The following machines are used to form the caramel from the tow:
chain caramel-raising - for molding caramel type "pads";
chain caramel stamping - for forming caramel in the form of a ball, oval, elongated-oval, flat-oval (“brick”) and other figured caramel;
chain caramel forming - for forming figured caramel;
roll carameleforming - for the same caramel;
rotary caramel forming - for forming various figured caramel and tablets;
monpanse moldings (rolls) - for forming figured drops and other candy products (“Orange slices”, “Peas”, “Almonds”, figurines on sticks, etc.);
forming-wrapping - for molding and wrapping of candy caramel and toffee.
Chain caramel-growing and caramel-stamping machines, etc., are the most widely used in confectionery factories.
Scheme calibration of the harness and molding of caramel on a chain forming machine is shown in Fig. 5.11.
A caramel harness consisting of an 1 shell and an 2 filling (or no filling), passing the last pair of 3 rollers using a braidmachine (level drums or calibrating rollers),
Fig. 5.11. Scheme calibration of the harness and the formation of caramel on a chain forming machine
enters the space between two special chains: the upper 6 and the lower 13. Chains are driven by 8 and 12 asterisks and bend around 4 and 16 guide rollers. Chains are equipped with 5 and 15 knives plates. The distance between adjacent knives of one chain corresponds to one of the sizes of caramel
When bending around the 4 and 16 rollers, the upper and lower chains in region I converge along the 7 and 14 guides. Chain knives squeeze the caramel harness and form the product. In section II, the chains move without changing the position of one relative to the other. On this site the form is fixed. In section III, the knives of the chains diverge, and finished 10 products, connected with 9 jumpers, are fed to the 11 discharge conveyor belt. If it is necessary to put a drawing on the product, then pounsons are installed on the upper chain - dies moving in a plane perpendicular to the movement of the chains.
The chain caramel-cutting machine LRM (fig. 5.12) is intended for forming caramel with a filling in the form of a small “pads” (open varieties) and an elongated “pads”, “vanes” (wrapped varieties) by cutting the caramel harness into individual products using interchangeable caramel cutting chains . As the working bodies of the machine has a set of caramel chains (top and bottom).
Two 11 sprockets (lower and upper) are mounted on the two 10 racks, and the 3 guide rollers, along which the 6 forward-stretch chains move, are mounted on the 4 racks. The caramel harness, continuously fed by the harness, is tucked through the 5 bushing into the gap between the blades of the blades. The chains gradually come closer and the plates of the knives pinch the caramel tow to individual products in the form of a convex "pads". When caramel is formed by caramel chains with pads between knives, which at the approach of chains simultaneously cut and squeeze the harness, it turns out caramel in the form of an elongated "cushion" and "paddle". The size of the caramel is determined by the diameter of the harness and the distance between the knives (chain pitch).
The approach of the knives of the cutting chains is adjusted with 7 screws. They move the 8 polos, which serve as guides for the chains. Chains are tensioned by moving the 3 strut using the 1 knob and the 2 screw after first loosening the bolts securing the 3 strut. Molded hard candies flow through the 15 tray onto the narrow cooling conveyor 18. When molded between caramels, thin bridges 1 ... 2 mm thick remain, thanks to which the molded caramel in the form of a chain moves along a narrow cooling conveyor.
Fig. 5.12. Chain caramel-growing machine LRM
The lower drive sprocket is driven by the 20 electric motor, belt drives, 14 pulley, and 13 horizontal shaft. From the 13 shaft, the upper drive sprocket receives a rotational motion through the 12 gear pair, and the 16 drum of the 19 cooling conveyor receives the 18 drum through the 17 chain drive. The upper conveyor belt is covered with an XNUMX cover, into which cold air is forced.
The upper drive sprocket 10 has an 9 adjusting device, which is necessary when installing a set of chains to match the cutting edges of the knives of the upper and lower chains. After turning and matching edges, the position of the sprocket is rigidly fixed with screws.
The chain caramel stamping machine W-3 (fig. 5.13) is intended for stamping shaped caramel of various shapes and sizes with or without a filling using interchangeable tools - caramel stamping chains.
Fig. 5.13. Chain Caramel stamping machine W-3
The machine consists of a bed, a system of sprockets and rollers, devices for moving punches of punching chains, control mechanisms and a drive.
