Classification packaging methods, processes and equipment for packaging

Wrapping, packing and packaging of confectionery products are made in order to protect them from moisture, foreign odors, mechanical damage, to ensure sanitary requirements for products and more long-term storage, as well as to give the products an attractive appearance.

Packing and packaging of a number of varieties of confectionery products in packs and boxes are also made for the convenience of selling these products in the trading network.

The wrapping and packaging of confectionery products (caramel, sweets, toffee, chocolate, cookies) at most modern confectionery enterprises of the Soviet Union are mechanized and carried out with the help of various equipment.

 Methods for packaging of confectionery and packing equipment

In the confectionery industry, various methods and types of mechanized wrapping and packaging of confectionery are used (Fig. 9. 1):

wrapping caramel, candy and toffee in a waxed roll label with a double-sided twist around the ends of the label is the most common method of wrapping (a);

wrapping caramel and sweets in a waxed roll label with a one-sided twist or in a bow - “sachet” (b);

wrapping caramel and sweets in a waxed roll label or a colorful flate label with embedding the ends of the label “in a corner” (c);

wrapping of toffee and caramel candy in a waxed wraparound label with a curved tail (g);

wrapping chocolates in foil without a parcel or wrapped in foil with pasting paper colorful parcel (b);

wrapping chocolate bars and other items in an envelope - in a colorful label with underlay and foil (e);

wrapping biscuits and wafers in the stack into a colorful label with parchment podvertkoy in cellophane or plastic films (x) \

wrapping (with pre-packing) caramel candy tablets in tubes (rollers) in a waxed roll and flat colorful label (h);

packing small-piece products (caramel, dragee) in cardboard packs from pre-printed and carved colorful blanks;

packing small-piece products (caramel, dragee, drops) in bags of thermally cellophane or various films (and);

packing fruit drops in tin boxes; cocoa powder packing into cardboard boxes with parchment inner bag and in cans.Types of wrapping and packaging of confectionery products

Fig. 9. 1. Types of wrapping and packaging of confectionery products

Wrapping materials can be rolled or flate — pre-cut individual colorful labels fed into the wrapping mechanism, usually vacuum suckers from a stack.

Used as wrapping materials: waxed paper of various density for

roll labels and wraps, writing paper for flate labels, aluminum foil, cellophane, thermosetting cellophane, plastic films, cardboard, parchment and sub-parchment, used for inner bags or wrapping in packaging or packing fat-containing products, such as cocoa powder, cookies, etc.

The characteristics of the main wrapping materials used in the most common wrapping and packaging equipment are given below in the characteristics of the corresponding equipment.

Depending on the assortment of confectionery products and the above-listed methods of wrapping and packing, the confectionery industry uses a variety of equipment that can be reduced to the following main groups:

machines for wrapping caramels, chocolates and the iris, including:

a) semi-automatic machines and automatic machines for single-piece wrapping of caramel and sweets;

b) units for wrapping (with preforming) toffee and caramel candy;

c) machines for wrapping (with pre-laying) caramel tablets in tubes or rollers;

Semi-wrapping machines for chocolate bars and other chocolate products;

machines, semi-automatic and automatic machines for wrapping biscuits and wafers;

machines for filling and packaging of various small confectionery products (caramel, dragee, fruit drops).

Confectionery factories of the Soviet Union were equipped with wrapping machines for caramel and sweets manufactured by the Kharkov Tobacco Machinery Plant, iris-forming-wrapping units of the Kievprodmash plant, and filling machines of the Voronezh Machine-Building Plant named after A. Lenin, as well as cars derived from the GDR, Poland, England, France, Italy.

Processes wrapping and packaging of confectionery products

Wrapping confectionery products and the piece can be the group where multiple products are strictly oriented relative to each other.

When packing confectionery are arranged in a shell of packaging material randomly.

For piece wrap, products are packaged in one label; in the label and roll; in the label, foil and roll. Before wrapping the wrapper is applied to the product. The most common combinations are the following:

  1.  wrap is applied to the product;
  2.  wrapper supplied by the product;
  3.  wrap is applied to the side face;
  4.  wrapper is supplied from two sides of the product.

The packaging material is symmetrically or asymmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the article. In subsequent operations, the product is wrapped or fitted by.

The final operation of the wrapping process is to seal the ends of the wrapper. Consider the technological processes of individual wrapping products (with the sealing of the ends of the twist, in the corner, the type of "sachet" and others), group wrapping (unwrapped and pre-wrapped products) and packaging (in packs, bags, boxes) confectionery.

