Semi-finished goods

Preparation of chocolate (semi-finished)

  Lipstick and cream. Fondant and cream mass is a pasty, easily melting sugar mass in the mouth. They consist of boiled and strongly cooled sugar solution, to which molasses, some acid, and also other inverting agents are most often added. Thanks to a special treatment, the mass acquires a structure in which sugar crystals are not felt on the tongue.

The difference between fondant and cream mass is in the content of molasses and moisture: in the first the number of molasses is on average 15%, in the second - 25%; in fresh lipstick, the humidity reaches a maximum of 12%, in a cream - 20%.
Both products can be flavored and slightly tint.
The concentration of syrup and temperature of cooking are determined by the consistency of fondant and cream masses. Invert sugar can be used instead of molasses. It is equivalent to molasses, especially the highly sugared Extra molasses. With the direct inversion of sugar, i.e., adding acid directly into the sugar solution intended for fondant, and when cooking them, remember that large fluctuations in texture are possible. In this case, the mass consists not only of sugar and molasses, but also of sucrose and invert sugar (glucose and fructose). The moisture content of the resulting product is determined by the cooking temperature.
From moisture, as already mentioned, it depends on the consistency and creamy fondant mass.
When you add more syrup turns soft fondant, smaller - hard.
Fondant and cream masses form the basis for the preparation of most toppings for chocolates. It would be wrong to think that the fondant is used only for the production of lipstick, or also for coded (saccharified) and glazed candy cases - it is also used for making semi-liquid fillings.
Taste and consistency are of decisive importance in the preparation of chocolate enclosures. The consistency is determined by the following requirements: the body must be soft with good taste. This is achieved by constant adherence to the technological regime. With the continuous preparation of creamy bodies that are cast into powder, care must be taken that the products are taken out of the powder and released from it without damage.
If it is desirable, for example, to get cream hulls with a high content of fruit additives, it must be borne in mind that these hulls will be softer than the corresponding hulls without a fruit additive.
For this purpose, a fondant, not creamy mass. Therefore, the composition of the body determines the properties of the bulk - cream or fondant.
Preparation fondant. Fondant and creamy masses are prepared to install Fondant continuous (Fig. 138). abmgroup6It consists of a boiler for cooking the syrup, intermediate collection pump to the syrup, cooking equipment, piping, feed boiled syrup Fondant machine.
The boiler, which is loaded in sugar and syrup, is in the top floor of the installation. Sugar and molasses are dosed volumetrically large measuring cylinder. If it is impossible to make such a load, the syrup can be pumped and sugar elevator.
The recipe used is prepared in accordance with the capacity of the boiler and provides the amount of sugar supplied to it for one cycle of sugar. Before sugar is loaded into the boiler, 30% water is supplied in accordance with the amount of sugar. Sugar dissolves with constant mechanical stirring and simultaneous heating of the boiler with steam. During this process, it is necessary to free the edges of the boiler from adhering crystals.
Dissolve the sugar without contamination delivers good performance and high quality installation fondant.
After complete dissolution of sugar a mechanical stirrer is switched off, the edges of the boiler wash and remove the scum from the syrup. Then, the syrup is heated to 105 ° C, and boiled syrup is added again. Syrup (corn syrup, sugar and water) is drained through a screen in the collection pump where it is fed into the cooker.
A coil with a steam jacket is installed in the cooker. The capacity of the cooker depends on the amount of pre-heated solution and the vapor pressure.
For uniform operation, it is necessary that the pump supplies a constant amount of syrup, and the steam supply is precisely regulated by a reducing valve. The capacity of the pump, on which the quantity of syrup supplied from the cooking apparatus depends, is determined by the performance of the baking maker.
Accurate dosing of syrup is extremely important. With a very large amount of syrup impossible intensive churning, disrupted the correct mode of cooling fondant and cream mass.
A thermometer is installed at the exit of the coil. In this case, it is best to use a manometric thermometer. The cooking temperature varies depending on the type of products from 116 to 122 ° C. This temperature determines the moisture content of the mass. The mixture from the cooker is piped to the whipping machine.
The whipping machine consists of a housing with a water jacket and a cooled auger. During the treatment, cold water constantly flows through them. However, hypothermia should not be allowed, as this may have a negative impact on the entire workflow. The boiled syrup would cool very quickly and harden, and the machine would not be able to process it — it would stop. To avoid such errors, you need to carefully adjust the operation of the machine and its cooling mode. At the beginning of the processing process, before loading the boiled syrup, a little ready fondant is fed to the auger. With this method, from the very beginning, a good churning of fresh syrup is achieved.
The relatively high temperature and the added molasses prevent the formation of large sucrose crystals contained in the mixture.
All the above processes and recipes underlie the preparation of fondant. The process of churning is of great importance for obtaining high-quality products.
The sugar syrup loaded into the machine undergoes strong cooling. Crystallization of the mass begins. The cooled auger, located in the housing, gives the mass forward. During this process, the mass is intensively mixed. This prevents the formation of large crystals. There is a gradual hardening and the formation of small crystals. Systematic cooling and the correct mode of operation of the machine allow you to get lipstick with good properties,
High-quality fondant mass is obtained by long-term processing on the sbivalnoe machine. The temperature of the fondant leaving the machine must be equal to 45 ° C.
Typically, fondant cream and mass loading in the capsule capacity 30 kg, and they are completely cooled. Follow processing takes place on the day of preparation; in a warm state, the mass is rarely processed. Experience shows that processing fondant, even after one day of storage, gives good results.
Processing after storage is contrasted to the method of continuous preparation of buildings. In Czechoslovakia, they are currently working on the problem of combining both methods.
Fondant directly from the whipping machine enters the boiler, which greatly facilitates the work.
Dairy and creamy lipstick. In the previous sections, nothing has been said about the preparation of special fondant and cream masses, for example, milk and cream lipstick. The recipe of these masses depends primarily on the technological conditions for milk and cream, otherwise it is exactly consistent with the further processing process (the amount of molasses, cooking temperature), like in ordinary fondant and cream masses.
The preparation of milk and cream lipstick in continuous fondanting installations is associated with certain difficulties. When boiling in a coil, part of the protein substances of dairy products burns and settles on the walls of its pipeline. This causes the formation of traffic jams in the pipeline. To avoid this, the mass is boiled in small portions (up to 400 kg), after which the coil is cleaned by digestion. Most often, detergents are added to the water to clean the coil.
Often, milk and cream fondants are brewed in an open steam boiler. In this case, for knocking down the mass, they use disc beaters. Such processing takes a lot of time, it is better to process the mass in continuous installations.
Martsipanovaya Massa It is a mixture of standard sweet almond ground in a raw state with sugar (sucrose) in a ratio of two parts almond to one part sucrose.
The use of bitter almonds, from which bitterness is removed, is not allowed. To improve the taste, you can add a maximum of 10% bitter almond. A higher percentage of bitter almonds, even if indicated, are not allowed.
Ready-made marzipan mass should not contain more than 35% sugar (sucrose), not less than 28% of almond oil and not more than 17% moisture.
Marzipan mass falsification includes any additives, such as hazelnut, peanut, coconut, cashew, pistachio, date kernels, apricots and peaches, soy beans, fat, foods containing flour and starch, aromatic substances, molasses and glycerin.
Marzipan mass can not be painted.
The use of preservatives is not allowed. To reduce staling, invert sugar is allowed, which is taken into account in the total amount of sugar. Top quality marzipan mass is obtained from Bari almonds and Chinese almonds.
In compiling the recipe guided by the fact that the addition of a certain percentage of bitter almonds improves the taste of marzipan mass. If it is desired to obtain a sweet marzipan mass, then add 4% bitter almond; a bitter mass is produced by adding 5— 10% bitter almond. The amount of processed bitter almonds determines the taste of the whole mass. It should be borne in mind that each sweet almond contains a small percentage of bitter.
According to international requirements, in a batch of sweet almonds it can be up to 10% bitter, without a special indication of this, therefore, a specialist should determine the approximate percentage of bitter almonds by drawing up a recipe by organoleptic means.
In order to get a clean taste and color of the mass, almonds are processed on a cleaning and sorting machine. Sorting is done manually on the conveyor.
After pre-cleaning, the almonds are fed into the cauldron, quickly scalded and remain in hot water until the shell is easily separated from the kernel. However, care must be taken that the almonds do not remain too long in boiling water, otherwise a very high temperature and prolonged scalding will negatively affect the protein substances contained in it. In addition, it is possible the release of almond oil.
The treatment temperature in the 50 — 60 ° С range for 15 minutes is considered favorable. At higher temperatures, for example 90 ° C, the exposure time should be reduced accordingly, in this case by 4 minutes. Water is drained from the boiler immediately after the shell begins to easily lag behind the core. Since the almond kernel absorbs some of the heat, the shell can be re-dried easily. To prevent this, it is necessary to immediately treat the almonds with cold water. After cooling, the almonds are fed into a shelling machine with several rubber rollers rotating in the opposite direction (Fig. 139).peanut wet peeler machine This is where the shell separates from the core. Sorting in a cleaning machine has the advantage that almonds of the same size are fed from the shelling machine. The percentage of unrefined almonds can be reduced by carefully adjusting the shelling machine.
After processing the almond rubber rollers shelling machine, it falls into the collection. The particles of the shell are picked up and carried away by a strong stream of air in the sump.
It is recommended to coordinate the work of hulling machines to work the conveyor belt. In this case, almonds It does not fall into a collection, but onto a conveyor belt and is sorted. It is necessary to remove all the particles of the shell, since they affect the color and, above all, the stability of the mass.
The shell particles are responsible for the later fermentation of the mass. Therefore, it is advisable after sorting to sort.
In addition, almonds are processed in the washing machine. This is done in the case of long-term storage of almonds after scalding and peeling.
When storing large quantities of raw almonds, so-called almond mold is formed. It can cause fermentation of the mass. Therefore, before processing on the machine, almonds must be carefully checked again and the damaged kernels removed.
Pre-grinding almonds produced on the crushing machine. Finally, according to the recipe, almonds are mixed with the appropriate amount of sugar (powdered sugar). To do this, use the mixer. Bitter almonds are added in accordance with the recipe before grinding or in a mixer. A mixture of sweet and bitter almonds, as well as powdered sugar is finely ground on rolls, preferably granite. Steel rolls are not used yet. When grinding it is necessary to ensure that the grinding was not very thin, because otherwise oil release may occur.
It is impossible to give a precise indication of fineness. The correct method of treatment is chosen on the basis of experience.
After grinding the mass is fed to the fryer pot.
The boiler has steam heating, rotates and is equipped with a fixed lever mixer. Marzipan mass is heated, water evaporates. Evaporation continues until the mass with a moisture content of 17% is obtained. The quality of roasting marzipan mass affects its durability. Higher humidity sometimes leads to fermentation, strong roasting, on the contrary, causes the release of oil. Roasting end when the mass does not stick to the fingers.
