Fruit and berry raw materials. Preparation of raw materials for production. (CG)

Apple and Fruit puree, Sulphated apple or fruit and berry puree, if it is not further cooked (in the manufacture of pastille, marshmallow, certain types of jelly marmalade) or if the cooking regime does not provide complete removal of sulfuric acid, previously desulfite.

Desulphation is carried out by heating the mashed potatoes in open cooking pots or in vacuum units with agitators.

When desulphurizing a puree intended for the production of a pastille, it is advisable, together with desulphitation, to weld it to the dry matter content 14-18%.

When entering the shop or after desulphation, apple and fruit and berry purees should be rubbed on wiping machines or manually on sieves through a mesh with a hole diameter of not more than 1,5 mm.

For the primary cleaning of mashed potatoes, machines of various systems can be used.

Table. 10 technical specifications wiping machines.

10 Table. Technical characteristics of wiping machines

IndicatorsWiping machine TU number 399Wiping machine brand CPVUniversal Wiping machine CPU brand
Productivity t / h 1to 3to 7
Dimensions in mm:













The speed of the drive pulley per 5007С0450-750
Power demand in kw. 12,25-7,5
Machine weight in kg42190320

The wiping machine with a convertible top is characterized by the following data.

Productivity t / h Until 1,5
Power demand in kilowatts2,5
Machine weight in kg 170

When composing the mixture of purees, the analysis data and the requirements for puree for each type of products are taken into account. To obtain the desired mixture, the mashed apple puree from various batches and fruit and berry puree in the prescribed proportions are fed into the collection containers, where they are thoroughly mixed.

Mixers are made of aluminum, stainless steel or solid wood of different capacity depending on capacity.

In order to ensure the production of homogeneous fruit marmalade, chocolates and fillings, it is recommended to prepare a mix of puree for at least one change in the work of the workshop. When producing pastille, the mix of puree must be in the amount necessary for operation for at least 3-4 hours.

In order to better grind and loosen the mashed potatoes, as well as to more fully separate the remaining particles of the skin, seeds and remove any foreign impurities, the finished puree mixture enters the secondary wiping through the wipers with the hole diameter of the screen 0,75-0,8 mm.

For secondary wiping used together with the above special wiping machine having the following specifications.

Productivity in tons per hour Until 7
Dimensions in mm:
height 1070
Machine weight in kg 156

After secondary cleaning, apple and fruit and berry puree enters the receiving metal tanks made of aluminum or stainless steel, from which it is spent for production.

Pumping of apple and fruit and berry purees at all stages of preparation for production is carried out using rotary gear or centrifugal pumps.

Before use, apple and fruit and berry purees are weighed on scales or measured by special measuring devices.

Sulfited fruits and berries (pulp). Sulfited fruits and berries are desulfitatsii by heating in a vacuum machines with agitators or -open digesters with thorough mixing.

During the heating of sulphated fruits and berries simultaneously with desulphation, they soften to the extent that they can be wiped through a sieve.

After desulphation, the sulphated fruits and berries are wiped on the wiping machine, which has a mesh with a hole diameter of no more than 1,5-2 mm, to remove particles of the skin, seeds, stems and bones.

For rubbing fruit bearing a stone, bone-washing wiping machines of grade KP are used; their technical characteristics are as follows:

Performance in t \ hour Until 3
Dimensions in mm:
length 1850
width 1000
height 1270
Machine weight in kg 234

For wiping fruits and berries without a stone, as well as a sulphated cherry with a bone having a small spherical shape, wiping machines are used for rubbing fruit and berry puree.

Received after wiping sulfited fruits and berries bargaining in preparation for the production process as well as the usual applesauce or fruit-berry puree.

Dry applesauce; Dry apple puree (apple powder) is pre-soaked in cold water for 2-3 hours to facilitate its dissolution.

Then, the rest of the water is added to the mixture so that the liquid purée also has 12-15% of dry matter, and the mass is thoroughly mixed.

The resulting liquid apple puree is subjected to a double rub through sizas with a diameter of cells of 1,5-2 mm and with a cell diameter of not more than 1 mm on the wiping machines. The wiped reconstituted puree is immediately sent to the production for use because of its weak microbiological resistance.

Fruit podvarki and supplies. Dense fruit and berry preparations - cooks, supplies, - preheated or diluted with sugar syrup, then wipe through a sieve with a cell size of not more than 3 mm.

Fresh fruits, fruits in syrup, candied. Fresh grapes, used for finishing cakes and pastries, are cut off from the brush before being put into production, washed on a sieve with water, separating spoiled and damaged berries.

Fresh tangerines release from the membrane and divide into wedges.

