Candy and toffee - a pastry mostly soft consistency, manufactured on the basis of sugar. The range of these products is very diverse; it includes the following main groups of products:
- candy coated chocolate frosting with fondant, fudge, dairy, fruit and jelly, liqueur, scrambled, praline nut on the base and other buildings; wherein the candy body may be prepared from one or more masses, sometimes interstratified wafers;
- Uncoated milk candy, fondant, pomadnozheleynye two- and three-layer, praline-type bars and so forth;
- Iris (cream, milk), hard - tirage partially crystallized mass and semi-solid - cast amorphous structure.
The main raw materials and semi-finished goods for the production of chocolates and toffee are sugar, syrup, condensed milk, fruit and berry harvesting, nuts and other zhirsoderzhaschie core.
Production of candy consists essentially of the following steps: preparing a mass of candy, candy shells forming, glazing buildings, packing and wrapping.
There are the following ways of forming corps of candy and toffee:
- casting liquid candy mass in cell form of corn starch followed vystoykoy molded housings of sweets in these forms;
- production of single- or multilayer thick layers of various confectionery mass by smearing or rolling, followed by formation vystoykoy and cutting into individual articles of sweets or housing;
- pressing off candy mainly fatty praline mass through the holes in the matrix form of continuous bundles of round or rectangular cross section, followed by cooling and cutting bundles into individual articles or for enrobing housing;
- lane depositors through hole matrices to obtain various candy shapes or spherical dome;
- Gladden continuous tow stretching mass, rolling it in the grooved rollers to obtain a rectangular section and cutting into individual products.
Depending on the desired range, the accepted technology, power and the degree of mechanization of the enterprises in the confectionary factories can be set following types of flow production lines of chocolates and toffee:
- for the production of tidal glazed candies - mechanized production lines with rapid vystoykoy shells and automatic or semi-automatic wrapping of chocolates;
- for the production of multi-layer candy - mechanized production lines with a roller forming mechanism or polumehanizirovannye line with blurred carriages;
- for the production of praline - mechanized or polumehanizirovannye line with the molding mass pressing off;
- for the production of iris - mechanized production line wrapped toffee on the unit for the continuous boiling and cooling toffee mass.
Along with this also applies to a variety of equipment polumehanizirovannogo production of some kinds of sweets, including dessert varieties. For example, for the manufacture dome-shaped sweets such as truffles used SHOCK unit designed factory "Red October" and VNIIKP for jigging sweets like "fudge" in the factory "Red October" is designed jig Shom.
The computer-hardware circuits production of chocolates and toffee
The mechanized production line production tidal glazed candies with automatic wrapping. Line (Fig. 5.1) is intended for the production and automatic wrapping tidal glazed candies with fondant, pomadnomolochnymi, fruktovozheleynymi and other buildings.
Fig. 5.l. The computer-hardware circuits mechanized flow production line tidal glazed candies with automatic wrapping
On the line are carried out the processes of mechanized preparation of various candy mass, molding casting candy shells in starch, accelerated vystoyki molded housings of chocolates in a stream, clearing them from the starch enrobing chocolate or fatty icing, automatic wrapping of glazed sweets in a stream of mechanized collection and transporting of wrapped candies, automatic weighing and packing them in retail packaging.
The line includes a universal station for making candy mass, Finish installing semiautomatic rapid vystoyki buildings, coating unit and unit automatic wrapping and packaging of sweets.
The components necessary for the preparation of various candy mass: syrup, glucose syrup, condensed milk, fruktovoyagodnoe puree - served by pipelines in supplies 1 tanks. Plunger dosing pumps 2 components are pumped into the mixer sectional 3. A mixture of components in the form of a syrup mixer 4 plunger pump is supplied to a coil in the boiling apparatus (column) 5. Here the syrup is boiled to 8-12% humidity.
In the preparation of fondant and other knocked-down masses, the syrup, after boiling, comes through the steam separator 6 to the 7 scoring machine, from which the whipped mass enters the intermediate collector 8, and then the 9 pump is pumped to 11 prescription tempering machines with a stirrer. Here, the flavoring, coloring and aroma additives provided by the recipe are introduced into the mass, the temperature is brought to 68-75 ° C. Then the mass of the pump 12 is pumped to the receiving hopper of the 13 semi-automatic confectioner semi-automatic machine (in the preparation of the fruit-and-fat masses the latter are fed through the second steam separator 10, past the scraping machine, to the 11 prescription tempering machines).