To cool the marzipan mass, cold water is fed to the frypot. Cooling mass is mandatory for a certain time; if it happens very slowly, the mass is overheated. The taste of the mass deteriorates, it may become completely unsuitable.
During cooling, the boiler must rotate to ensure a constant and uniform distribution of mass inside. The marzipan mass is cooled to 30 ° C, loaded into wooden boxes with parchment paper lining. The mass should be tightly tamped with a wooden spatula so that there are no empty spaces in which mold can form.
The boxes must remain open until the mass is completely cooled. Only after that it is covered with parchment paper and closed boxes.
Persipanovaya weight differs from marzipan mass in its composition. Apricots and peaches are used instead of almonds. In addition, the moisture content of the marzipan mass is 17%, and the persipan is the maximum 20%.
Unlike the marzipan mass, 0,5% potato starch is added to the persipan mass for 35% sugar (without special instructions). From the processed apricot kernels and peaches bitterness is removed by treatment with an aqueous alkaline solution. The thus treated and purified kernels are poured into large containers, which are either washed with flowing cold water, or the water is changed continuously in them. Removal of bitterness must be done very carefully. The correctness of the process is checked by tasting.
nut weight consists of hazelnut and sugar, (sucrose) in the ratio 2: 1. Other supplements, excluding sweet almonds, are considered falsification. In the finished mass allowed maximum 35% sugar. If instead of hazel is processed walnut or other nuts, the mass will not be called nut. In the recipe of the nut mass, it should be indicated which types of nuts were processed, for example, walnut, peanuts.
truffle mass - a mass of special quality, which, along with finely chopped grated cocoa or couverture, sugar (sucrose), cocoa butter and butter, contains other substances (for example, liquor, brandy, honey, eggs, whole milk, cream, coffee, fruit ), giving it a specific character.
Truffle mass of all kinds must contain at least 12% grated cocoa and at least 30% fat in the form of cocoa butter, butter or milk fat. Falsification is considered to be the addition of fillers of all kinds (flour, starch, syrup, etc.), food coloring and aromatic substances, with the exception of vanillin and its ethyl ether.
The use of preservatives is not allowed. Invert sugar is used as a counter additive. Chocolate requirements for cocoa liquor and sugar are not suitable for truffle mass.
The name “truffle mass” is incorrect for the masses that do not meet all the requirements. So, the masses made from rounds of chocolate candies are often called the truffle mass. The names are created in order to obtain a certain purity of products. Also, within each class, it is necessary to follow a specific recipe in order to get a clean product in each case and to avoid falsification.
The formulation of the truffle mass is determined by the further envisaged treatment. So, we distinguish the masses used to form the hulls on the Oka forming machine, and the masses intended for preparing the hulls by smearing. The consistency depends on the method of preparation in each case, and consequently, the recipe of the mass.
Different consistency of mass is achieved with appropriate properties and composition of the processed raw materials, as well as the quantitative ratio of the components.
When cooking truffle mass, the main goal is to get a mass softer than chocolate, with a very good taste. The hardness of chocolate is determined by the cocoa butter contained in it. Since cocoa butter is significantly different from butter in terms of hardness, adding the latter to the chocolate mass changes its hardness, as well as its taste. Therefore, add a lot of butter, and pay special attention to its quality. So, rancid butter gives chocolate candies or shells an unpleasant taste. For the same reason, use unsalted butter.
A visual representation of the effect of milk fat on truffle mass can best be obtained by comparing bitter and milk chocolate. The break of milk chocolate is much softer than bitter. From here it is clearly visible what effect milk fat has on the consistency of the chocolate mass. It is possible to reduce the hardness by adding, for example, roasted nuts or almonds. At the same time, along with them, nut or almond oil gets into the mass, which have the same effect on the hardness of the mass as butter. However, the addition of almonds or nuts to the truffle mass is optional, they are used in the preparation of nougat.
From the above it is clear that the methods of preparation of different types of truffle mass should be different. Therefore, it is necessary to consider individual methods in more detail.
The basis of the usual cold method of cooking truffle mass is the technology of cooking chocolate mass. The truffle mass obtained in this way is always produced from conched chocolate mass. The specific nature of the mass is determined by various flavors.
As an example, the preparation of the Mocha truffle mass using the cold method is given.
Truffle Mocha weight. 44,5 kg Mokko glaze, prepared according to the recipe [50 kg of grated cocoa, 7 kg of cocoa butter, 5 kg of roasted coffee, 38 kg of sugar (sucrose) and 0,3 kg of lecithin], is loaded into a slightly heated mixer. This also adds 46,6 kg of butter paste, consisting of 23,3 kg of butter and 23,3 kg of icing sugar. Everything is well mixed and finely ground. After thorough mixing, the 3,3 kg of Mocha paste is fed into the mixer. It consists of coffee and roasted hazel in the ratio 1: 1. Then, 2,8 L of rum mixture is slowly added to the mixer.
After mixing, the mass is discharged from the mixer, cooled and, finally, subjected to fine grinding. With this method, various combinations of components are possible to give the product the desired taste. Particular attention should be paid to the preparation of truffle mass with a high alcohol content. When alcohol is added, the mass often crumples and its consistency is heterogeneous, so alcohol should be introduced very slowly. This allows for a good mass treatment.
Creamy truffle mass. Preparation creamy truffle mass present in the following example. It is prepared not on chocolate technology and the boiler with a stirrer.
24,6 kg of whipped cream and 15,4 kg of sugar are heated in a stirred kettle. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the sugar is dissolved without residue, and then 58,3 kg of glaze is added to the mixture. After thorough mixing, 1,8 kg of finely ground vanilla sugar is added here. A well-mixed mass is loaded into capsules, cooled, and, depending on the fineness desired, the 1 — 2 times are rolled.
When making a truffle recipe, in addition to its taste, the specialist must know the different consistencies of the mass and the effect of the components of the formulation on the quality. Only under this condition is it possible to properly prepare the mass and fulfill the wishes of the consumer.
Meadows contains a maximum of 50% sugar (sucrose), a minimum of 50% hazelnut kernels (nougat or hazelnut nougat) or a minimum of 50% refined roasted almonds (almond nougat), or a minimum of 25% refined roasted almonds and 25% of hazelnut kernels (almond nougat) with or without cocoa butter, grated cocoa or chocolate. The use of preservatives, as well as dyes and flavors are not allowed. Invert sugar may be used as an anti-combining substance. It is included in the total amount of sugar.
There are various methods of cooking nougat with different flavor nuances and mass properties. At the heart of one of the methods is roasted, and the mass gets a pronounced taste of roasted.
In another method, nuts or almonds are treated with powdered sugar or crystalline sugar, and sugar melting is excluded. Mass acquires a pronounced taste of nuts or almonds.
According to these methods of preparation with the same recipe, you can get the masses with completely different taste.
Careful preparation of the mass - this is the main condition for obtaining masses with the same taste. It was desirable to be able to use automation in the process of cooking nougat. However, already during frying, it can be seen that, due to the different quality of nuts, at the present level of technology, automation is impossible. In order to ensure good quality of roasting, it is necessary to take samples at all times. With the introduction of measurement and regulation techniques, this problem will also be solved in the future. The technique of measurement and regulation in the preparation of roasted nougat has not yet been developed. Therefore, the melting of sugar should be regulated on the basis of experience. Due to the different technology, the quality of the cooked mass varies considerably, and it often seems unbelievable that they are prepared using one recipe and one method. Especially sharply manifested differences cooking on the basis of roasting.
In the manufacture of nougat on the second method eliminates the melting of sugar and the associated undesirable moments. However, it would be wrong to avoid making roasted nougat.
It should seek to minimize cases of obtaining masses with different properties.
Nougat with a pronounced roast couscous has a great demand. Therefore, in no case can not reduce the assortment of these products. Although the preparation of nougat without melting sugar is much more productive, it should be assumed that both products cannot be compared, since their taste properties are different.
There is another cooking method. The sugar is dissolved in water, boiled to a certain density, and then, by the addition of nuts or almonds, brought to crystallization.
Thus, a new taste direction is obtained, which differs from the obtained results of the methods described above.
Although the first working phase of these cooking methods is different, the second phase is almost the same. It doesn’t work! whether with melted sugar and nuts, or with boiled sugar and nuts, or with powdered sugar and nuts. Grinding of all masses occurs in the usual way in the melangera.
Different methods of cooking products have a different effect on taste, but their effect on the consistency is very small.
The technical conditions do not stipulate that cocoa butter, cocoa mass or chocolate should be included in the nougat composition, but only in rare cases nougat is prepared without these components. Consumers do not recognize products made from nougat only with the taste of nuts and sugar; they prefer the chocolate-nutty flavor. Adding cocoa products (cocoa butter, grated cocoa or chocolate mass) significantly affects the taste and texture. In nougat, as well as in the truffle mass, you should not add cocoa mass, but conched chocolate mass. Only under this condition is it possible to obtain the desired taste. Conching of the whole mass of nougat should be abandoned, as heat treatment adversely affects the taste of nuts. Cocoa butter contained in nougat largely determines its hardness. Without it, semi-fluid nougat; the more cocoa butter it contains, the harder it is. If pure cocoa butter is added, and not cocoa mass or chocolate mass, so-called white or light nougat is obtained.
Nougat can be given a specific taste, for example, in the manufacture of a mixture of nougat with additives; Coffee, milk, butter and cream are in this case good carriers of taste.
Nougat processing (from grinding in a melanger to the finished state) is similar to the process of making chocolate. The product, previously crushed in a melangera, is then crushed into rolls. After rolling, the light color of the product indicates that it is made from almonds and nuts. The rolled product is loaded back into the melanger. Here homogenization occurs. During this process, chocolate, cocoa butter, or other additives are added to the mix according to the recipe. All components are thoroughly mixed. When the liquid consistency is reached, the nougat is unloaded and is stored in the cold until further processing.
Fillings - These are semi-finished products obtained by mixing different components. The fillings should contain no more than 5% cocoa powder and no more than 50% sugar. Maximum humidity is 30%. When the content of 20% fat mass can be called oily. Such masses are used for various fillings of caramel, fudge, praline, candy bars and other products. The fillings are prepared almost the same as the chocolate mass.
Glazed sweet
Corps. Candy body coated glazirovoch- na tion machine or by hand, you must retain its shape. Since both types of frosting body move, they must have a certain strength.
There are several types of chocolates molded housings. They can be divided into three main groups:
The first group includes cases that are cast in starch powder - fondant, jelly and liqueur;
The second group includes hulls made from such masses as marzipan, persipan, truffle and nougat. They are molded by jigging, cutting or molding in the so-called “Oka” machine;
The third group includes corps prepared from roasting. They are based on melted sugar, to which nuts or peanuts are added. Such bodies are molded by rolling mass, cutting or stamping.