On sprockets and rollers set stamping and side chains. The top punch chain 16 is mounted on the 17 drive sprocket, the 12 tension wheel, and the idler roller (covered by the 9 railing). The 22 sprocket and support roller are provided for mounting the 23 bottom punching chain, and the 15 sprocket and support rollers for side chains. The brackets secure the drive drum 24 of the narrow cooling conveyor, which is driven by the 21 chain transmission. The 8 guide bushing is designed to feed the caramel harness to the machine.
The drive sprockets and 24 drive drum are driven by the 2 electric motor via the 4 belt drive, 3 gearbox, chain drive and 18, 19 gear system. The gearbox provides four-speed angular speeds for sprockets and a drum. The 7 gearbox handles are extended to the outside of the machine 1 base. The moving parts are located inside the frame or are covered with 20 fences, including the top cover 9, when opened, the motor automatically turns off.
The main working parts of the machine are replaceable stamping 16, 22 and side 25 chains. The first ones are used to form caramel, the second ones - to drive the punches of the punching chains by pressing the ends of their shanks. The tension of the punching chains is achieved during installation by moving the pillars on which the guide rollers are fixed, using a flywheel. A smoother tension of the upper chain is produced by a ratchet device equipped with a 13 locking pawl and a 14 ratchet wheel mounted on the 10 shaft. The 12 tensioning pulley with the 16 chain is lifted by rotating the 10 gear shaft in the 11 rack with pinion. The side chains are tensioned by moving the 26 front pillar, on which the asterisks of the 25 side chains are attached. The size of the gap between the upper and lower punching chains is controlled by rotating the 6 gear pairs, which are connected to eccentrics, which press the polos to the inner surfaces of the chains. The approach of the punches is controlled by turning the 5 handwheel.
The calibrated caramel harness is continuously fed from the harness by the machine into the gap between the upper and lower chains. When approaching them, the cutting knives of the upper and lower chains divide the harness into blanks, and then the converging punches of the upper chain begin to compress them. The internal surfaces of the chains and the grooved figured surfaces of the punches squeeze the workpiece from all sides, as a result of which it acquires the shape and design of the finished product. After that chains and punches are divorced and the products are sent to a narrow cooling conveyor. The molding process takes place continuously. Molded harness goes in the form of a chain of finished products, connected by jumpers.
Stamping chains differ in the form of punches (dies): elongated-oval, "ball" or "brick", as well as in the sizes of moldable caramel, which depends on the step size
The disadvantage of the described caramel forming machines is the rapid wear of the working parts of the chains.
Productivity of chain caramel forming machines
where v is the linear speed of the forming chains, m / min; c - machine utilization factor; k - the amount of caramel in 1 kg,
Equipment for cooling and finishing caramel products.
The equipment for cooling caramel products include:
open narrow belt conveyors for pre-cooling the molded caramel chain;
open inertia conveyors for finished cooling
Equipment for the finishing of open varieties of caramel and dragee include coating pan for glossing and sprinkling.
An open narrow belt conveyor is designed to pre-cool the caramel to form a thin outer crust on it, preventing the products from deforming with further cooling, and sufficient cooling of thin bridges between the products to facilitate their separation when entering the main cooling conveyor. An open narrow cooling conveyor at the same time serves to transfer the molded products to the main cooling conveyor. These conveyors are usually manufactured by on-site factories.
The conveyor has a rubberized or cloth belt up to 100 mm wide. The length of the conveyor must be within 12 ... 16 m. The driving and driven drums and the tensioning device of the conveyor should be mounted on a light metal frame. The conveyor is closed box, which serves cooling air. The drive is usually carried out from the drive of the caramel-forming machine, and the speed of the conveyor must be equal to the speed of movement of the caramel chain leaving the forming machine.
Open inertial conveyors serve for the final cooling of the caramel, which comes after molding from a narrow cooling conveyor. Used mainly in semi-mechanized production for cooling candy caramel.
The conveyor is a tray of stainless steel or other metal tilted slightly to the side of the product, mounted on inclined spring posts (or roller bearings). Along the edges of the tray on its surface make holes for screening caramel chips. At the output end of the conveyor set regulating valve. Open cooling conveyors usually have a length of 10 ... 15 m and a width of 600..800 mm
The surface of the open inertial conveyor, along which the caramel moves in one layer, is continuously blown by cooling air supplied from the air ducts with adjustable
Fig. 5.14. Cooling unit AOK-2: a - general view; b - cooling chamber
my dampers. The optimum cooling air temperature is 16 ... 18 ° C.