Fruits in syrup recline on a sieve and cut into slices with a knife to the desired size, or for crushing is passed through a machine-type grinder.

Candied fruit is carefully scanned, removed in case of detection of twigs, stems and accidentally caught foreign objects, cut into slices of the required size or crushed on the machine if candied fruits are used in chopped form.

Dried fruits (raisins, prunes, etc..). Raisins, prunes and other dried fruits should be moved with the removal of twigs, pedicels and foreign impurities and washed in clean water on sieves or in a car.

Cleaning and washing of raisins can be made on a special raisin cleaning machine consisting of a trough-shaped metal casing, a stationary grating drum and a paddle shaft with screw blades and hair brushes. To trap metallic impurities in the charging part of the machine, permanent magnets are installed.

Dimensions of the machine in mm:
length 970
width 508
height 1000
Water consumption in liters per load 25

In the case of production of pellets for raisins raisin dried in trays in an oven or by natural drying in the production hall to incipient wetness.


Agar dry (as directed by the laboratory) is weighed in portions by one charge (depending on the gel-forming ability) and soaked in gauze or other small bags of 5-10 thin cloth in flowing water to improve color, eliminate odor and swell.

Cocoa beans, nuts and peanut kernels

Cocoa beans must be sorted before being put into production and free from foreign impurities.

In the process of sorting, broken, crushed, lean and underdeveloped beans, as well as shell particles must be separated.

Defective beans (broken, lean, etc.) are collected separately, fried and used for the production of less high-quality varieties of chocolate.

When sorting may also be carried out separation of whole cocoa beans to the largest number of varieties.

Cocoa beans are cleaned and sorted on purification and sorting machines with cylindrical and prismatic sieves (such as borates) or flat sieves (such as grain separators).

In the chocolate shops of the confectionery factories, cleaners and screening machines with flat screens are used, having two or one conveyor belts.

The separation of large impurities and the separation of cocoa beans in size is performed on metal sieves, stamped or wire. Light impurities are separated by sucking into the cyclone using a fan.

The yield of pure sorted beans averages 98-96,5%, glued and broken at about 1%, loss of 0,5-1%.

With a sieve width of 0,9 m and a number of oscillations of 350-400 per minute, the productivity ranges from 1200 to 1500 kg / hour. Specific electricity consumption 5,7 kW / h on 1 t beans.

Nuts kernels (hazelnut, almond, apricot kernel, peanut) are cleaned from foreign impurities by machines intended for cleaning and sorting cocoa beans on conventional grain separators or manually, before they are put into production, and they must be passed through magnetic apparatuses.

Cocoa beans, kernels of nuts and peanuts are transported to the subsequent production sites with the help of belt bucket vertical norias intended for grain (GOST 4591-54).

The kernels of almonds and apricot kernels intended for the preparation of marzipan candy corps, as well as for finishing cakes and pastries and for sprinkling of biscuits are subjected to mastication. Kernels are loaded into an open digester, water is poured in there and heated to 70-80 ° for 10-15 minutes.

Shparenoe core enters mindaleochistitelnuyu machine to separate the skin, which is removed the fan.

Peeled cores of almonds and apricot kernels are scattered into trays with a layer of 2-3 cm and dried in a dryer at a temperature of 40-50 ° for 7-8 hours to remove excess moisture. The moisture content of the core after drying should be no more than 10%.

The hazelnut kernel, intended for marzipan fillings and candy cases, is dried at a temperature of 100 — 110 ° and strutted to separate the skin through an almond cleansing machine.

Cocoa powder, cocoa shells and roasted ground coffee

The cocoa powder is sieved before use through a sieve with a cell size of 1,0-1,5 mm. Cacaewella, ground is sieved through a sieve with the size of cells no more than 1 mm and is passed through magnetic catchers.

Milled roast coffee is sifted through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 1 mm, and passed through magnetic separators.

In the case of using coffee as a coffee extract, roasted ground coffee is boiled with water in the ratio 1: 6 in the open digester at the pressure of the heating steam 2-3 ati.

The finished coffee extract is filtered through a gauze or cloth.


Sesame seeds and sunflower seeds before starting into production must be free of impurities.

To clean the sesame seed-cleaning separators are used Soyuzprodmashina system separators with a closed cycle, as well as the aspiration Wijk.

When cleaning sesame seeds, separators use sieves with the size of cells (in mm): on the first sieve 6, on the second - 3 and on the third - 1.

With a minor clogging of sesame seeds, you can restrict them to passing through two sieves with the size of the cells (in mm): on the first sieve 4 and on the second - 1.

Applied to clean sesame seeds aspiration Wijk brand M1S-50 has the following specifications.

The sieve surface in m2 —- 11,5

Sowing RPM ——200

Tilt angle of sieves to a horizontal surface in ° ——33

Table. 11 sieve sizes are on tiers.