Fondant shell. The most common method of molding bodies in starch powder, however, attempts have been made long ago to do without powder. Experiments were made for a long time, but did not give favorable results. With the development of casting plants, in which powder is not used, equipped with profiled, special rubber conveyors, they began to receive bodies of a certain quality and pattern (shape) - one of the types of canned sweets. Experiments on the adaptation of the molding of fondant shells to cooking on a machine for figured chocolate were not crowned with success. However, this possibility should not be abandoned. Powder not only determines the shape, but also affects the quality of the bodies molded into it. It should only mention sticking powder to the body. The stuck powder not only adversely affects the taste, but also makes it difficult to glaze the hulls.
Most often, a mixture of corn and wheat starch is taken as a powder for molding. The ratio in the mixture is different and taken from practice. A mixture consisting of 67% corn starch and 33% wheat is mainly used.
Starch of only one type does not apply. The powder used for loading trays is pretreated in a heat chamber. Without drying it is unsuitable for molding. Filling the trays only with fresh powder is not recommended, as practice has shown that in these cases, when applying a plaster stamp, the powder crumples easily and it is impossible to get good cells for casting cases.
For extruding the cells in the powder, a plaster stamp is used, slightly conical in shape, which is necessary to obtain good cells. In addition, the plaster stamp must be correctly mounted on the frame. Extremely hard stamping is undesirable.
Liquid candy masses are poured into finished trays with stamped cells, which then solidify or form a solid crust. When preparing such cases, it should be noted that the powder easily attracts moisture and is a thermal insulator.
Therefore, cast products cool down very slowly, especially in the summer months at relatively high temperatures. In the latter case, the shells stay in powder for a very long time until they reach a certain consistency.
Cream bodybased on cream and fondant masses have the same recipe. One of the masses in this case prevails in quantitative terms. Various components that are added to the fondant, allow it to acquire the consistency of cream products.
The ability to cream and fondant when heated to become liquid, and upon cooling to acquire the primary consistency underlies the preparation of cream hulls. The main task of specialists is to obtain the necessary changes in consistency. An example is the preparation of cream boxes for fruit candies.
The number of fruit additives depends on the accepted technological methods. When using jam or jam, no more than 15% fruit additive can be added to the mass; can no longer be processed, as the fondant will not be able to bind it. With a higher content of jam or jam, very soft candy bodies are obtained. They are removed from the powder by hand. A high percentage of fruit filling cannot be compensated for by increasing the temperature when dissolving the fudge. The addition of such products as marzipan and truffle masses, nougat, milk powder and cocoa has a completely different effect on the fondant. Thus, it was found that the addition of a large amount of marzipan mass in the preparation of cream hulls greatly increases the hardness of the product. On this basis, when treating marzipan mass for cream hulls, you should use not fondant containing 15% molasses, but a cream mass in which the percentage of molasses is higher.
From the above it is clear that it is impossible to give a single prescription for the preparation of fondant shells, since the principle of operation always depends on the recipe. Therefore, it is necessary that the specialists for each recipe know a certain method.
The preparation of confectionery products depends on the correct temperature. Particular attention should be paid to the correct temperature by heating and tempering masses cream for buildings, it is necessary to obtain finished products of good quality.
Fondant or cream mass, slightly heated, served in the boiler of the casting machine. The boiler machine is equipped with a stirrer. Heating should be gradual; With very fast heating and too hot a boiler, a complete dissolution of the mass at the edge of the boiler may occur, as a result of which it will lose the resulting structure. When cooled, the sugar crystallizes out of large crystals, which, with stirring, will fall into a creamy mass. This in turn will cause the bodies to sugar out - they will become hard, which is undesirable. It is especially important to keep this in mind when preparing hulls containing dyes and aromatic substances.
When cooking mass should also take into account the duration of the casting. Do not allow the mass to liquefy during the casting process in the casting hopper of the mogul machine. Such a liquefaction is the reason for obtaining cases of chocolates with different properties, even if it is only sugar. To avoid the subsequent solidification of the cast mass, it is necessary to maintain a constant mass temperature during casting. Both a decrease and an increase in temperature should be excluded.
In the first case, the mass would harden. The same could happen in the second case due to the evaporation of moisture. The temperature when heated fondant and cream mass varies between 72 and 78 ° C. To adjust the temperature to obtain the correct consistency of the mass is best, constantly taking a sample that is applied to the baking sheet for visual determination of the consistency. Then set the heating temperature at which the further process occurs.
With creamy mass by injection in a pre-prepared trays with powder should be well heated Finish funnel. powder temperature should be equal to 25-28 ° C.
A selection of powder cases is made in the mogul machine. If the shells are not completely cleaned of powder, you should perform subsequent cleaning on a special machine or with the help of fans. Shells, uncleaned from powder, must be removed, as they are poorly glazed with chocolate.
Jelly housing consist of sugar, molasses, gelling and aromatic substances, dyes, and20125119112686
              Fig. 141. Mogul machine.
other suitable and permitted substances. They are prepared with the addition of fruit or without components in the form of fruit, cubes, plates, and so on. N.
If the recipe contains the word fruit, then the product must contain 10% puree or juice of the fruit of the named type.
Fruit body contains at least 30% fruit puree. The main fruit ingredient jelly gives the name, it should be minumum 15%.
Jelly based candy cases are especially popular during the summer months. They are produced in the simplest case of sugar, molasses and the corresponding gelling agent, such as agar, gelatin or pectin. For their preparation, it is necessary to know well the properties of the gelling substance and, in accordance with them, accurately conduct the processing process. The binding capacity of the gelling substance in relation to water is different and is, at best, 30% of their own quantity. Gelling agents give a mixture of sugar, water, molasses and fruit additives such consistency that they are easy to cut into pieces. The best result is observed when receiving jelly cases with agar. This is reflected primarily in the method of preparation and durability of the product. From a taste point of view, it is best to use pectin as a gelling agent.
To prepare 100 kg of agar-based jelly bodies, 1 kg of agar is required as a gelling agent. The amount of agar varies in small limits and depends on its quality. It is soaked in 30-fold cold water and allowed to swell for 12 h.
The swelling is followed by boiling, after which the agar dissolves easily and without residue with rapid and constant stirring. The solution thus obtained is passed through a sieve, sugar is added to it and the mixture is boiled down to a certain temperature, depending on the type of products. Molasses is added to the main jelly mass after cooking. When cooking molasses together with a solution of agar and sugar, the mixture does not acquire the desired gelling properties and consistency.
Before casting into powder or mold, the jelly mass is cooled to 60 ° C. It is recommended to use a special station for cooling the mass, through the pipes of which cold water is fed first, and then the jelly mass is sent through the cooled pipes to the collection. After cooling, flavoring and coloring substances and the required amount of acid are added to the jelly mass. Adding acid to other stages of the process adversely affects the gelling process. It is necessary to ensure that the jelly mass is cast into a well-dried and heated powder. However, with such a casting powder sticks to the body. When casting in the form of this does not occur. Nevertheless, the method of casting in powder should be preferred, since it is less mechanical damage.
Cases cast in powder and intended for glazing with chocolate can be washed, but they should be dried well before glazing.
When cooking agar-based jelly to improve the taste of the fruit can be reduced fruit additive in the form of fruit puree. With the introduction of additives should reduce the amount of molasses. The additive is reduced after the cooking process.
Applied fruit puree, in which sulfuric acid is added to persistence, is recommended to be cooked before adding. If the jelly bodies are coated with chocolate, it is necessary to saccharify them after washing. Sugar needs to be changed all the time, since when it comes into contact with wet jelly bodies it becomes wet and becomes unsuitable for sprinkling.
The processes occurring in the preparation of jellies, by nature of physical-chemical, should be familiar with them.
When making jelly products based on pectin, the following conditions should be observed:
a) All additives must be completely dissolved;
b) pH additives should be as high as possible in order to avoid strong inversion: the high content of invert sugar increases the hygroscopicity of finished products;
c) excludes waste processing and sugar solutions with unknown or high content of invert sugar;
d) all processes should be carried out as far as possible at a low temperature in order to avoid strong inversion and preserve aromatic substances;
e) The pH of the applied pectin should be as high as possible so as not to cause strong inversion during processing. This item is very important for the industry producing pectin;
e) it is necessary to investigate the possibility of using low molecular weight pectins, since they are not sensitive to pH and allow you to work without risk;
g) in the manufacture of equipment, it should be provided that the power and temperature conditions meet the above requirements;
h) for good control over the production process, a refractometer and a pH meter should be installed;
i) the use of a mixture of pectin and agar gives certain advantages in the preparation of jelly products.
The design of the continuous casting installation for jelly products should provide the following processes:
  1.  Preheating of liquid additives (molasses, water, syrup, fruit components agar and solutions). The heated surface units, including the agitator and auger should have a certain capacity.
  2.  Dissolution of solid sugar (performance should be coordinated with the rate of dissolution, as well as the temperature required for dissolution).
  3.  Evaporation of water to the desired consistency of the product. This process should occur quickly at low temperatures, sometimes under vacuum. At the same time, performance should be consistent with the rate of evaporation and heat input. The process is monitored with a refractometer just before the solution is released.
  4.  Vvedenie pectin.
  5.  Introduction of acid, mixing and inversion processes, pH control.
  6.  Casting in a continuous manner with stirring.
liqueur products characterized by the formation of sugar crust around the alcohol filling, containing flavoring and aromatic substances. Sugar crust gives a certain shape to products: bean, bottle, etc.
The basis of the preparation of these products is the crystallization of sugar. The specialist should lead the growth of the crystals, ie. E. The formation of a thin but resistant sugar crust, because it affects the success of his work.
The sugar crystal is subject to constant changes due to various factors. These changes are particularly visible, for example, in fondant products. If the saccharified (kandirovanny) fudge is stored at a relatively low humidity, then moisture evaporates from it. This causes enhanced crystallization of sugar, the fudge begins to saccharify. The same can be observed in other products (candy, mass).
Relatively high air humidity is also undesirable - the crystallization force decreases. This is especially clearly seen when storing candy in high humidity. Candy attracts moisture from the air, becomes sticky, and in the worst case, spread.
Humidity in the crystallization process plays a large role in the preparation of liqueur products. The growth of crystals and the duration of crystallization is determined by humidity and the surface on which crystallization occurs. Crystallization on a hygroscopic surface is faster than on a non-hygroscopic one. Hygroscopic surfaces quickly absorb moisture from the mixture and thereby accelerate the crystallization process. Further, friction (grinding) is of decisive importance for the type and duration of the crystallization process. An example of the effect of friction on crystallization can be the process of chanting — the solution for chanting is given as a comparison, since in it we find almost the same properties as in the mixture for the preparation of liqueur products. Each specialist at kanirovanii observed that with vigorous stirring partial crystallization occurs. This is the result of friction that occurs when the solution moves. The crystallization process under such an influence must be constantly monitored during the preparation of liqueur products, since the same signs are observed. In the production process, it is necessary to reduce friction to a minimum so as not to damage the mixture to be cast. A great role in the preparation of liqueur products is played by the temperature of cooking, i.e. the temperature of boiling sugar solution, which is achieved during cooking.
