sao Tome ………………………………………………………………… ..

3,85

Togo ……………………………………………………………………………

4,44

A large amount of research devoted to the study of tannins. It was possible to establish the relationship between the individual components.23.26
The bulk of the carbohydrates are in the cocoa beans, is Starch (7-10% of all cores). Besides starch contained in the core of monosaccharides - glucose and fructose and disaccharides - sucrose in an amount that depends on the degree of fermentation.
The unfermented cocoa beans can be detected only sucrose in poorly fermented - along with her glucose and fructose. The well-fermented cocoa beans, except for noble South American varieties only contain glucose and fructose (0,2-0,6% relative to the dry matter of the nucleus). The unfermented beans contain up to 1,6% sucrose in relation to the whole kernel, while the South American precious varieties of cocoa beans from the sucrose-up 0,5 1% for the same amount of glucose and fructose together.
Content with s p o r a protein contained in cocoa beans in the Table. 5.

Table 5

The crude protein content in the cocoa beans

Cocoa bean variety

protein content
% Dry matter
Arriba (Ecuador) ………………………………………………………………

12,50

Carenero (Venezuela) …………………………………………………………

10,31

Renada ……………………………………………………………………………… ..

10,31

Baya (fermented)] ………………………………………………….

11,38

Baya (non-fermented) ……………………………………………….

11,75

Congo ………………………………………………………………………………

10,19

Ghana …………………………………………………………………………………… ..

10,25

Togo …………………………………………………………………………………… ..

11,31

From the water-soluble amino acids in the free state in cocoa beans there are the following: leucine, valine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, glycol. The sour taste of cocoa beans should be attributed to the content of free lemon and acetic acid from. The total acid content in terms of citric acid is 2%, and in consumer varieties it is higher than that of the beneficiaries. This is due to a longer fermentation of consumer varieties, in which acetic acid is formed. The pH varies between conventional cocoa beans from 5,18 to 6,39.
Mineral content is given in Table. 6.
Of particular importance among the components of the cocoa beans have flavoring. It is a complex mixture of different substances, of which only some indentifitsirovany.

The content of mineral substances in cocoa beans

Cocoa bean variety

Mineral content (in terms of ash),% of dry matter

Arriba (Ecuador) ……………………………………………………….

3,34

Querenero (Venezuela) .............................. ……………….

2,84

Grenada ……………………………… ... ……….

2,31

Samoa …………………………. …………………. *….

3,14

Trinidad. . ……………………………………………………………….

3,35

Baya ………………………………………………………………………… ..

2,42

Congo ………………………………………………………………………….

2,24

Ghana ........ ..........

2,52

Nigeria …………………………………………………

2,72

Ivory Coast ………………………………………………

2,43

They claim that the flavoring of cocoa beans consist of 20 components, most of which relates to esters or essential oils.
Based on the data shown in or well fermented cocoa beans contained dried 12-14% shell, 1% germ and 85-87% core.

Water ………………………………………… ..

…………… 4 — 6

Fat ………………………

Starch ……………………………………

…… 7 — 10

Glucose………………………………………

……… .. I

Fructose ………………………………… ... .

. ... 1-2

Sucrose ... …………………………

……… .. 1

Protein …………………………………………… ..

…………… 10 — 12

Purin …………………………………………….

…… 1 — 1,5

Tannins…………………

…………… 4 — 7

Acids ………………………………………….

1-2

Minerals …..

. 2-3.

The average composition of the core (on dry substance) (in%):
SUGAR
The raw material for sucrose. Sucrose - cane, beet sugar is obtained from sugar cane and sugar beet.
The properties of sugar. Chemically pure sucrose is a colorless crystalline substance with a pronounced sweet taste. It is almost insoluble in pure alcohol, but dissolves readily in water, forming a viscous syrup. Sucrose by acids or enzymes split into gluon
goat and fructose. With careful dry heating sucrose melts, turning into a colorless mass; the temperature increases further the color changes from yellow to dark brown, and finally it is combusted, forming carbon dioxide (CO2) And water (H20). At high concentrations of sucrose acts as a preservative, and therefore it is widely used in the food industry.
Storage sugar. Sucrose is hygroscopic, so it should be stored in a dry place at a temperature of 15-20, 25 maximum ° C, relative humidity should not exceed 70%. Under these conditions, the sucrose can be stored for several years.
According to the GDR TS 3070 standard grade sugar permitted in Table. 7.
Table 7

Varieties of sugar GDR standard

Grade

value

Цвет

Поляриза

Hum

Ash%

crystals

of

tion, MA

of%

mm

Iced sugar .....................

Not more than 0,05

-

-

-

-

White sugar

thin ……………………… ..

0,2-0,63

6,5

-

average ……………………..

0,63-1,0

6,1

no less

No more

No more

99,9

0,075

0,035

rude ……………………….

1,0-1,6

5,7

the main variety ……………

Less than 1, 6

6,1

Rafinirovannaya powder. . .

No more

0,05

refined

thin …………………….

0,2-0,63

7,6

average ……………………..

0,63-1,0

7,3

no less

No more

No more

99,9

0,05

0,015

rude………………………..

1,0-1,6

7,1

medium thin ....

Less

7,3

than 1,6

Refinery cubes ...

-

7,3

At least 99,9

Not more than 0,01

Not more than 0,015

Other sugars. In addition to sucrose, other sugars play a significant role in the food industry: lactose (milk sugar), maltose (malt sugar), glucose (grape sugar). Of these, pure glucose is used in the confectionery industry to prepare special types of chocolate and for sweetening various fruit fillings. Glucose is obtained by hydrolysis from starch. For this purpose, a beater containing a small amount of starch is processed at a pressure of 2 at and an elevated temperature in so-called converters with dilute acid.

Starch undergoing intermediate stage is converted into glucose23.30.