Table 11 Dimensions screens for tiers

SitaThe diameter in mm of sieve
the front of the screenthe rear of the screen
first 66
Second 55
The third1,52

Grain cleaning separators of the same types as for sesame seeds are used for cleaning of sunflower seed contamination.

The performance of different types of separators, when cleaning is to sunflower seeds 3 t / h.

In addition to grain separators, flat wagtails, borates and simple-type vials can be used to clean sunflower seeds from mechanical impurities, consisting of two flat vibrating screens and a fan sucking light impurities into the cyclone.

After pre-cleaning, the sunflower seeds to separate the shell from the core are subjected to collapse and shedding.

For hulling sunflower seeds used Bichevaya rushka.

The performance of the crocheting wheel in tons per shift 17-18

In the rushanka obtained it can be in%: not broken seeds, not more than — 5 chaffs, not more than — 3

Husked seeds to separate the kernel from nedorushki, broken rice, husk and dust arrive at Wijk.

For this purpose, aspiration and simple wax-cleaning wakes are used.

Most are committed aspiration Wijk.

Mesh sizes sieving aspiration Wijk vary depending on the type and size of seeds (Table. 12).

12 Table. Mesh sizes sieving aspiration Wijk

SitaCell Diameter in mm
the front of the screenthe rear of the screen
Top 5-76-8
Average 4-55-3
Underwear 2-2,52,5-3

For transporting oil seeds in the vertical direction (when lifting), bucket bucket vertical bars are used.

Seeds of poppy seeds are sieved through a sieve with the size of cells 2,0-2,5 mm before washing and then washed with water on a sieve with the size of holes 0,5 mm.

Salt, kitchen

Pure sodium chloride finely ground before use and manufacture sieved with a mesh size of less than I mm.

To accelerate the batch and to distribute the salt evenly in the test, it is previously dissolved in water; the resulting solution is filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 0,5 mm.

The large-crystalline salt is suitable only in a dissolved "" state. Solubilizers are used to dissolve the salt.

The sololvent is a welded metal tank with two chambers (solvent and settler); working capacity of its 168 l.

Dimensions in mm:
length 1010
width 610
Weight in kg 122

Salt, which goes to the process of solodization during the production of halva, is used in the form of an aqueous solution with a salt content of 17-19%.

saline solution Specific gravity should be within 1,127 1,131.

Baking soda and ammonium carbonate

Baking soda sieved through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 2 mm or dissolved in water and filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 0,5 mm.

Ammonium carbonate is ground to a powdered state on the melange or manually in a mortar and sieved through a sieve of a mesh size of 1,5-2,0 mm or in a dissolved form filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of 0,5 mm.

food acids

Crystalline acids-citric, tartaric, etc., should be sieved through a sieve with a cell size not exceeding 3 mm.

Lactic acid, as well as other acids used in the form of aqueous solutions, must be filtered through a cloth, gauze or screen with a cell size of not more than 0,5 mm.


Essential essences, essential oils, cognac and wines are filtered through a sieve with the size of cells no more than 0,5 mm or two layers of gauze before use.

Vanillin is used in the form of a water-alcohol solution or vanilla powder.

For vanilla powder at warming vanillin is dissolved in alcohol in the ratio 1: 1 and the resulting solution was stirred with powdered sugar at a ratio 1: 12,5.

Dry spices (prior to consumption) are dried at a low temperature (50-60 °), ground and sieved through a sieve of 2-2,5 mm.

Food colorings

Food colorings are dissolved in water at a temperature of 70-80 ° and filtered through two or three layers of gauze or through a sieve with a cell size of not more than 0,5 mm.

Alloy number 36. paraffin-wax, oil

For polishing pills and candy ready to use the alloy number 36 or wax-fat mixture prepared from voska- wax and vegetable oil.

Alloy number 36 before the use carefully heated and filtered through a sieve with a mesh size of not more than 1,5 mm.

To obtain a wax-fat mixture, the components taken in the amount prescribed in the formulation are heated gently until completely melted, filtered through a sieve with a cell size of not more than 1,5 mm.

Vegetable oil is filtered through a sieve with a hole size of not more than 1,5 mm.

Preparation zhzhenki

Zhzhenka, which is a burned sugar, is used for coloring confectionery products in a dark brown color.

To prepare the candy in the open cooking pot, load sugar, wet it with water (one part of water is added to five parts of sugar) and with warm stirring it is heated to boiling.

After boiling the mass for 30-40 minutes, water is added into it at the rate of two parts of water for five parts of sugar, mixed and the resulting gum is filtered through a sieve with a cell size of 1-1,5 mm.


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