Factors affecting crystallization should be sought not only in processing methods, but also in raw materials. In sugars, for example, the organic non-sugars in it, which also determine the stability of products, have a decisive influence on the crystallization. Practice shows that the best results are achieved when working with refineries. It contains a relatively small amount of organic nesaharov, and therefore it does not adversely affect the crystallization process. Minerals contained in water used to dissolve sugar also have a definite effect on crystallization. Therefore, do not add more water than normal. It is most advisable to use 30 liters of water per 100 kg of sugar. In addition to inefficiency (I would have to evaporate a lot of water), it is possible to avoid the undesirable effect of water on sugar during very long cooking.
Compared to previous years, when most of the substances with a standard alcohol content were received for processing, the main alcohol-containing substances and 60% cognac or brandy mixture are now successfully used. The use of such substances favorably affects the cooking process, since they do not require very high boiling points. In addition, when using liquors do not enter sugar and molasses. The process of crystallization is influenced only by fruit concentrates contained in liqueurs. They can cause sugar inversion.
When cooking liqueur hulls sugar is dissolved in a heated copper pot. The boiler can be heated with steam and must be adapted for cooling. To avoid the formation of crystals, the edges of the boiler should be more often brushed with water. After the sugar has completely dissolved, the cooking process begins, during which the foam should be removed from the solution. Undeleted foam has a negative effect on the formation of sugar crust. In polluted sugar solutions, separate crystals lying at a distance from one another are formed; in a clean one, on the contrary, a good thin dense crust of crystals is created.
When preparing liqueur products with a candied crust, the sugar solution is boiled to 114 ° C, if the following recipe is used as the basis for the preparation: 21,5 kg of brandy (60% vol.), 78,5 kg of refined sugar. When the cooking temperature 114 ° С is reached, steam access to the boiler is stopped and the supply of cold water begins. After cooling the solution to 60 ° C, brandy is added. It is necessary to maintain this temperature to avoid evaporation of alcohol, since its boiling point is very low.
For cooking sugar solutions and alcohol supply there are special devices. They allow condensation of alcohol-containing evaporation. The design of these devices can be considered on the example of the mogul installation.
The mixture of sugar, water and alcohol is cast in molded trays with powder. To obtain a good crystallization of the powder must be appropriately processed. For this purpose, it is placed in a drying and cleaning unit. If there is no such installation at the plant, it can be used for drying and heating the heat chamber.
Heating the tray with the powder is necessary to avoid premature crystallization of the sugar solution, as this can cause undesirable effects during the formation of a crust. The powder used for molding is hygroscopic. After casting, it absorbs moisture from a mixture of sugar, molasses and alcohol. Therefore, crystallization occurs on the walls of the buildings cast in powder. To cause the same crystallization of the upper surface of the cast mixture, it is sprinkled with heated powder. But since it is not of the same uniform crystallization, it is necessary to turn the body through 2 — 3 hours, depending on their type. The turning is made by a special fork made for this. When casting products such as bottles, beans, turning is overturned by tilting the tray with products in another tray. Thus, it is possible to obtain uniform crystallization on the upper, lower, and lateral sides. Incorrect overturning may interfere with the cooking process. Crystallization continues 18 h.
To obtain a not very thick crust, it is necessary that the cooking temperature exactly corresponds to the technological regime and properties of the body. Therefore, the cooking temperature must be carefully set. The release of the body from the powder is not made in the mogul-installation. For liqueur products, there is a special machine where powder residues are removed by a strong jet of air. The following are the basic recipes.
Shells with refreshing filling. 10 kg of sugar is boiled with 20 kg of dissolved agar to 114 ° C. After cooking, the mixture is cooled. 2 kg of raspberry puree, 0,4 kg of alcohol and 0,05 kg of tartaric acid are added to it. Through 3 h after casting, the body is inverted. According to this recipe you can prepare liqueur products with lemon, orange, strawberry or other fruit puree.
Liquor Beans. When using 60% alcohol containing substances, the following recipe is recommended: 39,25 kg of sugar and 10,75 kg of alcohol containing substances. The cooking temperature is 114 ° C. For this recipe, shells are prepared with cognac, sheribrendi, curaso, etc.
Beans with red wine. 35 kg of sugar is boiled to a temperature of 131 ° C. With slow stirring, 10,5 l of red wine is added here, then cooling begins. This is necessary, despite the loss of alcohol, in order to avoid strong cooling. Finally, 200 g of dissolved acid is added to the mixture.
In the production of liqueur products, it is recommended to control the syrup using a saccharimeter. For example, for beans with brandy, the density should be equal to 32 ° We.
Cases of mass provaltsovannoy have an advantage over cream hulls in that they are prepared in a cold way without powder casting. However, it cannot be said that the quality of cold-cooked products is the same as that of products prepared on the mogul machine. Therefore, the cold cooking method can never completely replace the hot method. Nevertheless, in order to increase the range of products, it is necessary to take into account the cold method of manufacturing, since from a technical point of view, products cast in powder can be replaced with cases of rolled mass. Rolled masses are based on marzipan and persipan masses.
Methods for the preparation of cold process varied and different companies are different. They evolved from the artisanal mode of production that has been used in many enterprises, until recently.
a powder molding method has advantages over the method of cold.
With the manual cooking method, the mass is treated in a mixer and rolled out manually with a wooden rolling pin. Then comes the molding by hand, sometimes a cutting machine is used. In industry, you can still find a manual cutting machine.
In order to replace the hand-rolling machine is designed. Its principle of operation is as follows: the mass is loaded into the hopper, picked up two corrugated rolls and is rolled or pushed into the mouthpiece. Dimensions define the mouthpiece mass thickness vyprisovyvayuschuyusya as a reservoir.
Permanent feed mass is provided by the movement of the grooved rollers. To obtain a layer of uniform thickness, it is necessary to treat the pressed mass with a rolling machine. It consists of a pair of rollers for preliminary and subsequent rolling.
The molded mass is retracted by a belt conveyor connected to the rollers. The layer treated in this way is fed to the cutting machine. With good coordination of the work of the roll and cutting machines, this method is very rational. Cutting, according to technology, should not be done with hand-held devices, as they disrupt the working course of the process.
There is another cooking method on the Oka machine. This automaton has the advantage that it is not associated with certain forms, since the form is defined by easily replaceable matrices. The change of matrices makes it possible to obtain a large number of different forms.
The principle of operation of the machine "Oka" is as follows. The mass loaded into the funnel is picked up by two grooved rollers, they move in opposite directions, as a result of which a pressure is created between a pair of rollers, depending on the gap between the rollers. This pressure and rotational speed of the grooved rollers are crucial for the mass of the bodies. Regulation of the machine is mainly to change the gap between the rollers. When the grooved rolls move, the mass is pressed against the matrix and cut off by a fast moving string. Immediately before cutting, the exit plate, to which the belt conveyor fits, is lifted as a result of the movement of the eccentrics. The interval between the plate and the matrix is ​​determined by the height of the body. To achieve sticking of the hulls to the conveyor, it must be slightly moistened. Shells do not stick to the dry conveyor.
Automatic system "Oka" set directly in front of the enrobing machine or connect with it. When combining both machines, it is advisable to slightly dry the hull before glazing with infrared rays or air movement (formation of a crust) in a drying cabinet.
Such a unit can be installed between the Oka automatic system and the enrobing machine. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the dried bodies are cooled again before entering the enrobing machine, since the temperature of the bodies must correspond to the temperature of the glaze.
Products in the form of tiles or chopsticks are best prepared using a squeezing press. This method is the most economical of all methods of cold forming, since the productivity of such processes is extremely high. In ancient times, meat processing machines were used for this purpose. This was justified by the fact that such presses could produce products not only in the form of rods and tiles, but also single-layered and multi-layered. This was of great importance also in the preparation of pastes, which, as is well known, are composed of masses of different taste.
In pressure presses, the mass is processed not by corrugated rollers, like in ordinary machines, but by screws. Forming is done with a cutting machine. Until now, it was not possible to carry out the flow directly from the press to the cutting machine.
1 In the USSR such feed carried on the production liniyah.- Ed.
Still not found the appropriate connections for both machines.
Different methods of preparation (manual rolling, processing on a rolling machine, an Oka machine and a squeezing press) require different compositions of the masses, which in turn are determined by the method of preparation. So, it is not without difficulty that the mass for manual rolling can be formed on the Oka machine. For this you need to change the recipe.
Marzipan and persipan masses, nougat, truffle mass are the initial products for the preparation of the main body, the introduction of additives allows you to get different taste options. The degree of grinding of these kernels must comply with the method of their processing. As an example, we can cite the mass intended for molding on the Oka machine. It should not be whole candied fruit, as they interfere when cutting a string. However, they can be used without interference in the masses processed by the rolling machine and cut by the cutting machine.
If improperly treated with the cold method, fermentation may occur in the products. This is possible especially in products with a high content of fruits, with whole fruits. If jam or jam is added to the mass, then it should be heated beforehand. When processing candied fruits or other dry fruits, it is recommended to pre-treat them with alcohol (pure alcohol, cognac). To avoid fermentation, you can also use legal preservatives. When processing with alcohol, it is not necessary to add preservatives, since alcohol of a certain concentration has a preservative effect.
Before loading the mass in the kneader, it should be checked to avoid rancidity. For this it is best to divide the mass into four parts and take samples from the inside. If the formation of mold or fermentation is established, such a mass should not be allowed for immediate processing. Waste must be immediately processed and cannot be stored. Care must be taken to prevent water from entering the mass, since moisture favors fermentation. When adding nuts or almonds, it is impractical to tighten the mixing sag. These products have a high fat content, which is released during intensive processing, and the mass becomes oily. Oily mass is very difficult to form and poorly glazed.
Cases of roasting. There are three types of roasting cases: hard, soft and layered. These names simultaneously determine the properties and differences of these products. Although all these products belong to the same group of "roast", they differ in taste and methods of their preparation are also different.
The basis of cooking solid roasting is the melting of sugar. It is best to use refined sugar. The processing of powdered sugar (powder) is undesirable because it does not melt well and lumps form in the boiler when it melts. Sugar is melted in a copper pot on an open fire (most often on gas). The quality of the products depends on the degree of sugar melting. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly observe all the conditions affecting this process: dry sugar, properly adjusted flame, continuous and uniform mixing, and precise adherence to the set melting temperature. This process is not yet mechanized, with the exception of the regulation of the flame of gas. The regulation of this process depends so far only on the person, and, therefore, it is very subjective.