Konfetootlivochny semi integrated into the unit with the installation of 14 for continuous rapid vystoyki molded housings and sweets associated with it intermediate chain conveyors. Konfetootlivochny performs semi-automatic filling trays cornstarch, it vyshtampovyvaniya cells corresponding shaped hulls candy, candy casting mass in the cell using a funnel beneath the piston dosing system nasosik and cleaning hulls of sweets from the starch after vystoyki.
Trays with cast housings sweets are served by an intermediate chain conveyor to the plant accelerated vystoyki 14, through which pass within 38 minutes in a stream of cooled to 6-10 ° C air -. First on a vertical shaft up, then the other down (see Figure movement direction of the arrow) and at the end of the cycle vystoyki back with hardened hulls in the casting of the semi-automatic loading. Here candy shell cleaned from starch system of sieves and brushes.
Peeled starch candy shell are then transmitted on the draw-in hopper conveyor 15 samorasklada 16 17 of the coating unit. Transporter 15 closed wooden box, which provides additional cooling air of the same temperature, resulting in a candy shell are cooled before serving glazing to 22-25 ° C.
For unglazed varieties of sweets provided the opportunity to transfer to wrapping buildings, passing a coating unit.
During the passage through the coating unit 17 chocolates are covered with a layer of chocolate glaze, which freezes when the candies pass through the cooling chamber of the unit, where the air cooling mode is maintained within 8-10 ° C. From the conveyor of the cooling chamber, the glazed sweets are transferred to the belt of the intermediate conveyor 18, and from it to the 19 vibrating distributor. Entering the vibrator distributor randomly from the 18-22 series, the candies emerge from it clearly regrouped in half or three times the number of rows - according to the number of in-line automatic machines with belt feeders. Then, through the system of 20 tape conveyor belts (mounted also according to the number of automatic machines installed in the line) and rotary-tapping devices, candies are transferred to 22 belt feeders 21.
Wrapped candies are removed from the wrapping machine transverse conveyors 23 on horizontal conveyor finished product 24. Then, intermediate scraper conveyor 25 candy fed to automatic scales 26 and further packing in corrugated boxes. Sealing valve boxes 27 and pasting their parcel is carried out on the set at the end of the line kraftliner machine 28.
In the case of stopping individual vending machines during operation for some reason or overloading (jams) of feeders, the photoelectric blocking devices installed on tape feeders of automatic devices operate, by means of which a flap is automatically opened on the rotary-tap device for the exit of unfinished sweets. In this case, without stopping the work of the line, the unfinished sweets through an inclined tray are diverted from the machine by a part of the conveyor 24 separated by a partition at the end of the line to a two-channel vibro-distributor and two automatic vending machines with bypass devices. Bypass devices further, after wrapping, these products are introduced into the total flow, providing them also for weighing and packaging.
The introduction of such lines provided for the first time in the practice of confectionery manufacture complex mechanization of the process of production of chocolates; reduction in the duration of the technological cycle in 7-10 times through accelerated vystoyke shells and automatic wrapping chocolates in the stream; reduction in production areas needs 1,5-2 times; increase in labor productivity in 1,5 times; a sharp reduction in the loss of the main raw materials; reducing the return onmoves, flow release paper, forming a starch; significant reduction (more than 10 times) number of trays; complete elimination of intermediate packaging; facilitation of working conditions and a sharp improvement in sanitary conditions of production, as the work is carried out on the line almost without touching the hands of the attendants to the product.
|Main technical data lines|
|Productivity, kg / h||From 700 1000 up|
|The number of installed lines inzavertochautomata (including stand)at sheaReena of the coating unit|
|Total motor powerequiption line, kW||Until 60|
The mechanized production line manufacturing multilayered unglazed candies with a roller forming mechanism. Multilayer (2- or 3-ply) candy made primarily of fondant confectionery mass without frosting candy shells.
The line includes a section for preparation of raw retsepturnosmesitelnuyu station for making fondant candy mass on the basis of; equipment for forming laminated layer; receiving from the formation of chocolates, they vystoyki, wrapping and packing products wrapped in cardboard boxes.
Sugar from bags loaded into the hopper of the elevator 4 (Fig. 5.2), which is served on 5 sifter for removal of impurities and coarse particles. Passing by the magnets, sugar is cleared of metal impurities. Sieved sugar goes into a hopper, and from there through a gutter - in drum dispenser 6 the syrup station.
The dispenser consists of a hopper, the bottom of which is a rotating stainless steel drum, and in the hopper on the one hand there is a slit valve. Raising or lowering the valve to regulate the height of the slit, and hence the performance of the dispenser.