The total consumption of cooling air with this method of cooling 6000 ... 9000 m 3 / h.
The disadvantages of such conveyors are considerable length, spraying crumbs in the shop, inefficient use of cooling air. Therefore, when creating production lines, more compact and productive closed cooling conveyors and units were developed.
In fig. 5.14 is represented by a closed mesh conveyor as part of the AOK-2 cooling unit, which is a compact single-tiered structure, which is designed for cooling in mechanized and semi-mechanized production lines of any varieties of caramel with and without filling. In the unit, a combined (convective-radiation) heat removal occurs, accelerating the process of cooling caramel products.
The AOK-2 unit consists (see Fig. 5.14, a) of the 1 feeder for feeding caramel from the narrow cooling conveyor to the 3 mesh conveyor of the 2 cooling chamber, the unloading vibrating channel 4
for the selection of chilled caramel, 5 drive and air cooler.
The cooling chamber of the unit (see fig. 5.14, b) is a steel frame / inside of which the 2 mesh conveyor passes and two autonomous cooling and air transport systems are installed. The cooling system consists of the 9 air cooler, the 10 fan, the 3 air duct and the 4 junction box.
Hot caramel enters the mesh conveyor and moves under the distribution box. Cold air flows from the box through the 6 slots, which cools the caramel and is sent for re-cooling. In addition, the 5 surfaces of the junction box facing the cooled caramel are painted black, which leads to their absorption of the heat radiated by the caramel. From heated surfaces, heat is drawn off by air.
During operation of the cooling unit, regularly check the condition, thorough cleaning of the trays and the mesh conveyor from caramel residues and filling, thermal insulation and tightness of the cooling cabinet. The design of the unit provides for complete recirculation of cold air and ensures reliable operation of the unit regardless of seasonal and meteorological conditions. Heat and moisture penetrating inside the unit (if the cabinet is not tightly closed) increase the thermal load on the refrigeration equipment, causing the grid to get wet
When the unit is started, the brine (or freon) supply valves are opened, the fans are turned on, and the temperature of the cooling air is controlled by varying the brine pressure. Then include a feeder, mesh conveyor and diverting vibratory channel. After that, a shaped caramel chain is supplied from a narrow cooling conveyor.
During the operation of the unit, the temperature of the cooling air 0 ... 3 ° С and its relative humidity not higher than 60% are maintained. The temperature of the brine in the air cooler from -12 to -15 ° C, pressure 0,5 ... 0,6 MPa. They constantly monitor the correct placement of the caramel chain on the grid, regulate the number of oscillations of the feeder trays depending on the linear speed of the forming chain, control the cooling mode of the caramel. The temperature of the shell of the molded caramel entering the unit after a narrow conveyor should be within 65 ... 70 ° С, and cooled in the unit - not higher than 40 ... 45 ° С.
At the end of the work at the end of the shift, without turning off the cooling equipment, clean the surfaces of the trays and conveyor grids from caramel residues and filling, rinse them thoroughly with warm water with a brush and dry. Mesh washed at its exit to the outside, in the area of the drive drum, gradually turning the drive of the mesh conveyor. Wash water divert to the drain.
Due to the high speed of the air flow in the unit, ablation and spraying of moisture are possible, therefore, water should be immediately removed through the ladders, and the unit should be thoroughly dried after washing.
The cooling equipment of the units must be regularly shut down to allow the snow coat to come down from the air coolers, to clean and dry the chambers. When defrosting, moisture is collected in 8 pallets and drained through the 7 nozzle. In addition, dust and dirt from the surfaces of air coolers and radiation panels should be periodically removed.
The outer surfaces of the nodes in contact with the brine (or freon) have a temperature at which the condensation of air moisture occurs, so they must be covered with thermal insulation.
The batch pan DR-5М (fig. 5.15) of periodic operation with manual loading and unloading consists of the 7 boiler, the 5 base and the drive mechanism.
The boiler has a spherical shape, made of sheet steel. The bed is cast, pig-iron, consists of two parts. In the upper part of the bed are the boiler and the main shaft 3 with a worm pair 4. The electric motor is mounted on a bracket. Broadcast
Figure 5.15. Drazhirovochny boiler DR-5M
Movement of the boiler is carried out from the electric motor through the coupling and the worm pair 4. The 2 handle is provided for starting and stopping the boiler.