Wrapping with the sealing of the ends of the packaging material twist. The product is located asymmetrically (Fig. 9.2, a) under the packaging material. After wrapping the product from three sides (Fig. 9.2, b, c, d), a tube forms around the product. After that, the free ends of the packaging material are twisted one and a half turns (Fig. 9.2, e). To facilitate the deployment of the finished product, both ends of the packaging are twisted to one side. To deploy the product, just pull the ends of the wrapper.

Wrapping products with sealing the ends of the label "in the corner." The wrapper is located asymmetrically with respect to the product (Fig. 9.Z, a) and therefore, after wrapping the product around the perimeter (Fig. 9.Z, b, c), a strip of packaging material is not bent (Fig. 9.Z, d). Then the strip is rolled onto the side of the product (fig. 9.З, e). This is necessary to prevent spontaneous deployment of packaging material. Wrapping products with conductor end vperekrutku

Fig. 9.2. Wrapping products with conductor end vperekrutku

Next, form the free ends of the tube (Fig. 9.Z, f) and then alternately bend the corners (Fig. 9.Z, g, h.). The formed corners in order to avoid disclosure are pressed.

Wrapping products with sealing of the ends of the label with corners bent onto the base. The sequence of such a wrapping operation is shown in Fig. 9.4. The blank of the wrapper (Figure 9.4, a) is applied asymmetrically to the side edge of the product.Wrapping products with sealing ends "in the corner"

Fig. 9.3. Wrapping products with sealing ends "in the corner"

 Simultaneously with the wrapping of the wrapper around the faces (Fig. 9.4, b, z, d, e), the corners are formed along the ends. At first, the formed corners (Fig. 9.4, e) are arranged at an angle to the wide face, and then pressed against it (Fig. 9.4, g) and fixed in this position (Fig. 9.4, h). 9.4In order not to bend the corners, the product passes through the channel of the electric heater. From the effects of temperature paraffin wax is melted, which, when it cools, results in fixing the position of the corners.

Wrapping products with sealing the ends of the label according to the "sachet" method. 9.5Fig. 9.5 shows a flow diagram of the wrapping process.

First, the product is applied asymmetrically wrap the blank (Fig. 9.5, as well). Then bent down one, a smaller part of the wrapper

(Fig. 9.5, b). The curved part of the wrapper envelops the half-perimeter of the product (Fig. 9.5, c). Further, the 1 and 2 parts (fig. 9.5, d, e) are bent down, with the bend of the 3 and 4 parts (fig. 9.5, f, g) a bag is formed around the product, the open end of which is first compressed (fig. 9.5, h), and when performing the final operation is twisted (Fig. 9.5, and).

Combined wrapping. This type of wrapping (fig. 9.6) is used most often when packing chocolate bars, long loafs, candy “Benefit” and

cookies. In this case, the foil or turnout form the valves on the base, and the label is wrapped with a parcel. At first, the product is packed with a roll with five watchmen, and a label with a packet from three (Fig. 9.6, a), with the turn forming four vertical edges deep

folds. Folds pairs are pressed against the ends of the product (Fig. 9.6, b, c). Folded valves lay at the base of the product (Fig. 9.6, g). After that consistently turn up overhangs podvertki and labels (Fig. 9.6, e, f).

During the last operation edge of the label glued to the inner edge of the label which previously smeared with glue.Combination wrapping products

Fig. 9.6. Combination wrapping products9.7

Fig. 9.7. Individually and group wrapping products

Piece and group wrapping products (Fig. 9.7). In the 1 position, the packaging material is superimposed on the product; in the II — IV positions, a single wrapping is performed. In position V, the grouping (tube) of five products occurs. In position VI, the wrapping material is cut from the ribbon and superimposed on top of the tube. In position VII, the tube is wrapped. After wrapping, gluing of the bottom longitudinal seam and flaps along the ends occurs.Packaging products in film material

Fig. 9.8. Packaging products in film material

This method can be carried out either in one machine or in two successively installed machines.

Packaging products in film materials (Fig. 9.8). The 4 thermally cellophane tape, tucked between the 3 vertical guide and the 2 forming cylinder, coils down when pulled down.

The resulting longitudinal seam 6 of the packet tube is glued together by pressing and heating the 5 electric iron at 120 — 130 ° С. It is then crimped, heated and glued transverse seam of the tube with an electric heater 7, which simultaneously pulls the tube down. The product is poured from the dispenser I of the machine into the tube.

Next, the transverse seam of the 8 tube above the product is crimped, heated and glued. A product-filled bag is cut off in the middle of the upper glued 8 cross seam with 9 scissors. In this case, the lower sealed end of the packet tube becomes the bottom of the next packet.

Ready-made packages (see. Fig. 9.1, and) supplied to the output tray.

When packing the product dosing over the volume, mass or individually. Packaging of articles may also be in a pack of rigid cardboard (drops, caramel, cocoa powder).

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