In a mixer, and the solvent 8 using dvuhplunzhernogo metering pump 1 250 type NA-dosed hot water from the tank 7, 3 syrup reservoir or invert syrup tank 2. Plunger pump type ANV 9-120 solution is supplied in coils 10 cooking column. Here it is boiled to 23-25% humidity.
The steam trap 11 separated vapors. The syrup comes in a collection of 12, and from there through the filter stakanchaty 13 14 pump is supplied to the production, including in one of the sections of the three-section 15-collection tank. The other two its sections served syrup and puree. level components in each section is automatically maintained within predetermined limits by means of level sensors ESG.
Plunger dosing pumps type M-16 193 17 components are dosed in a continuous mixer. After thorough stirring, the mixture continuously plunger pump type M-18 193 served on boiling in a cooking column
Fig. 5.2. The computer-hardware circuits mechanized production line manufacturing multilayered unglazed candies with a roller forming mechanism
19. Passing through the coils, the mixture is boiled in them to humidity 10-12%
The steam trap 20 removed vapors and boiled syrup enters the hopper of the machine for whipping fondant 21. Ready lipstick temperature 65-70 ° C gravity fed into 22 tank located under the body of the machine for whipping lipstick. The inner surface of the tank is made of stainless steel. On its bottom set auger, which feeds a gear pump lipstick 23.
This pump through pipes having a steam jacket type "pipe in pipe" lipstick is applied to two mixers 24 and 26 650 and 300 capacity hp 2-shaped blades.
Two mixer installed in-line to prepare a two- or three-layer candy. Prescription number of lipstick and grated nuts is measured by weight. Alcohol, wine, essences are loaded last. Then all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed within 10-20 minutes. Performance of the finished weight of the following: humidity 9-11%, invert sugar content 5-8%, temperature 60-72 ° C.
After thorough mixing, the mass 24 mixer body is tilted and the mass flows into the receptacle with a screw and a heated enclosure. Screw pumps to pump mass 25 18,5-type SHNK, feed it through pipelines to the receiving hopper of the first and third form 30 mechanisms.
Similarly, the weight of the mixer 26 27 into the tank with a screw, is injected into the inclined and horizontal 28 29 augers and fed them into the funnel of the second form of the mechanism.
Forming an infinite reservoir of candy on a moving conveyor belt carried a roller forming mechanism having two smooth counter-rotating rolls to each other. 500 mm roll length, 212 mm diameter, average speed 4,5 / min. Rolls, hollow inside, cooled brine temperature - 7- 10 ° C. The temperature coming down from the rolls of candy layer 45-55 ° C.
To synchronize the belt speed and roll each mechanism has a speed variator.
The layer thickness determined by the width of the gap between the rolls, which can be adjusted with a special device. The total thickness of the two- or three-layer formation about 12 mm.
To remove the reservoir from the bottom two rolls of steel plate installed - knives, Teflon-coated sheet. When driving the conveyor belt 32 layers superimposed on one another to form a two- or three-layer formation. Additional cooling layer between the forming mechanisms no. After forming a layer passes under the roller, faced with Teflon, with the leveling of the surface and the connection of the individual layers of the reservoir.
Moving along with the conveyor belt, candy layer enters the cooling chamber 31, which is located inside the air cooler with brine ribbed panels. Plast is located in a chamber around 7 minutes. Reservoir temperature before cutting 32-40 ° C.
After formation chamber is supplied to a cutting machine 33 continuous. For slitting disk blades mounted for transverse - guillotine knife, in a complicated movement. Plast is cut into a number 22 20 mm wide on each hull candy - 38 mm, height - 12 mm.
Candy after cutting machine are placed on the hard sheets of cardboard, which are fed individually by hand from 34 stack into the gap between the conveyor cutting machine and conveyor 35. This conveyor plates with sweets served on a circular conveyor 36, designed for smooth rotation of the sheets at an angle 90 °, if the length of the room does not allow to place all in a straight line.
Next, the flow of candy on the sheets supplied to the three-tiered belt conveyor for continuous 40 vystoyki. Sheets of candy from the upper tier to the lower transmitted via 39 mechanism.
During the movement the two upper tiers candy continuously blown air temperature 18-25 ° C through a slit duct located along the entire length of the conveyor belt or the side of it. Shells are cooled on the lower tier of the conveyor vystoyki by blasting them through a gap cooled air. Duration of blowing and cooling of about 24-25 minutes. body temperature after cooling vystoyki and about 24-26 ° C.