When melting sugar in a copper pot, a mechanical stirrer can be used. The blades of the agitator quickly melt the melted sugar, so it must be thoroughly cleaned before each load. Otherwise, the remnants of unreduced sugar fall into the melt and cause saccharification and the formation of lumps, which degrades the quality and adversely affects further processing.
Melting sugar is controlled sampling. These tests are based on the so-called "droplet formation." If this occurs, the melting process is completed. The molten sugar is added chopped nuts or almonds.
In the preparation of roasting, as in the preparation of the main buildings, it is necessary to ensure that there is no separation of oil from the kernels. To do this, when adding nuts to melted sugar, reduce the burner flame. The temperature is maintained by a small fire. Subsequent strong heating of the mass should be avoided, as the strongly heated sugar after cooling becomes hygroscopic. Products from the roasting in this case, easily attract moisture and become sticky. Wet housing poorly amenable to subsequent processing processes (glazing).
To improve the taste, oil, honey, etc. are added to the roasted mass. These additives cause a change in taste and texture. So, the roasting with the addition of butter or honey is much softer than a simple roasting. If you want to get the body of roasted light-colored, then you need to add light almond to it. To do this, it is recommended to introduce almonds in the form of a thin string. You can also use unroasted almonds. This method is used in the preparation of samples for shop windows.
The finished, slightly cooled mass of roasted roll is rolled between two wooden rolls, which determine the thickness of the layer. Griljage is also formed on special rolls; you can get a variety of shape products. On these rolls it is also possible to manufacture a shell, which is then filled with nougat, truffle mass, etc. Such products are very popular.
Puff roasting is highly valued by connoisseurs and is considered a delicacy. If we compare the recipes for the preparation of puff and hard roil, then it can be seen that there are no significant quantitative differences in them. Different processing methods have different effects on the taste and property of products. The difference between hard and flaky roasted nuts is also caused by the addition of different nuts. Chopped nuts are added to hard roasted, ground nuts in powdered sugar are added to puff.
These nut masses are prepared in the workshop. Hazel is roasted in the Scirocco roaster; care must be taken that the core is browned until golden brown. Too much roasting should be avoided as it degrades the taste of the nuts.
Remaining on roasted nuts shells have a bitter taste, they should be removed. This occurs at a nuts chafing on sieves or by treatment in kakaodrobilke.
60 kg of nuts and 40 kg of ground sugar are loaded into the melange. It is recommended to scald nuts before adding sugar. Due to the high fat content (in the filbert on average 62%) with appropriate grinding, for example, when processing in a melanger, they acquire a semi-liquid consistency. However, in the melangeur it is impossible to obtain the desired degree of grinding, that is, to obtain a mass, the particles of which are no longer felt in the language. To do this, the mass should be processed in a five-roll mill, and then again in the mixer, so that it again becomes a paste-like character, lost during rolling.
When making puff roast, sugar is melted, as in the preparation of solid roast, as described above. However, the nut mass is not added to the boiler (as for solid roasting), but it is applied to the layers or capsules .. Pre-walnut mass is heated.
If you add a cold mass to the melted sugar, it will harden. The nut mass is poured on melted sugar and slowly mixed with a spatula. Then the roasting mass is knocked off several times. Due to the high fat content, there is no internal binding of the nut mass to the melted sugar, therefore layers of the mass and sugar are formed.
When cooling the sugar nut mass is drawn into it. The expansion of the layered mass of roasted nuts before molding is the same as in the preparation of solid roasted. The consistency of the mass should be suitable for molding, which is achieved by observing the correct temperature conditions during cooling. Forming puff roasting is best to produce on a cutting machine.
When cutting with the machines of the Lichtenberg company, it is possible to cut the product twice, with the forward and reverse course of the machine. With simple cutting, the products are glued together, they need to be separated by hand, with double cutting they are easier to separate.
There are several methods for the preparation of soft roasting. They come in three main groups.
According to the methods of the first group, the mass is prepared from melted sugar, nuts, molasses, milk, marzipan mass, fruits, etc.
Methods of preparing the mass of the second group are based on the addition of crushed solid roasting. Such preparation of soft roasted coffee is very economical, since it uses waste products.
Soft masses of roasting, prepared by this method, of the third group, not melting the sugar, but dissolving it in water and then heating the solution to a boil. In this case, 20% molasses is added to the sugar to eliminate the decomposition of the mass to be boiled. After reaching the temperature 117 ° C, marzipan and persipan masses, roasted as sticks, chopped fruits and nuts are added here. To improve the taste and get a good consistency, the mass is fried on an open fire or in a roasting pot, then rolled and cut into a cutting machine.
The soft masses of roasting, prepared by this method, can be processed the next day. To make these cooking methods more visual, here are recipes.
11 kg of refined sugar is completely melted, 11 kg of nuts, 2,5 kg of molasses, 12 kg of fudge and 0,1 l of brandy are added. This mass is loaded into capsules and rolled out only the next day. If it is glued during rolling, then it is necessary to pour nut dust on the rolling plate.
7,5 kg of sugar is melted and 3 kg of condensed milk is added. The mass is cooked to obtain a sample per drop (125 ° C). When this temperature is reached, 0,1 kg of butter, 7,5 kg of roasted and chopped almonds or hazelnuts, 3 kg of ground marzipan mass are added. All mix well. The mass is cut the next day.
X kg of persipan mass is loaded into the 40 mixer, 32 kg of crushed solid roasted hair and 28 kg of crushed mandarin peels are added. Acid is introduced into the mass for taste, after which it can be molded on an Oka machine.
Enrobing. Cases made in different workshops are glazed with chocolate in the glazing workshop. The most economical way is to use special enrobing machines, which makes it possible to make the process continuous. Maintaining a constant temperature contributes to obtaining high-quality products; if this condition is violated, the glazed products are covered with gray bloom, their appearance deteriorates.
Tempering Above we have already touched upon the problem of chocolate mass tempering. Disassembled positions can and should be transferred to the process of glazing. Chocolate mass and glaze should be tempered to 32 ° C. If dark chocolate is tempered to 32 ° C, then lower temperature is required for milk chocolate - 28 ° C. Different tempering temperatures are due to different composition of both varieties: dark chocolate consists of only cocoa components, sugar and lecithin; Powdered milk containing milk fat with a completely different melting point than cocoa butter is added to milk chocolate. Hence the need to adhere to different temperatures when tempering individual masses. When enrobing a product, it is necessary not only to observe the correct tempering temperature of chocolate glaze, but also to maintain the appropriate temperature of other components.
As an example, the following. If a well-tempered chocolate glaze is loaded into a heavily heated trolley, the glaze temperature rises. In this case, it does not meet the requirements. It is not excluded the possibility that all products glazed with such a mass will be covered with a gray bloom immediately after leaving the enrobing machine.
The glaze is most appropriate to temper in a tempering machine of continuous action. It is best to use in this case, the tempering machine company "Lauenstein." The design of this machine allows direct loading of the tempered mass into the enrobing machine. This is achieved with the aid of a screw installed in a tempering machine. For loading, a pipeline with a water jacket is used, the temperature of which is consistent with the temperature of the tempering machine. In the future, it is recommended to lay this pipeline in a closed ring, i.e. from the tempering machine to the enrobing machine and back.
With this system, the mass with the same temperature is fed to all the enrobing machines. If the loading pipe connects several enrobing machines, then the number of loading openings should correspond to the number of machines. The last enrobing machine is connected to the tempering machine by pipeline; thus formed a closed ring.
Glazing machine. Before loading the enrobing machine should be well heated (temper). The enrobing machine (fig. 145) as opposed to the tempering machine does not have automatic tempering.
The temperature is regulated by the supply of cold water and steam into the shirt of the collection. Circulation is carried out using a water pump installed on the enrobing machine. It is necessary to ensure that the machine does not overcool. In a cold machine, a mass would solidify. Such a mass clogs the pipeline of the enrobing machine, which makes it impossible to load the mass and enrobing the bodies.78347ad1aee1d7f6709436ca891358ff
                       Fig. 145. Glazing machine.
From the collection pump icing is pumped into the container from which it is poured onto the body, passing on a tray conveyor through a coating machine.
The amount of excess weight in the collection is governed by the total load quantity. A small amount of reserve mass in the collection is necessary to obtain a wide enrobing jet. The excess mass, not adhering to the bodies, through the grates of the conveyor again enters the collection and is re-processed by the mixer.
To obtain a chocolate bottom, the installation is supplied with rollers, in which the mass feed is regulated. This allows you to pre-determine the thickness of the bottom. Bottling glazing is a very important process. Since the glazing of the bottom in the glazing machine is difficult to follow, you can get products with a poorly glazed base. It is advisable to control the glazed products on the smear at the entrance to the cooling cabinet to avoid the ingress of waste.
The amount of glaze remaining on the hull is regulated by fans and vibrators. The mouthpiece connected to the tube with a fan is movably mounted; its width is equal to the width of the enrobing grille. The direction of the air stream is regulated by the position of the mouthpiece. Excess glaze can be blown vertically from the top or due to the oblique position of the mouthpiece in the direction of movement of the enamel grille or against it.
Anyone who maintains the enrobing machine must first become familiar with the control system, otherwise it will not be able to precisely control the amount of mass to be glazed. It is impossible, on the basis of the instructions, to give a general glazing scheme suitable for products of all kinds, in each individual case the regulation of the glazing process should be consistent with the type of product and the viscosity of the chocolate mass. Thus, a fan when glazing smooth conical hulls is installed differently than when glazing cases with a pattern and a sloping outer surface, although both types of hulls are glazed with the same amount of chocolate mass.
The above-mentioned vibrator, mounted under a trellised belt conveyor, produces the same up and down movements as the frosting fork for manual glazing. When using a vibrator chocolate glaze does not spread on the conveyor, and the products retain their shape. The spreading of the mass is also hampered by the shanks mounted on the enrobing machine at the transition from the gratings to the belt conveyor. They also prevent the formation of stains on the products.
In the same place where the shanks are installed, there is a secondary air supply by the fan. The droplets of mass remaining on the edges of the drawing are blown away.
Cases intended for glazing, pre-heated by the appropriate temperature of the room. If possible, use special heaters, such as thermal fans. Shells, thus preheated in this way, are laid out at a certain interval on a moving conveyor belt (mostly manually). Folding devices are used so far only for products of certain forms, for example, for balls and cream hats.
Belt conveyor body transmitted to the lattice. cars. Its speed is somewhat greater than the speed of the feed conveyor. In this transition, the gaps between the individual rows of buildings become larger, which is necessary for good glazing.
The conveyor between the glazing bars and the cooling cabinet is open. This section is called the drawing table. Here, special rolls or manually with a fork applied various patterns on the product.