After neutralization, bleaching and purifying the resulting concentrated glucose solution to a predetermined concentration, and glucose monohydrate crystallizes in the form of (a water molecule and a glucose molecule - C6H1206• n20).
Pure glucose - a colorless crystalline powder, readily soluble in water and poorly in pure alcohol. Glucose Sweetness relative to sucrose is 50%. Glucose is well absorbed by the body and is a source of energy.

stream

Raw. Molasses is mainly produced from potato, corn and wheat starch by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis.
For high-quality syrup, especially in terms of color, it is recommended to use a good, free from the proteins starch. Amino acid protein substances during storage under high temperature reacts with glucose resulting from hydrolysis; compounds are formed from yellow to brown.
Properties. Molasses - colorless, sometimes yellowish, a little sweet and viscous syrup. When the content of a large number of dextrin, it becomes cloudy. Dry syrup - a colorless, hygroscopic powder that becomes viscous on contact with air.
Application. Molasses is widely used in the confectionery industry. It prevents wholly or partially crystallising sugars from supersaturated solutions. This is particularly important in the manufacture of hard candy and jelly products. To prevent the used syrup saccharification with low content of reducing substances. Syrup with a high content of reducing substances used in the manufacture of lipstick and cream lipstick to prevent drying.
Storage. Molasses is stored in a corrosion-resistant containers at a temperature not higher than 25 ° C. When storing molasses in powder form relative humidity should not exceed 60%.
Varieties. According to the standard the TGL and 6218 6219, in the GDR are following grades of molasses: transparent, semi-white, special (Spezial), Extra (Extra) and dry. molasses figures given in Table. 8.

Indicators of different grades of molasses GDR standard

Indicators

Sort molasses

прозрач

naya

half-white

special

extra

dry

Appearance………………….

light,

light,

dairy

light,

White,

almost

Zheltov

white

Zheltov

до жел

colorless

this

this

tovatoy

naya

Density ...................................

-

1,410

-1,420

-

'-

Dry matter …………………

-

Not less than 78,3%

-

no less

96,5%

Redutsiruyushtie

substance (in terms

glucose in dry

substances) ……………….

38-45%

38-45% |

| 24-32%

54-62%

24-32%

Acidity1 ……………………

-

Not more than 1,6

-

No more

2,2

PH value …………………… ..

_.

4,8

-5,3

_

_

Sulfuric acid

(Based on 502)

For any inquiries, We're here to answer you.

No more

-

-

15 mg / g 100


In 1 potato molasses acidity of not more than 2,2

Milk and milk products

Milk. Whole cow's milk in confectionery industry almost no use. It is widely used in processed form.
Treatment. Whole milk passes a primary treatment to remove impurities, and then the heat treatment takes place in one of three methods: the long-term heatingtion within minutes at 30 63-65 ° C, short - for seconds at a temperature 40 71-74 ° C and hot working - for a few seconds at 85 ° C.
Processed milk is rapidly cooled to 5 ° C.
The average fat content of whole, milk m 2,5%. When fat separation is obtained skim milk.
The composition of the milk. Whole milk has the following composition (in%):

Water………………………………………………..

Fat ………………………………………………

. . . . . 3,4

Protein substances …………………………

…………… 3,5

Lactose (milk sugar) ………………

…………… 4,7

Minerals ……

... Xnumx

Canned milk. In the confectionery industry widely uses sweetened condensed milk and sugar, milk and block block cream. Their preparation is based on the removal of moisture under vacuum.
Storage. In order to avoid losses due to prokisaniya condensed milk, which comes in the confectionery factory in wooden containers should be stored in the cold and quickly going into production. Packaged milk and cream block should also be stored in a cool, free from the smell of the room.
Composition. According to the German Democratic Republic legislation, evaporated milk must contain not less than 7,5% fat, 17,5% of dry non-fat milk solids, condensed milk with sugar - 8,3% fat, 22% of dry non-fat milk solids and 27% of water, skimmed sweetened condensed milk - not less 26% skimmed milk solids, and not more than 30% water.
Block milk contains at least 12% fat, 28% skimmed milk solids, and not more than 16% water cream block - at least 18% fat, 20% skimmed milk solids, and not more than 16% water.
The confectionery industry also uses whole milk powder, skimmed milk powder and cream powder.
Dry cream prepared as milk powder.
Storage. Whole milk powder, skimmed milk powder and cream powder should be stored in a cool dry place, protected from direct sunlight. Storage temperature 10-15 ° C, relative humidity 50-60%. Under these conditions, the shelf life 3-4 months.
Composition. According to the laws of the GDR, whole milk powder must contain 25% fat, with the moisture content of whole milk powder, obtained by milling should be no more than 6%, and the resulting spray-drying - no more than 4%.
Humidity skimmed milk powder in both cases may not exceed 6%.
Dry cream, as recommended, should have 42% fat and moisture content of not more than 6%.
FATS
Butter. According to its taste properties and chemical composition of butter occupies a special place among edible fats. The starting material for the preparation of a butter cream is obtained from milk and processed by different methods.
Properties. Sour butter in a fresh state, has a clean flavor. The fragrance is called diacetyl, arising in the process of ripening cream. The addition of diacetyl is not allowed.
Sweet butter has a sweet taste, it is less hygroscopic than sour.
Storage. Oil regardless of the method of its preparation in order to avoid unwanted changes should be stored in a dark, cool, airtight, odor-free container at a temperature of not more than 5 ° C. Failure to comply with these conditions, oil quickly deteriorates - rancid.
oil rancidity caused by exposure to atmospheric oxygen, light and bacteria. Under the action of sunlight oil gets greasy taste; thereupon there may be other adverse effects.
Composition. The oil, which meets all the requirements, should have the following composition (in%):

Fat .............

80

Water …………………………………… ..

18

Protein substances. . .