From the lower tier 41 inclined conveyor and 37 horizontal conveyor, sheets with sweets come to the 38 wrapping machines. The typists of the winding machines manually remove sheets of sweets from the conveyor and place them on the table of the machine. The wrapped sweets with 42, 43 and 44 transports are fed to the 45 automatic scale. Here there is a portioning automatic weighing and filling of candies into corrugated cardboard boxes, which are conveyed by the 46 transporter to the 47 machine for gluing them with gummed tape. The glued boxes on the trolleys enter the factory's expedition.
The above production line developed by the Leningrad confectionery factory them. Krupskaya, together with VNIIKP and other organizations. For the first time developed a factory-tier system for accelerated vystoyki chopped candy shells on the sheets has decided to issue the full mechanization of the multilayer candy production.
The line is 1,2-1,4 t / h. The total length of conveyors vystoyki about 130 m.
The mechanized production line production of praline with molding mass pressing off. This line is intended for the production of chocolates and candy bars, manufactured from fatty praline mass, preferably on the basis of the nut. On the line are carried out cooking processes praline candy mass, pressing off the molding blanks or shells candy bars (in the form of tows or strips of circular or rectangular cross section, respectively) in the cooling flow molded bundles cutting
them into individual bars or chocolates housing, enrobing with chocolate (in the manufacture of iced chocolates), transporting the articles to wrapping machines, wrapping and packaging in a commercial container. When this wrapping products in this line may be semiautomatic or automatic.
The main equipment lines are forming machines praline candy shells and bars pressing off: screw press, forming mechanism with a roller or a gear supercharger or small scale production polumehanizirovannogo - screw press MFB-1. In addition, in the line could include equipment for making praline masses, including a primary processing zhirsoderzhaschih nuclei sorting machine, roaster drum melanzher, rolling, mixers and other equipment, described in sections I-III. With the release of glazed sweets with praline shells in the line could include enrobing machine.
On the production line to produce enrobed candy praline body of mass (Fig. 5.Z) produced sweets such as "squirrel", "mask", "Kara-Kum" and other public varieties.
Finished walnut weight (praline) is loaded into 1 funnel equipped with a paddle worm shaft, through which the mass otminaetsya, is heated and is in a condition suitable for molding. A pipeline 2 (metal or rubber band) mass is fed into the molding machine 3. As the molding machine can be used SHVF press-22, SHGF-22 Vovnopriadylna or with a corresponding number of output holes in the matrix (from 5 to 22). The number of openings is regulated by the width of the coating web-winding machine (with a width
web 800 mm - 22 harness; mm width at 620-18 tows and so on. d.).
From the forming machine praline mass is extruded onto the tape 4 receiving conveyor in the form of continuous tows, which enter into the cooling cabinet 5. The cabinet disposed cooling panels and ventilators, supporting air circulation temperature 6-8 ° C. Typically, cooling fans and batteries are installed under the belt of the receiving conveyor.
Bundles cool down in the cooling cupboard and exit from it are divided into the body by the guillotine knife on a cutting machine 6. The knife makes a reciprocating motion in vertical and horizontal planes. Change the course of a knife, you can change the length of the cut hulls candy. Usually the body has cross-sectional dimensions 18x10 mm and 38-40 mm length.
Housings sweets fed to intermediate (fold) 7 conveyor and then enrober 8, which are covered by the chocolate mass. For solidification of the chocolate shell candy conveyor 9 fed into the cooling cabinet 10, 5 similar cooling cabinet.
The cooled finished products from the 10 cabinet are fed to the 11 conveyor, above which the 12 series tape converters are located. The converter is an endless belt driven by a pulley with a vertical axis of rotation. Several rows of sweets moving on the conveyor belt 11 and approaching the belt of the 12 transducer are aligned along it in a single row and fed to the individual 13 tape feeder, which feeds them to the 14 wrapping machine. Depending on the productivity of the forming and coating machines, as well as the performance of the vending machines, they are installed 9-12 pcs. This number corresponds to the number of row converters. The wrapped products with 15 narrow conveyors are transferred to the 17 assembly conveyor and then weighed and packed into cardboard boxes (see figure 5.1, item 25-28).
Main technical data lines
|The line capacity, kg / h||900|
Tape width for receiving and cooling bundles mm
Number zavertočnyh machine-EU or EU-5 7, no.
|The length of the production line, mm (without loading the tape)||78 500|
|The width of the production line, mm||3 300|
If any machine is overloaded or blocked, candy conveyor 11 16 dumped onto a conveyor, at the end of which they are collected in trays and then transferred to the detached Wrapping machines equipped with individual feeders.