From here products come to the cooling case. The average temperature in the cabinet is 8 ° C. A cooler is installed under it. Through it, with the help of a fan, air moves. The cooled air through different channels passes over the products. Since cocoa butter becomes hard with appropriate cooling, icing also hardens when cold air is supplied.
. The plot of the conveyor for applying a pattern on the glazed products. With strict observance of the entire technological regime, products with a beautiful sheen are obtained. If the products do not have such brilliance, it means that errors are made in the temperature regime.
Finished products come from the cooling cabinet to the third conveyor. From this conveyor products are removed simply, most often with various accessories. Piece and special products can be immediately wrapped.
It is necessary to ensure that supercooled products are not received for wrapping, since under certain conditions they can sweat. This in turn can cause mold and damage to the product. To avoid this, cooling should be carried out only within the cooling cabinet.
Nowadays, several types of products and mixtures are often glazed on one conveyor with their subsequent packaging. At the same time it is necessary to place the rows precisely on the feeding conveyor.
For some types of products it is impossible to get a good bottom on the glazing machine. Therefore, it is recommended liquor products, products of nougat and marzipan glazed already with the bottom. For this, an enrobing machine with a so-called bottoming device is used. Here the bottom is made of chocolate glaze. Such housings come to the belt conveyor, under which the cooling plates are installed. Therefore, the chocolate icing hardens and the hulls get a solid bottom before the actual glazing.
Glazing of cases with glazing machines reduced many manual operations. Now only a few blends contain hand-glazed products; such products have a more complex pattern.
However, nowadays specialists know many rational methods of decorating sweets. This allows them to abandon the glazing manually. 1000 kg of products can be painted on the machine many times faster than 100 kg manually.
Glazing by hand. Every specialist should be able to glaze manually. This helps him to better master the glazing on the machine. A good worker on the glazing machine rarely masters the art of manual glazing. With manual glazing, you can become better acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of chocolate icing and use the experience gained while working on the machine. This work is primarily based on the instinct and secondly on the skill. She's better at women.
When manual glazing is necessary to carefully maintain the cleanliness of the room and workplaces. The temperature of the room, especially when pre-tempering the enclosures, should be approximately 25 ° C. Glaze is tempered in small tempering machines or manually on marble slabs. After tempering, the glaze is loaded into hand-held glazing machines. It is best to use adjustable devices with electric heating, as they provide a uniform temperature.
Glazing is made with a fork. Shells are immersed in the mass, and then lifted from the mass from below with a fork.
When repeatedly raising and lowering the case with a fork, the excess glaze is removed. Candies are removed from the fork in two ways: by pushing or slipping on special paper. The candy is gently moved along the paper back and forth in order to get a smooth surface on one side and, on the other hand, the necessary amount of mass to apply the pattern with a fork.
Paper with sweets, put in a cooling cabinet installed next to it.
The principle of glazing with a fork was used as a basis for glazing on gratings in special devices, which made it possible to obtain a large gain in time. Shells with short distances between them were placed on the lattice enrobing apparatus. The grids are dipped into the glaze, and the bodies lying on them are covered with chocolate mass. When the lattice moves up and down, excess glaze is removed. Products from the lattice are faced on an iron sheet covered with special paper. The candy pattern is applied with a fork, which requires great dexterity.
There are no differences between products glazed on machines or gratings. On the table of the enrobing machine, the same pattern can be applied to the products as on the iron sheet with paper. However, it should be noted that the products glazed on the plug differ from those mentioned above.
R and with a y to n to and. A set of candies is evaluated primarily in appearance, so you need to pay special attention to their design. Since ancient times, they have tried to simplify the time-consuming manual processes of drawing a picture without causing damage to the appearance. However, this is not yet possible to the full. Experts know a lot of tools that affect the design of products. The simplest is the use of a plaster stamp for molding cast casings. This feature needs to be used more widely than is being done at this time. When preparing special products, it is not necessary to arrange them manually or in rolls. The best thing to do is easier - plaster stamp. Then the products can be decorated on the table of the glazing machine or in a special room. There are many possibilities for this on the enrobing machine. One of them - the so-called rolls, with which you can apply any patterns.
When choosing rolls do not place the stick and wire tightly, as they determine the shape of the pattern. At very small distances between them, the pattern is fuzzy, because the gap is filled with glaze. Drawing drawing in this case is impossible.
You need to carefully select the rolls to reduce the amount of waste. They are installed in special supporting and guiding devices on the table and connected to the enrobing machine with a belt drive in the form of a thin cord. The speed of rotation of the rolls must exactly match the speed of movement of the conveyor.
During operation, a certain temperature of the rolls should be strictly maintained, since chocolate sticks to the cold rolls, and the heated above the norm overheats the chocolate glaze, and then a gray patina appears on the finished products. To maintain a certain uniform temperature, a heater is placed above the rollers. Not all candies have the same height, so the rolls are set movably so that they can be adjusted. Spare rolls should be stored in a heat chamber, which makes it possible to apply them at any time.
Glazed products can be decorated manually with a fork. With the help of rolls can be applied relatively simple drawings. The plug allows you to get a beautiful variety of pictures. Manual work makes it possible to apply several patterns one on another.
As an example, a sheet can be designed in which a transverse pattern is applied with a fork for decoration or with a zinc fork, and the main pattern with a simple wire. This allows you to get a very beautiful basic picture. You can decorate chocolates with a special fork mounted on the enrobing machine; With this method, the glazes receive a pattern in the form of various lines starting from a point and located at different intervals.
You can decorate the candy with various decorative tools, such as halves of the nut kernel, almond and pistachio kernels, and patterned chocolate (fig. 150).133 picture When using for this purpose kernels of nuts and almonds, it is recommended to pre-sugar these kernels to increase their shelf life.
Molded chocolate products should not be scratched. Products can be decorated with colored coconut shavings. This process can be carried out mechanically. To do this, a movable sieve is placed above the table, which allows you to evenly and constantly sprinkled products. Sift product fallen between the products on the conveyor belt, a fan is blown into the hopper. In the same way the product can be sprinkled with chocolate crumbs.
Patterns applied syringes or via Funtikov, the quality is much higher than produced by other methods.
Based only on this, we can say that the manual design will never disappear. When working with a syringe, chocolate mass is most often used. Since extrusion is the basis of the work with a syringe, it is necessary to use not very liquid chocolate for this purpose. It is best to prepare chocolate special consistency. With the help of a syringe and a funtik it is possible to obtain a wide variety of drawings. Most often used nozzle-tip in the form of a star. Thin strips, strokes, etc., are extruded without the use of a nozzle tip. It is very important that the tips rotate completely free and cleaned.
When finishing you should use only well-processed chocolate mass. Chocolate with lumps clogs the syringe and spoils the drawing.
In addition, you can decorate the candy with gold foil.
The production of chocolates with filling (TYPE "MIXED")
Molded chocolates are different from glazed with a higher content of chocolate, external properties and texture. For glazed products, the amount of glaze varies between 25 — 30%, for molded products, chocolate is 45 — 50%. Methods for the preparation of both products are different. In recent years, sweets have become very popular. Cast sweets are prepared by a continuous method; all the work processes for preparing glazed sweets have not yet been fully coordinated. On this basis, it would be possible to conclude that only sweets should be produced. This is true, but only in terms of time, from the point of view of material consumption, other conclusions are suggested, since the amount of glaze on cast products is on average 47%, which is 20% more than on glazed products. Mixes only from ebb sweets would be very expensive.
The basis of the preparation of cast products is the preparation of chocolate peels. They do not depend on the filling and are prepared equally. Only the thickness of the crusts is selected depending on the type of filling: with solid fillings, it can be thinner than with liquid or viscous. The main part of chocolate is contained in the crust.
Crusts are prepared on special machines - the so-called machines for figured chocolate. These machines consist of the following coordinated units: casting
chocolate machine with a vibrating conveyor, a device for turning the forms, a centrifugal device, a cabinet for cooling crusts, a cleansing knife, a station for filling crusts with a filling, a cooling cabinet, a machine for applying a bottom, a cooling cabinet, a device for knocking out products and a conveyor for empty forms.
For crusts, it is best to use chocolate mass prepared according to the following recipe: 50 kg of grated cocoa, 10 kg of cocoa butter, 40 kg of sugar, 0,3 kg of lecithin. The average fat content in this mass is 35%. In this formulation, the viscosity of the mass meets the requirements. Small fluctuations in the fat content do not really affect the cooking process, a more significant fluctuation has a negative effect, since in these cases the mass can be very thick.
It would be wrong to say that the masses are always prepared according to one recipe (50: 10: 40). When 53% fat is contained in cocoa liquor, the chocolate mass is prepared from 53 kg of grated cocoa, 7 kg of cocoa butter, 40 kg of sugar and 0,3 kg of lecithin. How to work with such a mass? The factory laboratory checks the fat content and moisture content of the chocolate mass before unloading. Based on these analyzes, additional cocoa butter is added if necessary.
If the laboratory has checked the fat content of individual batches of grated cocoa, the specialist, according to the analysis, can make up the recipe. Working with chocolate masses makes it difficult not only (fluctuations in fat content, but also fluctuations in moisture, as they cause thickening of the mass. Therefore, the moisture content of the mass should be checked periodically. The conching process should be terminated only when the required moisture is reached. Practice shows that they are best treated mass with humidity less than 0,8%.
For tempering masses automatic tempering machines are used. From them, the mass enters the temper- ent (preheated) casting machines. The molds in operation from the dislodging machine through the preheating cabinet enter the casting machine. The temperature of the cabinet must be such that the forms, when leaving it and entering the casting machine, have the required temperature. Heating forms controlled by hand.
The amount of chocolate mass, cast in separate cavities of the form, should be precisely dosed. You can not cast too much or too little mass, you need to cast so much that each recess of the form was filled to the brim. Then the completed forms are fed to the vibrating conveyor. When vibrating, the air escapes from the chocolate mass, forming bubbles on its surface.
Thus, the mass is better distributed in the forms, filling all, even the thinnest contours. From the conveyor, the molds are fed to a turning device, where they are tipped over. Excess liquid chocolate mass flows down. Then the forms are fed into a centrifuge. Here, during centrifugation, the last excess chocolate mass is removed. The centrifuge is regulated by a variator. The centrifuging process determines the thickness of the crust and the amount of chocolate.
The mass adhering to the inner walls of the dimple forms a crust. In addition, the thickness of the crust walls depends on the viscosity of the chocolate mass. The thickness of the crust should be periodically monitored. The more even the viscosity of the chocolate mass, the more precisely the temperature regime is observed, the less often it is necessary to adjust the centrifuge.
If the forms used are of different weight, then this negatively affects the centrifuging process. The lighter form is always centrifuged stronger than the heavier. In different forms, different crusts are obtained. You need to carefully select the forms for one cycle of work. When buying new forms, you must select the same by weight.