………………. Xnumx

Lactose…………………………

…… 0,5

Minerals,

received

from milk …………………

………… .. 1

The solid fat. Along with butter solid fat is used in the confectionery industry. Other fats, such as tallow, lard, do not apply.
Storage. Hydrofat can be stored and transported as a liquid in the tanks, and the solid - in blocks. The storage temperature of not more than 20 ° C, relative humidity of not more than 75%. Under these conditions, the solid fat for the confectionery industry can be stored for one month.
Properties. Solid fat for the confectionery industry, heated to 60 ° C, should not give a precipitate or become cloudy. Smell and taste should be neutral and clean. Iodine number of solid fat ranges from up to 65 80, the acid number should not exceed 0,15. By penetrometer a hardness (penetration) at 20 ° C should not exceed 140.
LECITHIN
Lecithin is added to the chocolate mass and the icing to reduce the viscosity. The main raw material for lecithin are soybeans. It is widely distributed in nature. For medicinal purposes lecithin is obtained from the eggs.
Properties and storage. Raw soy lecithin is a brown, plastic mass with a delicate nutty flavor. Lecithin is highly soluble in fats. Finds use as an emulsifier serves to reduce the viscosity and prevents rancidity of fats.
Lecithin is stored in sealed steel containers that protect against the ingress of moisture and sunlight.
Composition. The crude soy lecithin (68-34 TSB standard) should have the following composition (in%):

Water ………………………………………………… ..

Butter……………………………………………

Ethyl insoluble. .

,. Not more than 2,5

Fosfatidы (lecithin, kefalin). .

,. At least 50

Acid number …………………………

Eggs and egg products

Eggs and egg products are consumed in the production of chocolate in the preparation of various fillings. In this case use only eggs.
Fresh eggs. The egg consists of yolk, albumen and shell. Chicken egg weighs an average 55 g, and on the shell falls 10-12% of the total weight of approximately 7z rest is relatively rich in fat and yolk 2 / h - protein.
The approximate chemical composition of the egg without the shell is as follows (in%):

Water . . ……………………………………………….

…………… 71

Fat and fat-like substances ...

... Xnumx

Protein ……………………………………………………… ..

storage of fresh eggs life is limited; it can be extended by keeping them in a cold room, in sawdust, in an alkaline aqueous solution or water glass.
Egg products. Since egg storage and handling difficult, the confectionery industry in- use products from the eggs - egg yolk or egg products. The main supplier of these products is China.
For added durability melange of up to 10 15% of salt or 1% of benzoic acid.
In addition, there are powdered egg products: SuKhoi egg powder, dried egg yolk and egg white.
The powder obtained from fresh eggs, which before break, wash. Separated from the shell eggs, smashing her on a special grate.
White and yolk thoroughly mixed, pasteurized and dried using a vacuum on the rollers or by spraying. Egg powder - an ideal environment for microorganisms, so it is necessary to store it in a dry, cool place and hermetically sealed. Humidity should be less than 5%, it is desirable to 1-3%.
A coffee tree It belongs to the family Rubiaceae. The main varieties of coffee: Arabica coffee, Robusta coffee, coffee Liberica, including Arabica coffee accounts 95%.
properties coffee. Raw coffee light, often yellow-green to gray-green or blue-green color. According to its specific properties, obtained after roasting, coffee flavoring substances belong to. Properties of coffee depends on its botanical species, growing area, from the harvesting and processing. The decisive factor determining the quality of the coffee is the quantitative content of poor quality beans. It is, for example, Colombian coffee around 0,5 kg, for Brazilian varieties - 300 g for coffee Angoly- of 450
For low-quality beans include:
oily beans with a bad smell - perefermentirovan- nye;
green beans - immature, bitter;
frozen beans;
black beans (Nigger) -vysohshie.
In addition, there are other indicators of the quality of raw coffee beans, for example, grain damaged by insects, rain, broken and so on. D.
Pods are evaluated from the size and quality of the roasting.
Beans of coffee in world trade indicate their value.

bean, mm

Extra large bean (very large) ………………………………

7,25

Large bean (large) …………………………………………………… ..

... 7,0

Good to large bean (from good to great). . .

6,75

Good bean …………………………………………………… ..

6,5

Medium bean (medium) ……………………………………………………

6,0

Small bean (small) …………………………………………………………

5,5

Quality roasting is estimated by the number of bright or very dark roasted beans in the product. Recording is done on the basis of 100 g roasted beans. Party in which there is one bad bean, roasted rated as excellent (fine roast), the party, in which five bad beans - from good to great fried (good to fine roast), a party with a bad 10 bobami- well browned (good roast).
Varieties. There is almost 300 coffees are distinguished as the botanical origin: Coffea arabica, Coffea robusta, Coffea liberica, and geographical origin. In addition, there are other indications.
By geographical origin, distinguish the following groups of coffee: South American, Central American, western Indian, East Indian, Arabic, African.
The most famous varieties of coffee - Arabica from Central America, coffee Santos Bahia and the Mina from Colombia and Brazil. The largest coffee suppliers are Brazil - 45% and Colombia - 20% of the global harvest.
Trading classification coffee in the GDR made taking into account the standard DDR TGL 9058 into six groups. In assessing the quality of the coffee is taken into account the amount of damaged coffee beans in 300-gram sample.
Storage. Coffee stored in dry clean room, free of pests at 20 ° C and a relative humidity of 75%.
Conclusions. A lot of research coffee beans before and after roasting. However, it failed to establish the cause of the chemical composition and the characteristic odor and taste of coffee.
As a result of studies, according to various authors, the following composition is obtained not fried coffee (in%):

Water……………………………………………………

. . . 11-12

The fat and fat-like substances. . .

11-12

Protein substances …………………………….

13

Sugar (carbohydrates) …………………………… ..

. 8-9

Cellulose . …………………………………………

25-30

Minerals …………………….

3-4

Caffeine ………………………………………………

. . . 1-2

The coffee roasting process takes its specific properties and as such only is valuable with the standpoint of flavor.
Humidity coffee roasting result is reduced to 2,5%. This raises a number of substances, known and unknown influencing the taste and odor properties. These include mercaptans which may be formed from amino acids, pyrolyl, whose origin could be attributed to proline, as well as pyridine and nicotinic acid of trigonelline. Caffeine is contained in coffee, is not changed during roasting.
WALNUT COLA
Under nuts Cola understands the core, cleaned from the husk of various trees Cola family, having several kinds: Cola ocuminata, Cola vera, Cola verticillata, belonging, like the cocoa tree to Sterculiaceae family.
growing areas. From the botanical point of view it is wrong to call the fruit of a nut. This plant 20 m height comes from West Africa, but also cultivated in Ceylon, in South and Central America.
Properties. Fruit Cola reaches 5 3 cm long and cm wide. The color of ripe fruit, typically yellow to light red in the drying process changes to yellow or reddish brown. Humidity dried fruit 12%, the content of purine compounds 2-2,5%, of which 98% falls on caffeine and theobromine to 2%. Cola nuts are used in the manufacture of medicaments, beverages (eg, vitakola) and confectionery (eg chocolate cola).
Dried milled nuts Kola powder, which is used in the production of chocolate. Powder Cola golden brown, bitter, astringent taste with low-viscosity; it kind of bad taste is manifested in particular in the production of chocolate Cola. Despite many experiments can not resolve this unpleasant taste without lowering the quality of cola nuts.
TEA
Tea hardly used in the manufacture of chocolate. In rare cases the water it extracts are used in the manufacture of chocolates with liquid filling.
Under the processed tea understand the different ways young shoots, buds, leaves shrub belonging to the Theaceae family of sorts with Thea sinensis and Thea assamica.
growing areas. Tea is cultivated in China, India, Japan, Pakistan, Ceylon, Indonesia, the Soviet Union (Georgia) and in different areas of West Africa.
For the tea bushes are required constant care, rich soils and annual rainfall 2000 mm temperature does not really matter.
Tea bush varieties Thea sinensis has a height-3 4 m, grade Thea assamica - 8-15 well, but it is advisable to prune them to 2 m bush gives dark green leaves, from which the tear-2 3 the youngest..
Treatment. Processing of tea leaves to black tea includes 10-12 manual operations. In the application of modern technology can be combined into 4: withering, rolling, fermenting and rolling. Fermentation unlike cocoa bean processing lasts several hours and is the most important step for the formation of aromatic substances, and therefore the quality of finished products.
Storage. Cooked tea and sorted is transported in wooden boxes, covered with zinc or aluminum foil. Boxes should be stored in cool and dry conditions, and in order to avoid deterioration in the flavor-tanks, odor-free and airtight.
The chemical composition of tea is as follows (in%):

Water ……………………………………….

…………… 3,5 — 8

Caffeine……………………………………

…………… 2 — 4,5

Tannins………………

…………… 7 — 12,5

ALMOND
The area of ​​growth and variety. Almond tree (Prunus amygdalus) belongs to the family Rosaceae. Homeland him - West Asia.
In the confectionery industry, used bitter almond and sweet almond, which appear on their properties do not differ from one another. The raw material is purified by a hard shell almonds core - solid; the taste of it in accordance with the kind of sweet or bitter (if it contains glucose glycoside amygdalin). Under the action of the enzyme emulsin amygdalin is cleaved to form prussic acid and glucose benzoaldegida. In food production bitter almonds used in limited quantities, or it is removed beforehand from bitterness.
By growing according to the GDR standard TGL 6228 distinguish almonds: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese. Besides
of almonds grown in Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, France, Greece and Cyprus, Iran, Yugoslavia, California, Morocco, Syria, Turkey and the USSR.
A special place is occupied by the so-called white almonds. This is the almond kernels, freed from the brown shell, t. E. Of blanched almonds.
Properties. Almond kernels should be dry, without a shell, dust and various blockages - and whole insect particles and foreign matter. The surface should not be wrinkled, and the interior of the vitreous. scrap content - not more than 5%, the shell of the Italian varieties - no more than 1%, while other varieties - no more than 2%. Among the nuclei of bitter almonds is allowed a maximum of 5% of sweet, sweet and among cores - no more than 3% of bitter almonds.
Storage. almond kernels are stored in a clean, dry place and protected from sunlight and the intrusion of pests. The height of the pile of almonds, according to the GDR standard should be no higher than 3 Well, the room temperature - no more than 10 ° C and relative humidity - no more than 70%.
Conclusions. Due to the chemical composition of the almond kernel it is a valuable nutritious product.
According to the literature, almonds have the following composition: 6-7% water, 50-55% fat, 20-22% of proteins, 12-14% carbohydrates.
Hazelnut (Hazel). Hazelnuts, or filberts, belongs to the family Ve1: i1aseae.
growing areas. Hazelnuts, or filberts, native to the countries of southern Europe and Asia Minor, mainly in Turkey, Italy and Spain. The most valuable varieties of nuts are grown in Turkey.
From Italy, get medium-sized, round and oblong nuts, hazel, which are known as the Neapolitan, Piedmontese, Sicilian and Roman. Spain delivers smaller size nuts than other countries.
In the confectionery industry Turkish varieties of nuts used.
According to the GDR standard TGL 6225, kernels should have no more than: 0,5% moldy and sluggish cores, 2% of bitter, sour and nadgryzannyh, 0,5% with hidden defects and rancid, 1% of broken and crushed, 8% broken, 15% without significant damage.
Storage. Hazelnut is stored in a room with a temperature of not more than 10 ° C and a relative humidity of 70%; stack height, according to the GDR standard -. 3 m Once a month, a pile of change and check if there are any pests.
Conclusions. Hazelnuts, depending on the variety and origin contain up to 40 70% wood shell, not suitable for the human body. nut kernel is very rich in calories and has the following composition (in%):

Water ………………………………………….

…………………. 6 — 8

Fat ………………………………………… ..

…………………. 60 — 65

Protein substances ……………….

………………… .. 15 — 18

Carbohydrates ……………………………… ..