To comply with the correct technological regime of great importance is the temperature of the room. If the temperature of the room is very low, the form immediately cools. The mass quickly hardens at the edges of the mold, uneven crusts are obtained.
From the centrifuge forms are fed to a cooling conveyor. Here the chocolate mass in the forms remains almost to solidification. Cooling is adjusted so that the mass is not completely frozen. It must be elastic, otherwise the completely frozen mass when crushing is easily crumbled and crusts with defects are obtained. The mass, frozen above the edges of the form, is knitted by hand with a spatula or mechanically. The edges of the crust should not protrude beyond the edges of the form. After cleaning the molds, before filling the fillings into them, they are again cooled in an intermediate (supply) cabinet so that the crusts can be easily removed.
The casting station most often consists of six casting machines; two of them are designed specifically for fatty fillings. Each casting machine can cast its own filling in crusts, therefore in one cycle you can make candies with six different fillings at once.
When molding cream masses, threads are formed that cover the edges of the crust and do not allow to get a neat bottom. The reason for the formation of filaments is often the recipe of the filling. To get good products, the casting machine is equipped with a device for cutting threads. When lifting, coordinated with the casting, and quickly lowering the mold, the cream thread breaks off. The amount of filling must be accurately metered, since its excess does not allow to close the crust well. Products with a small amount of filling, on the contrary, have a very thick chocolate bottom.
Semi-liquid fillings are almost always used for castings, so filled molds cannot be immediately closed with chocolate after casting. Otherwise, the liquid chocolate mass would mix with the filling before it would be able to hold the bottom on itself. To do this, a film must form on the surface of the filling. The properties of fondant are crucial.
The formation of the film, which requires a certain time, takes place in a special cabinet, mounted in the installation. Forms from the cabinet go to the heating plate. In this case, the upper surface of the filled form is heated, and the edges of the chocolate crust melt. This is necessary in order to firmly connect the mass of the bottom and crust. If the edge is not melted, then the connection does not occur, as the cold crust causes the bottom to solidify quickly at the junction.
The degree of heating plate is determined by the rhythm of machines. If the plate is hot or form is a long plate that is often observed in cases of failure of the machine, edge products are covered by a light gray patina. Moreover, reheating the products hinders ejection from the mold.
From the shape of the heating plate reaches the bottom of the machine for application. The most successful ratio of crust and bottom of 2: 1.
Performance depends on the properties of the masses intended for the bottom. Preference is given to masses with a minimum fat content of 41%.
To obtain good bottoms, it is recommended to prepare a mass according to the following recipe: 50 kg of grated cocoa, 15 kg of cocoa butter, 35 kg of sugar, 0,3 kg of lecithin.
When working with masses with a lower fat content losses occur. The mass from the collection is fed up and distributed on the forms. Excess mass is removed by an adjustable heated scraper. The removed mass enters the collection again. Chocolate stuck to the edges of the form is removed by a special mechanism and enters the collection. The mixer provides a constant mass movement. Products with bottoms are delivered to the vibrating conveyor. The mass is well distributed, with the air that gets inside the product.
The molds then enter the cooling cabinet. Adjustable cooling ensures flawless dislodging of products from molds. Products should be protected from hypothermia, which causes thin, not immediately noticeable cracks to appear on the chocolate mass. Only after one or two days it is possible to establish that the filling has partially appeared on the surface. Speaking filling dries quickly and closes the cracks. However, this spoils the appearance of products. Candies are knocked out on a baking sheet punching machine.
Special varieties can immediately act on the packaging.
Chocolate candies with solid filling. Nougat, truffle and other fat-containing fillings are used as solid toppings for cast chocolate candies. The hardness of these fillings should be attributed to the hardening of the fat they contain.
Truffle masses used as fillings for castings must meet certain requirements:
 state at a tempering 25 ° C must be fluid, that is necessary for pouring them;
 after cooling they should solidify.
To meet these conditions, you must add fat. The minimum content of total amount of fat 30% is not only a quality requirement, but also technically necessary when using fillings for castings.
It is best to heat the truffle masses stored in the cold in a plate-type tempering machine. In a heat chamber a hot truffle mass can be stored no more than 24 h, longer storage negatively affects its durability.
Even liquid truffle mass must-protemperirovat. tempering temperature depends on the weight of the composition, and for example, cream or dairy mass is truffle 27 ° C.
Nougat is used as hard toppings for cast candies. The following are the basic recipes.
Nuga "Mokko".
40 kg of roasted sugar,
30 kg of hazelnuts roasted nuts
10 kg of cocoa butter,
15 kg of semi-bitter chocolate,
5 kg of roasted coffee,
0,02 kg of vanillin.
37 kg of roasted sugar,
29 kg of roasted hazelnut kernels,
18 kg of creamy chocolate with 35% cocoa components,
8 kg of cocoa butter,
5,5 kg of whole milk powder,
2,5 kg of butter,
0,02 kg of vanillin.
Svyetlaya meadows.
42 kg of roasted sugar,
32 kg of hazelnuts roasted nuts
8 kg of whole milk powder,
18 kg of cocoa butter,
0,02 kg of vanillin.
All the above recipes are not cooked with roast, but with roasted sugar and roasted hazel nuts. Solid fillings used for castings have approximately the same composition as truffle nougat fillings. The basis of their preparation is solid fat. Fat from the taste point of view is almost neutral, so you can make fillings with different taste directions.
Here are a few recipes.
By and by and oh p e s on in and I'm filling.
10 kg of cocoa powder,
25 kg of solid fat,
27 kg of whole milk powder,
10 kg of roasted hazelnut kernels,
28 kg milled sugar.
Nut filling.
20 kg of solid fat,
40 kg of hazelnuts roasted nuts
40 kg of sugar.
Fruit filling (basic recipe).
25 kg of solid fat,
20 kg of nuts,
30 kg of whole milk powder,
25 kg of sugar.
The added bulk of the oil and fruit acids, which in this case flavor carriers.
All fatty fillings are prepared by machines, like chocolate masses.
Chocolate candies with semi-liquid filling. Most of the drain chocolate sweets are prepared with semi-liquid fillings. When working with such fillings, special care is required, since their moisture content is much higher than that of solid fillings. In semi-liquid fillings to prevent damage add approved preservatives or alcohol. From a taste point of view, preference is given to alcohols. They must match the taste of the filling.
When cooking chocolates on installations with a centrifuge, you should choose fillings that are able to hold the bottom. Such fillings on top should form a film. The specialist must know in advance using which methods and additives he can get the filling with the required properties, and not look for them during the production process.
In the trial preparation of new fillings, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the previously planned working methods. In the absence of conditions corresponding to the production process, it makes no sense to prepare samples manually. This requirement may be exemplified. For the candy mix, a creamy fruit mass with a high content of fruits was prepared. In the trial cooking cream was prepared by hand. The crusts in the evening were filled with funnel filling and left until the next day. The next day, the crusts with the filling were closed with a bottom. At the same time there were no tremors. The bottoms went flawlessly. Products received a good rating and were accepted for production. However, in mass production, it was found that it is impossible to lay a bottom on a cream filling. During the test preparation on a cream filling, a film was formed in 14 hours. In the normal production process, only run time was allotted for film formation. During this time, the film was not formed.
Chocolate crust can be filled with double filling. In this case, only the top filling, which will be in contact with the bottom, should be able to support the bottom. From a practical point of view, this is possible, for example, if jam or jam diluted with alcohol is used as the bottom filling, and vanilla cream is poured on top. With this method, finely divided fillers such as raisins, cherries, etc. can be successfully used as a filling.
The bulk of most semi-liquid toppings is fudge, on the properties of which the entire recipe is built. When preparing cream hulls for glazed products, it is necessary to establish the allowable percentage of the fruit component. This applies equally to semi-liquid fillings. The amount of fruit additives varies greatly in semi-liquid fillings and in cream masses intended for hulls, as in cream hulls the cream should become hard, and in semi-liquid fillings it should only form a film.
Due to the higher content of natural flavoring substances, cast candies have better quality than glazed cream hulls. Semi-liquid fillings are prepared in mixers. Jam and jam should be boiled before processing. At the end of the process, fondant is added to them. For semi-liquid fillings, it is best to use fondant with 15% molasses.
When preparing semi-liquid fillings, the boiler should be slightly heated. The consistency of the finished filling should be such that at 30 ° C it will flow in a continuous stream. When the filling is very hot, it is impossible to predict in advance what will be its consistency after cooling. It is recommended to prepare fillings with a margin, i.e. more than the required amount. In this case, most often they are tempered again.
Semi-liquid fillings that do not have the desired consistency and become very thick should not be diluted with water; they can be liquefied with pure fresh sugar or a mixture of distilled water and alcohol in the ratio 1: 9. On the example of several basic recipes, an approximate composition of the fillings is shown, providing high-quality products.
Fruit cream with marmalade or confiture.
70 kg fondant with 15% of molasses,
30 kg of jam or marmalade,
3 L of vodka or cognac, and acid dyes.
Fruit cream with fruit syrup.
84 kg fondant with 15% of molasses,
16 kg of fruit alcohol,
3 liter of cognac or vodka mixture, and acid dyes.
Walnut cream.
72 kg fondant with 25% of molasses,
17 kg of finely chopped nuts,
7,5 kg of pure sugar,
3,5 liter of cognac or vodka mixture
Fruit components for double toppings.
97 kg of jam or preserves,
3 liter of cognac or vodka mixture.
Creamy cream with fruit weight.
11 kg of butter,
74,5 kg fondant with 25% of molasses,
14,5 kg fruit additives
3 liter of cognac or vodka mixture.
Creamy creamy mass.
30 kg of butter,
60 kg fondant with 25% of molasses,
5 kg of invert sugar,
5 liter of cognac or vodka mixture.
Martsipanovaya kremovaya Massa.
30 kg marzipan mass,
60 kg fondant with 25% of molasses,
5 kg of invert sugar,
5 liter of cognac or vodka mixture:
1st preliminary casting: semi-liquid marzipan
I 2-casting: the crushed with rum raisins;
3-January cast: tryufelynaya Massa or nougat.
Chocolate candies with a liquid filling. Liquid fillings in most cases are alcohol-containing fillings, which include sugar, molasses, alcohols or wine and water. With such fillings, special products are prepared, such as cognac beans without sugar crust inside, cherries, liquor bottles, eggs. There are no requirements for the quantitative content of alcohol; it is stated only that the alcohol giving the name of the product should be added in such an amount that it determines the basic taste of the product. Actual additives must comply with the recipe of the product: if it is indicated that brandy is added, then only brandy can be used as a flavor carrier for this product; No other substances such as sugar, molasses or water may be added. If, for example, a brandy blend is added, then the recipe should indicate: “brandy blend”.