………………… .. 8 — 12

Ash ... ……………………………………

………………… .. 2 — 3

Walnut. Along with hazel in the confectionery industry are the use of walnut kernels.
growing areas (Juglans regia). Homeland walnut - Asia, but now it is grown in many countries around the world. The main countries supplying walnuts are in Europe - France, Italy, Yugoslavia and Romania; in Asia - China; in USA - California.
On the world market the walnut comes mainly from China and France in the form of halves, quarters, vosmushek kernel, as well as in the form of grits.
Properties. Kernel walnut light yellow color with a typical nutty flavor, slightly bitter. Rancid or bitter taste is very unacceptable. Instead, the method for determining the organoleptic rancidity kernels 1 new method of objective assessment was offered, It is based on determining the acid number in fat nut, extracted with ether in the cold.
Impeccable taste of nuts with an acid value of not more than 0,5. The acid number of up to 0,5 1 indicates that nuts kept long; they faint but pronounced bitter taste. When an acid number above 1,5 nuts are rancid taste.
Qualitative indicators. Humidity for all sorts of nuts a maximum of 8%.
The chemical composition of walnut same as the hazelnut.
Quality indicators, the GDR standard, are shown in Table. 9.
Table 9

Qualitative indicators

walnut

walnut,%

Walnut in a

Indicators

halves

quarters

vosmushek

Damaged kernels (of which no more than 1%

rancid) ………………………………………

-

Not more than 5

-

Light yellow, light to dark korich

Kernel level terms, with the exception of black.

-

Not more than 5

-

Broken cores …………………………………………….

1

3

20

Foreign impurities …………………………… ..

-

Not more than 0,5

-

Krupka walnuts particle diameter of at least 5 mm should be free from dust and dirt. Walnuts are stored as well as hazel.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale). Homeland walnut is Western and Eastern India. In the confectionery industry used cashew kernels, peeled, bearing the name of the Indian almonds.
There are different grades of cashew, of which the GDR TGL 6221 standard lists the following: white whole kernels Wholes Quality; обжаренные целые ядра — Scorched Wholes; дробленые ядра — Butts, Splits, Large Pièces; Small Pièces, Scorched Pièces, Babybits.
With in about a nd t in a. Cashew Kernels - solid, kidney shape, from white to pale yellow in color, with a sweet taste, with no special features.
Storage. Cashew kernels keep in containers made of tinplate at maximum 5 ° C. In order to avoid rancidity cashew kernel and stored for long without air, light and heat.
Composition. Cashew have almost the same chemical composition as almond nucleus, but they contain starch. In powdered form, they differ sharply from the almond, does not contain starch.
Peanuts (groundnuts), also called earthen bean, yavayskim or Cameroon nut, belongs to the family Agas- Ye yuro§aea. Earthmoving these nuts are called because they mature in the ground.
growing areas. Homeland peanut - Brazil, but now it is grown in different countries. The main suppliers of peanut - West Africa, China, India and the United States. In small amounts found in southern European countries.
Properties. Pindar elongated cylindrical shape, tapered in the middle, 1-3 cm long and 0,1 - 1 cm in diameter, has a mesh woody shell. Each fruit contains one or two kernels from white to light yellow in color, with a characteristic beany taste, which is softened during roasting and becomes enjoyable. The core is covered with a shell having a color from red to brown and bitter taste.
Storage. Pindar is stored as well as the forest.
Composition. In the peanut shells have to 28% of all nuts. The chemical composition of the peanut kernels as follows (in%):

Water ……………………………………….

………………. Xnumx

Fat …………………………………………….

………………. 40 — 50

Protein substances ……………… ..

………………. 25 — 35

Carbohydrates (starch) ……………….

………………. 12 — 18

Brazilian nut (couple). Homeland Brazil nut family VegSho ^ and Excel - equatorial regions of South America.
The fruit is a capsule within which contains from 15 25 to seeds. Each seed 4 cm long, a triangular shape, has a strong, woody gray-brown shell. white seed kernel with nutty flavor.
According to the standards of the GDR TSB 6229, Brazil nuts should be dry and freed from the pulp, mold and insects. The allowable amount of impurities not more than 0,5%, rancid kernels-1%, sluggish, and other defective cores - no more than 10%.
Brazil nuts are stored as well as hazel.
The kernels of apricots (Prunus armeniaca) - the fruit of the apricot tree are covered with a hard shell. Freed from her core is a valuable raw material for the confectionery industry.
The main suppliers of cores of apricot 1-2 cm in length - China, Iran, Italy, California and Albania. There are sweet and bitter apricot kernels; bitter more common. The bitter taste due to the presence of hydrocyanic acid in the glucoside amygdalin.
Bitter apricot kernels are used in confectionery industry for making persipanovoy mass. Their scald purified from membranes and soaked in water. Under the action of the enzyme released emulsin amygdalin and, during steeping it emits hydrocyanic acid and other substances. Weight loss in this case is 4-6%.
According to the GDR TGL 6220 standard, apricot kernels must meet the following requirements: no more than 10% scrap and not more than 1% of impurities (including dust, debris, shell). Contents of damaged kernels no more than 3%.
Storage. Apricot kernels should be stored in a clean, dry and protected from insect pests indoors at 10 ° C and a relative humidity of 70%.
Composition. Bitter apricot kernels have not noticed the following chemical composition:

Water,% ………………………………………………………………….

3,5-5

Fat% ………………………………………………………………….

50-55

Refractive index of the extracted oil

at 20 ° C ……………………………………………………… ..

1,4711

at 40 ° C ……………………………………………………… ..

1,4637

The total content of cyanide, acid,%. .

0,2 — 0,25

FISTASHKI KEDROVЫE AND WALNUTS

Pistachio kernels and pine nuts is less used in the confectionery industry, than the core mentioned above.
Pistachio. Pistachios are the fruit of the pistachio tree (R1z1as1a vera). Major suppliers - Italy, Tunisia, Syria, Turkey and Iran.
The kernel pistachio almond-shaped length 1,5 cm, covered with a thin shell green color with purple sides. The core of a light green color. The upper layer may be reddish or violet color. Kernels have a pleasant sweet buttery taste.
According to the standards of the GDR TGL 6222, pistachio kernels can contain no more than 6% scrap, not more than 0,5% of impurities. The development of mold and pests penetration can not be tolerated. Keep the core should be at 10 ° C and a relative humidity of 70%.
Pine nuts - the fruit of a species of pine (Rtie rtea).
The homeland of the pine nut is the Mediterranean Sea, 'Cultivated mainly in Italy, France and Spain. The kernels from white to light yellow in color 1 — 2 cm long, resemble almonds in taste. According to the GDR TSN 6231 standards, the content of scrap and other damaged kernels up to 5% is allowed in cedar cores, impurities are not more than 1%. Storage at 0 ° C and relative humidity 70%.
desiccated coconut
Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), from which copra get coconut grows in tropical countries. It is the fruit of the botanical point of view is wrong to believe nuts.
The fruit is covered with a yellow shell. Under cover is a nut having a thin, solid wood shell. The outer surface of the shell is covered by fibers several centimeters thick. Under the shell is white copra. Inside the fruit contains coconut milk - white liquid Fly Me.
All parts of the nut are used. The fibers used to produce ropes, woody shell - as fuel. Coconut milk drink. Copra is treated in two ways: it is dried by grinding, and used as raw or treated raw materials to produce coconut. To this crude copra cleaved sorted thoroughly dried.
Coconut chips are transported in wooden boxes, covered in a thin aluminum foil.
The main supplier is Ceylon, which supplies chips copra following varieties: fine, medium and coarse.
Fresh chips copra is white in color, with a sweet taste. Sometimes it can feel the taste of soap. This occurs if the chip copra contains more 60% fat and it starts to go rancid. To avoid this, the chip is cooled to copra 10 ° C, dried and stored in opacity, m indoors. Avoid long-term storage.
Trade coconut in the GDR regulated TGL 6226 standard.
Fruits and Products It is used in the confectionery industry for various kinds of expansion range. In processing received both German and foreign fruits and products made of them.
Cherry. From German varieties should be called sour cherries, preserved in alcohol is prepared from which the cherry. It has a good flavor and relatively high acidity. Color - dark red, the size - medium. It is resistant to transportation.
Besides cherries, sweet cherries is used, which has a good aroma, color and taste, and is also suitable for the preparation of fruits preserved in alcohol.
Applied and other fresh fruits and berries, as well as products from them -pyure, pulp, jellies, jams.
Puree is prepared mainly from apples, apricots, cherries, raspberries and strawberries.
Depending on the type of raw material processing method used two: hot - for apples, apricots and cherries, and cold - for strawberries.
The raw materials sorted and washed. When preparing mashed hot-raw steamed or boiled with a little water and then rubbed through a sieve with a mesh size of 1,5-2 mm and canned. In cold mashing method eliminates the step of steaming or provarivaniya.
Pulp as well as mashed potatoes, a semi-finished product. Unlike puree it consists of whole or cut fruits and so it is canned. In both cases, as a preservative, an aqueous solution of sulfurous acid, which evaporates during the further processing confectioneries.
Jam jelly has a plastic consistency. It is prepared from one or several types of fresh fruit or fruit, puree and pulp. Thus treated raw material applied with sugar under vacuum up to a certain temperature, humidity 60-70 ° C with the addition of fruit pectin, molasses, and acid dyes.
Jam made from one kind of raw material, contains 35% moisture; of several types of raw 42%.
Preserves prepared from one kind of berries or fruit and jam unlike integers it should contain large pieces of fruit or fruit. For jams are used only fresh berries and fruit or pulp, but do not puree. Humidity jam less than 35%.
Of particular interest to the industry is kakaopererabatyvayuschey jam southern fruit with good flavor and aroma. These include pineapples, figs, citrus fruits (lemons, oranges, mandarins, oranges and grapefruits) and made of them the product, as well as raisins.
Apricot - apricot fruit trees - are used in the confectionery industry in the dried form. After removing the bone fruit dried in the sun or in the dryer. Dried apricots supplies mainly California.
Pineapples are grown in South America. The flesh is yellow-orange to red color, sweet taste and pleasant aroma. The weight of the fetus before 3,5 kg. The main areas of growth are the Hawaiian Islands, Cuba, Brazil, China, Kenya and South Africa.
For the preparation of confectionery used as pineapple pieces, slices or as a slurry.
Dates - the fruit of the date palm - growing mainly in Iraq, or in some areas of North Africa. The tree reaches 20 m height, crown length of up to 2 4 m. The shape of the dates are like plum and grows in bunches on a fruit 50. Solid stone fruit surrounded by sweet, slaboaromatnoy pulp. Of ripe fruits bone is removed, dried in the sun and transported in wooden boxes weighing 32,6 kg (72 pounds). Fresh figs on the world market are not available.
Citrus fruits are characterized by a kind of strong aroma and a pleasant sour taste. They are grown in almost all warm regions of the globe, mainly in Italy, Spain, Flo-Rida, and California. For the preparation of confectionery products using only the peel, candied fruits or processed to peel.
citrus peel soaked in sea or salt water, and then washed to remove salts, boiled in hot water or steamed (scald), then placed in a sugar solution.
To reduce the hygroscopicity of the treated skins is coated so repeatedly.
Raisin, currant and mullet are the dried grapes; They differ in appearance and The origin of. Called Raisin grapes dried to light brown, and brown; mullet - a special grade seedless raisins, sweet and fragrant; currant - dried almost black berries that grow in Greece (Corinth), which is the main supplier of it. Valuable sultan raisins comes mainly from Turkey, Greece, Iran and California.
Agar-agar. Gelling agent agar, used in the confectionery industry for preparing jelly products with fillings, also referred to as Ceylon moss or yavayskim. It extracted it from algae. The main suppliers are Japan, the Soviet Union (about. Sakhalin and the White Sea), North Korea.
For the production of agar-agar seaweed collected are dried, finely ground and pour the boiling water. Jelly obtained by cooling, dried, and in the form of plates, sheets, grains, powders, flakes it is marketed.
According to the Japanese standard for export, agar-agar in the form of strips is divided into three grades: number 1 Kobe, Kobe number 2, 3 Kobe number, and the powder - in two classes: the highest grade (Superior) and the number 1. Maximum humidity all grades 22%. The highest requirements for gelling ability, protein and insoluble materials are presented to the powder agar premium. Gelling ability of this powder should be 600 g / sm2, 0,5% protein content, insoluble substances less than 0,5%.
Agar as Kobe grades strips number 1 and agar-agar powder number 1 should have a minimum of 350 gelling ability g / sm2, and the protein content of these varieties should not exceed 1,5%, insoluble substances - 2%. For grades of Kobe and Kobe number 2 3 number less demanding.
According to the standard of the USSR, agar is divided into two classes: the highest and the first. Humidity agar both grades for products that undergo drying, no more 18%, a product obtained by cooling is not more 20%. Number of hot water-insoluble substances for the premium is not more than 0,3%, but not more than 0,5% for I grade. The strength of jelly 85% agar solution at the valence to the premium Zoe g, and for grade I of 200
Extra Class is the color from white to light yellow in color with a gray bloom; I sort of - from yellow to light brown. Jelly 85% agar solution for both varieties must be transparent and colorless layer thickness 10 mg / m.
Agar-agar in a dry and cool place can be stored for about a year.
The pectin used in the production of chocolate in a smaller volume than agar.
Pectin is found in almost all plant cells. The largest number of pectin for industrial production is found in apples, citrus, beet pulp.
When receiving pomace from apple pectin to remove dirt and substances soluble in cold water (sugar, minerals, tannins and pigments digested pectin), washed pomace. Pectin is leached with hot water with a small amount of acid. By cooling the extract is freed from the dregs and discolored. Under the action of the enzyme (diastase) starch decomposes.
The thus obtained juice is evaporated in a multistage evaporator to a vacuum content 10% solids, a small amount of acid to give the desired value pH - before 2,7 from 2,9.
Pectin in liquid form or in powder form obtained by spray drying is applied to the production.
Other gelling agents and thickeners. Furthermore agar and pectin are other thickeners and gelling agents, which are rarely used chocolate production. These include gelatin, algenaty, tragacanth, gum arabic and other products agaropodobnye - algadan, danagar, pronogar.
Gelatin is prepared from the bones of animals. The sale comes in the form of thin plates or powder of varying degrees of grinding. According to the draft state standard of the GDR, the following varieties are envisaged: Djuel, Braylent, Gold, Prima T, Extra, Extra T, Spetshel and Spetshel T. Primakov T, Extra T, Spetshal and Spetshal T are not allowed in the production of confectionery. Gyula grade is used for pharmaceutical purposes. The color of the gelatin varies from dark brown (Special) to colorless (Jewel) and brown (Extra). Grades Brailent, Jewel, Gold and Prima should have gelatin-specific properties, and Extra grade - be slightly sticky.
Alginates are obtained from brown algae growing on the coast of North America and the Atlantic Ocean.
Tragacanth and gum arabic is obtained from the bark of various trees. This vegetable gum, which was dried in air.
Pronagar, algadan and danagar. These substances are produced by a special process from marine algae. Their sensitivity to acids varies.
WINE AND SPIRITS
Wines and spirits are added as flavors in the filling, and is also used as a filler in the preparation of liqueur bottles in chocolate, cognac and chocolates etc.