For liquid fillings, in addition to wine, it is best to use 60% alcohol substances. The composition of the filling should be such that its constituents do not react with chocolate. If the filling contains a large amount of alcohol, it can soften the chocolate. In alcohol-containing fillings should be no more than 21%. alcohol, a higher percentage adversely affects the durability of the product. The disruptions that occur while causing the chocolate crust to wavy inward. These disruptions are compounded by improper storage.
When storing liqueur products without sugar crust, the temperature of the premises should not exceed 18 ° С, higher temperatures pose a risk to their durability. Proceeding from this, products with liquid fillings without sugar crust are prepared only in 1 and IV quarters of the year. In this case, it is possible to avoid deterioration in the quality of products.
Experiments have shown that products with fillings containing 15 — 20% by vol. alcohol, are more resistant at the above temperature. If, for example, it is desirable to prepare the filling with 15% vol. alcohol, then on 100 kg of filling should be taken 25 l 60% alcohol.
Alcohol filling should be formulated so that they can be poured into the crust chocolate machines at 25 ° C. This can be achieved in preventing the sugar crystallization by adding stuffing stuffing molasses.
Liquid fillings are prepared as follows. Dissolve 70 kg of sugar. To prevent crystallization of the edges of the boiler periodically washed. The sugar solution is heated to 107 ° C and 30 kg of molasses is added. The mixture is heated again. To avoid the loss of alcohol, the mixture is cooled before introducing alcohol into it using special apparatus with a cooling system. For this purpose, you can use the installation, designed to cool the kanded sugar.
By the basic solution, thus prepared, can be added a variety of alcohols (cognac, sherry, mocha and others.). In 70 kg molasses and sugar solution is added to the average, n 30 60% strength alcohol.
All components should be well mixed, since the alcohols are relatively poorly distributed in a cold solution. For wine fillings, the same basic solution can be applied (70 kg of sugar, 30 kg of molasses). The amount of wine additives primarily depends on the desired taste of the filling.
Products without sugar crust are prepared in almost the same way as cast products. Both processes run parallel to the overlay on a chocolate crust. Since the liquid filling does not have a bearing capacity, the crust is prepared by another method. Putting the bottom of the machine on the crust with a liquid alcohol-containing filling, in the form, is impossible. Still on products without sugar crust the bottom is applied manually. This job requires many workers; at a chocolate factory in the city of Daylig (GDR) a mechanical device was designed for laying the bottoms. In this method, the crusts are removed from the molds for cast products and put into special forms.
These forms are approximately 2 mm lower than the molds for castings, so that the edges of the chocolate crust protrude 2 mm above the edges of the mold. This is necessary to obtain good bottoms for products with liquid fillings. Chocolate bottoms should not be applied on such fillings with spreading, they should be slowly deposited on the edges of chocolate crust. To do this, the forms are superimposed on the forms having the shape of the product. They carry the bottom for some time. Gradually, chocolate lags behind the edge of the pattern and is superimposed on the edge of the chocolate crust. This process can be compared to dipping a tube into a chocolate mass. At the same time, a film of chocolate mass is formed on the opening of the tube, which after some time can be removed from the tube. Templates before filling the crust mechanically mounted on the form; the design of the casting machine for the filling (fig. 157) allows it to immediately suck off its excess. This is especially important when processing fruits (for example, cherries in cognac), since, due to their different size, it is impossible to evenly fill the crusts with a machine. After pouring the crusts with the filling, they come under the heating plate. Then a pattern is applied to them.
Chocolate from the pattern slowly flows to the heated edges of the crust. The template is removed, the cleaning machine frees the template from adhering chocolate mass.
Forms with crusts covered with lids, vibrate slightly; this removes air from them. The molds then enter the cooling cabinet. After this, products can be delivered to the packaging.
Recently, for the preparation of products without sugar crust began to apply special installation that allows you to impose a bottom on the crust without transplanting into another form. These plants work by the method of not smearing, but spraying (spraying). In a closed cabinet, a thin film of chocolate is applied to the liquid alcohol-containing filling. The film should be cooled, and then reheated, and the heating should be done very carefully; after that the usual machine is poured bottom.
This method can significantly increase productivity. The method of spraying requires more improvements and the installation of appropriate equipment in enterprises.
When cooking liqueur eggs, bottles and similar products, in which the crust consists of two halves, you cannot use the usual methods of working on installations for cast products or products without sugar crust. However, before applying the bottoms to crusts, the process of making both types of products is the same.
Halves crusts knocked vybivalnoy machine and stick together. This occurs at the heated rotating disk. These discs must be heated to such a temperature, that at the instant you touch them tap crust melted. When gluing by slightly Imported, halves so the edges that they exactly match. If this condition is violated, it may easily happen that the filling is expelled.
Svezheskleennye crust passed through a cooling rack, where molten chocolate mass is solidified. After cooling, the hollow bodies arrive at the machine conveyor belt to fill stuffing. Bor drills crusted hole through which the filling is poured, then the hole is closed again weight.
A very thin chocolate mass is used for closing, so that the applied drop is not large and spreads nicely over the surface of the crust. Filled and closed products are removed from the holders and conveyor belt served in a cooling cabinet. It controls whether the product is well closed. It is advisable after cooling to make the packaging of hollow products to avoid re-transport.
If you want to make products with fruit on this machine. instead of filling, these fruits should be specially prepared. In this case, use thick slices of candied fruit, which 2 — 3 of the day before were kept in sugar and in wine.
Alcoholized berries and fruits processed in sugar syrup can also be used. Fruits are well soaked in sugar syrup. However, this method is not without drawback: it is not always possible to carefully put a bottom on the fruit.
As an example, the processing of cherries. 190 kg of well-washed berries are poured 75 liters of alcohol, 35 liters of red wine, 90 liters of cherry juice and 10 liters of griotte extract. To improve the taste, they insist several days in 1 l of 25 alcohol and g of wormwood tea, 25 g of cinnamon and 10 2 blunt cloves. The resulting infusion is filtered and added to cherries. To obtain good taste, cherries are left in this alcohol solution for at least 1 a month.
The same method can be processed and strawberries (strawberries).
Special items. Special products are products made using a special method. They go on sale as a special grade or as mixtures. They are not always in demand among wide circles of buyers.
If you take, for example, ginger sticks, which have recently begun to produce, they are in low demand. However, they should not be excluded from the range. To special
products include ginger sticks, tangerine sticks * dates, stuffed, sprinkled with truffles, dessert varieties.
Multilayer sweets are varied flavor substances contained in them, but none of them shall not prevail. The exception is candy *
having a specific taste direction: orange, pineapple, nuts.
Sweets are prepared using various casting methods:
1) in powder,
2) in the winepress,
3) on installations for the casting of chocolates.
 1.Prigotovlenie multilayer candy casting powder produced in such a way that they included two toppings.
As an example, a creamy mass with 13% of marzipan. To improve the taste of vanilla is added to the cream. Chocolates are made from specially treated chopped tangerine peel, nuts and nougat truffle or mass. Thus prepared sweets glazed enclosure on the machine.
 2. The candies prepared on a squeezing press consist of layers laid one on another, each of which has the taste.
Separate layers overlap one another, and in order for them to stick tightly, they are covered with a mixture of molasses, sugar and water. In order to avoid fermentation, the mixture must be prepared every day fresh.
layering method is as follows:
  1.  marzipan layer consisting of 60% marzipan mass and caster sugar 40%;
  2.  orehovogo marzipan layer;
  3.  a layer of strawberry jelly:
  4.  orehovogo marzipan layer:
  5. teat sloj.
The layers are placed one on the other and, after vystoyka, are cut into a special cutting machine. This is followed by glazing and finishing.
Multi-layered candies can be made on chocolate casting machines. Forms should be chosen so that at least three fillings can be poured into the crust. If this is not possible, then the resulting product can not be considered a multi-layered candy. When cooking sweets by this method, it is best to use egg-shaped forms. When working with such forms in one crust can fill up to four different fillings. When investing fruit continuous process is broken, as it is done manually. Candies cooked on the set can have the following composition:
1-i - preliminary - casting: “semi-liquid marzipan cream;
I 2-casting: chopped raisins in rum;
3-January cast: tryufelynaya Massa or nougat.
The same method can be used to make candy with a wafer crust instead of chocolate. It should be borne in mind that waffles attract moisture from the filling. In no case can you use a semi-liquid cream filling for such candies, since there is a lot of moisture in it, fatty fillings are best suited for them. In this case. It is also possible to use different flavor combinations. Shells glazed on the machine, and then get rid of.
ginger sticks made from ginger in a thick sugar syrup. To remove excess sugar syrup, ginger is placed on a sieve, and the syrup drains. The ginger is then cut into 4 cm long and 3 cm wide slices, which are dried for 12 hours, and then glazed with chocolate. The waste obtained from chopsticks is finely crushed and added to cream hulls. Sometimes ginger sticks are covered with fondant icing before chocolate glazing.
tangerine sticks prepared the same way as ginger.
Dates stuffed. Pre-sorted dates are incised and bones are removed from them. The empty space is filled with marzipan mass, which is prepared from 40 kg of ground sugar, 40 kg of marzipan mass and 20 kg of finely chopped hazel. Started dates are laid on a lattice and soaked with Jamaican rum.
After the stack of extra rum, glazed figs.
The glaze used should have a pronounced bitter taste, as the dates are very sweet. Dates can be glazed with conched cocoa mass.
Almond and walnut products. In the preparation of these products, roasted and finely chopped nuts or almonds are mixed with glaze in the ratio 1: 1, and then tempered. The resulting mass is deposited with two forks for glazing on paper in small quantities and put in a cooling cabinet. It is best to prepare such products on special trays with grooves. The mass is smeared on the grooves. Then, with a special metal scraper, the pieces of mass are pushed onto the belt of the enrobing machine. When working manually, the products are lightly molded and then sent to the cooling cabinet of the enrobing machine.
Posыpannыe TRUFFLE. The truffle mass used to make the hulls is molded on a pressing press. The harnesses are processed on a roller machine into balls. After a brief drying of the shell, covered with a thin layer of chocolate icing, they are placed in a coating pan, where they are sprinkled with glittering chocolate chips. Products are removed from the coating pan with a grating trowel and cooled.
Dessert capsules They are prepared in the same manner as the chocolate capsule apparatus with a centrifuge. Capsules foil laid on special trays filled with chocolate and weight machine, and more often by hand. Then capsules are placed on the screen and at times overturned. Excess chocolate gently centrifuge.
After cooling, the capsules are filled with filling and closed at the bottom, like ordinary chocolate products. Aluminum capsules can be successfully filled with truffle mass or nougat without chocolate crust. At the same time, nougat or truffle mass should have a certain consistency necessary for the free separation of the mass from the capsule during consumption. The product should not be deformed.

[I] According to the conditions in force in the USSR, the addition of bitter almonds should not exceed 5%. Ed.
[II] Annual report of the Central Laboratory of the confectionery industry. Saalfeld, 1954.—Ed.

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