Wine. Grape wine in the GDR represented 4 main types: white wine; Red wine; dessert wine, also called the southern or sweet wine and sparkling wine, also known as dry wines.

Composition. White and red wine contain sugar ,, as in sugar processing, being in the pulp or musts, under the action of microorganisms during fermentation is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Dessert wines contain sugar, the amount of which is in 100 ml of wine from the 3 and 15 24 g to g (from varieties of Malaga).

The chemical composition of the white and red wines depends on many conditions and therefore fluctuates within wide limits. The alcohol content of up to 6 12% vol.

Alcoholic beverages are considered the content of extractives. They are divided into two main groups:

1) without extractives content with little or their content (brandies);

2) containing extractives least 220 1000 g per ml (liquor). The latter group includes emulsion liqueurs, among which the most important confectionery has egg liqueur.

The chocolate industry are most often used alcohol tonic, brandy, cognac mix, rum, rum mixture and arak.

Liqueurs most often prepared directly on the confectionery enterprises.

Prima alcohol is a mixture consisting of water and pure ethanol. The alcohol content of 96%.

Cognac and brandy mixture. Called brandy distillate obtained from grape pulp or musts. It contains ethanol, together with a large amount of flavoring and aromatic substances which impart specific properties brandy. The cognac blends of at least 1 / 10 part of the total amount of alcohol should be cognac alcohol.

In cognac and brandy mixture of alcohol content should not be less than 38% vol. |

In the confectionery industry are used brandy and cognac mixture containing about 60%.

Rum and rum mixture. This rum is prepared by fermentation and subsequent distillation of sugar juice, sugar and molasses of sugar production waste. The alcohol content is about 75% vol. German rum is made from molasses beet.

Under romovoy- mixture means a mixture in which the alcohol is Roma 1 / 20 of the total alcohol content.

Arak prepared in a special way from rice or coconut palm juice colors. Alcohol content 50-60% vol.

In the food industry to flavor the following acids are used: tartaric, citric, malic, acetic, lactic, adipic and partially. The most widely used are tartaric acid and citric acid.
Tartaric acid. Tartaric acid, or tartaric, acid is chemically dioxide carboxylic acid.23.27It occurs in nature in the free state (acid) or in a bound state (salt). In the process of wine production forms tartar (calcium salt of tartaric acid). Tartar is a hard brown crust deposited on the walls of containers for wine, and serves as a raw material for production of tartaric acid. Vintso stone dissolves in hot water and adding a solution of calcium carbonate (chalk) and the heating is converted to calcium tartrate.
Calcium tartrate from under the influence of a certain amount of sulfuric acid is obtained tartaric acid, sulfuric acid salts are filtered off, the filtrate is clarified tartaric acid with activated carbon and evaporated in vacuo to give crystals of tartaric acid, which are used in the food industry.
Tartaric acid Colorless crystals, large, with a clean acid flavor, melted at 168-170 ° C; easily soluble in water (139 g tartaric acid 20 ° C when dissolved in water 100 g), lower in alcohol and hardly soluble in ether.
Citric acid - a tribasic oxyacid.23.28It crystallizes from aqueous solutions in the form of rhombic prisms - crystals with a water molecule.
Citric acid is the most widespread organic acid in the animal and vegetable world both in free and bound form.
Citric acid is produced in the main by microbiological. The raw material is sugar, molasses is in that under the influence of the fungus Aspergillus niger is converted into citric acid. The latter reacts with the CaO and precipitates. Calcium citrate is filtered and exposed to a certain amount of sulfuric acid affords citric acid. Wherein gypsum formed was filtered off and the filtrate was carefully evaporated until crystallisation of citric acid.
Chemically pure citric acid is marketed in the form of crystals as citric acid, with one molecule of water (monohydrate), or as a colorless crystalline powder - angidrokislota without water of crystallization. Dehydrated acid melts at 153 ° C. It is the same as the monohydrate, is highly soluble in water, alcohol, and has a pleasantly sour taste.
Acetic, lactic and malic acid. Acetic (SN3 - COOH) and dairy (SN3 - CHOH - COOH) acid obtained by biochemical, malic acid (COOH - CHOH - SN2 - COOH) -from rowan berries.
Adipic acid is rarely found in nature.23.29Technical way it is obtained from hydroaromatic hydrocarbons by ring cleavage under the action of nitric acid.
Adipic acid - a colorless, crystalline powder with a sour taste; melts at 153-153,5 ° C; readily soluble in alcohol, poorly water (1,4 g of adipic acid is dissolved in water at r 100 15 ° C).
SPICES
Under understand spices, natural and synthetic products that are essential for flavor and odor. They are used in small amounts in the food industry. By spices are broadly flavoring acid and salt, roots from different parts of plants, essential oils and synthetically produced flavoring substance.
The production of chocolate is used vanilla, part ginger and cinnamon.
Vanilla is a long pod, and is therefore often called the vanilla pod. Vanilla belongs to the family OgsYsZaseae.
Homeland vanilla Mexico, Indonesia and Islands of Ceylon, Madagascar, Java, Tahiti.
The length of the fetus 25 cm 1 cm thickness. The mature fruit has a golden color. Dark brown and black vanilla acquires as a result of the special processing required for obtaining valuable flavor.
When preparing vanilla are two methods: dry method is used in Mexico, and the wet method, followed by drying, in other countries. After processing vanilla sorted into bundles and tie. In the sale of vanilla comes in a metal package the following varieties: special (plus ultra), Extra (extra fein), the highest (hochfein) and good (fein).
The aroma of vanilla depends on the presence in it of a number of substances, of which the main role belongs to vanillin.
Vanillin may be obtained synthetically.
However, due to the content vanilla small amount of essential oil has a softer and fuller flavor than pure vanilla or the corresponding ethyl ester, ethyl vanillin, or burbonal having a stronger flavor than the vanilla.
Ginger. Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. This plant is cultivated in China, Japan, India and on. Jamaica. Ginger is sold in dried form - brown (black ginger), tyuluochi--substituted and refined (white ginger). The chocolate production it is added to the sugar syrup. It gives a specific taste and aroma, which should be attributed to the essential oils of ginger.
Cinnamon is the bark of trees from the Laugaseae family. By botanical origin distinguish Ceylon cinnamon, which is called real cinnamon. Cinnamon is cultivated in Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Western India and South America and China. .......
The most valuable thing in cinnamon - cinnamic aldehyde is related to essential oils.
Essential oils. Essential oils have an intense smell and taste, easy to evaporate. At room temperature, they are in a liquid state.
Essential oils derived from plants through pressing, extraction and distillation. They belong to various chemical classes of chemical substances and have nothing to do with a solid or edible oils. In the confectionery industry following the oil used: Fennel (dill), menthol, peppermint, and lemon Pomerantseva. These oils have been known XVI century. In our time, the number of essential oils greatly increased.
Synthetic spices. The progress of modern chemistry yielded a large number of products that due to its organoleptic properties are used in the food industry as a flavoring agent. These include aldehydes and esters. Their preparation and dissemination of accurate due to the laws.
Cooking chocolate, chocolate icing and cocoa powder
In the present production of chocolate, chocolate and cocoa powder plays an important role implementing continuous processes using semi-automatic preparation units.
Many studies and experience in the field of engineering and technology in recent years have led to the creation of production lines. At most of the enterprises of the chocolate industry, only partially automated installations are being used. The mechanization of the production of chocolate depends on food engineering. Often, the machines were not manufactured in accordance with the requirements of the technology for the production of chocolate and cocoa. This was caused by the fact that many chemical and physical-chemical processes were little studied. Even today, many processes are not sufficiently studied, and on some there are conflicting opinions.
Therefore, until now in the production of chocolate and cocoa laid old classical technological scheme (see. P. 54).
Along with the old equipment used in the production of chocolate, in recent years new more advanced machines and units using automation to manage and control.
Great success in the development of new units for the chocolate industry have made the GDR, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Switzerland and Germany.

According to some reports, foreign fermentation of cocoa beans in the first phase is an anaerobic process. Only after splitting the flesh there is a possibility of air access and the ability to live begins oxidizing microorganisms. Enteric fermentation is mainly an anaerobic process. During drying, to obtain a full flavor certain time is unacceptable exposure to air oxygen. After fermentation, the cocoa beans are spread on mats and dried in the sun or forced warm - hot air or steam.
Well dried cocoa beans are poured into bags and sent for sale.
It has been proposed as another method of treating cocoa beans growing countries, which consists in washing of cocoa beans. Author proposal indicates that the cocoa processing industry seeks to avoid the usual fermentation in growing countries, because the properties of cocoa beans fermented, different in recent years. Another author believes such a way unacceptable in consumer countries, since the subsequent processing of the beans does not give a good flavor, and in addition, this method increases the cost of the beans.
Currently, it is possible to improve the processing of cocoa beans in growing countries, farmers explaining the essence of fermentation and its practical implementation. In the present state of the art can be considered as the method promising.

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