The process of cooking caramel mass consists of the processes of cooking sugar-syrup syrup, its boiling up to obtain the caramel mass, cooling and saturation of the caramel mass with air. These processes are carried out by machines and devices of periodic and continuous action: dissutators, cooking boilers, vacuum apparatus, technological complexes, cooling machines.
Dissutory. For dissolving sugar, preparing syrups, dissolving returnable waste, etc., dissutators are used in the confectionery industry, which are cylindrical or rectangular metal containers with bubblers and coils.
Figure 5.1. Cylindrical dissutator.
In fig. 5.1 shows a cylindrical dissutator, which consists of 11 steel shell, 12 inclined or spherical bottom, 9 manhole for sugar loading and water supply, 8 steam pipe with 13 bubbler, 7 coil for heating the mixture, 6 lid, 5 pipe for supplying syeters or an inlet 4 for heating the mixture, 10 lining, 3 pipe for feeding syringes or an invertor 7 for heating the mixture, 2 for heating XNUMX pipes for secondary steam exhaust. The outer surface is covered with XNUMX insulation. The finished syrup is discharged through the XNUMX nozzle, and the condensate into the XNUMX condensate trap is discharged through the XNUMX nozzle.
The sizes of dissutators may vary depending on the required amount of syrup.
The disadvantages of dissutators are the low quality of the syrup produced, the frequency of the process, the use of manual labor.
Cooking boilers. The 28-A digester with a capacity of 150 l with a mechanical stirrer can be used to produce syrups, boil thick masses or as a tempering recipe collection for fillings and other masses.
Fig. 5.2. Cooking pot 28-A
The digester (fig. 5.2) consists of a hemispherical copper bowl 3 with a copper shell 18. The bowl is placed in a steel 4 steam jacket and connected to it on a gasket with the help of flanges and bolts. The boiler is mounted on two 1 cast iron racks.
Steam for heating is supplied through the valve 20. The condensate is discharged through the 6 valve in the lower part of the steam jacket, the condensate is discharged through the 7 tap. A steam trap is connected to the boiler.
The boiler has an 10 cover with a manhole for loading and inspection and an 16 fitting for secondary steam removal. During cooking, the mass in the bowl is mixed with an anchor stirrer 2, driven by an 15 electric motor through a worm gearbox 14. At the bottom of the boiler for draining the finished mass, there is a fitting 5, which during cooking is blocked by a valve 8. When unloading the boiler, the nozzle opening is opened by raising the 8 valve upwards using the vertical screw 12 with the handwheel 13.
The boiler is equipped with a 17 pressure gauge, a 19 safety valve, a 77 pressure gauge thermometer and a valve for lowering
The performance of the digester of periodic action is determined by the formula:
where G is the mass of the product loaded in the boiler, kg; t3 - the duration of the product loading into the boiler, min; t0 - the duration of treatment (heating, dissolving, boiling) of the product, min; tр - the duration of the boiler, min.
Vacuum devices. The universal M-184 vacuum cooking machine (fig. 5.3) with automatic unloading is designed for boiling in small quantities of toffee, caramel and jelly mass, fillings and other confectionery masses and consists of two boilers: upper, double, 7 and lower, receiving, 26, located above each other.
The upper, double-floor boiler serves to boil the mass (at atmospheric pressure) and is a hemispherical copper bowl enclosed in a cast-iron steam jacket, into which heating steam is fed through the 17 valve. Condensate is discharged through the 5 nozzle.
During the boiling process, the mass in the bowl is mixed with an anchor stirrer 9, which is driven from the 6 electric motor via a 8 belt drive and a bevel gearbox 11. The bowl of the upper boiler is closed with an 10 lid with a suction hopper and fittings for loading and draining the secondary steam. Through the 20 fitting, which is closed by the 19 valve, the boiled mass is drained into the lower receiving boiler. The 19 valve opens using a vertical stem connected to the 12 pneumatic valve.
Before the mass is drained into the lower 26 boiler, it is pressed against the 3 lid of the upper boiler using a foot pedal. The lower, receiving, boiler is a copper vessel with a hemispherical bottom. The pins of this boiler freely lie in the slots of the swivel plug 7, which is located on the axis 2, fixed on the left stand of the bed.
At the end of the cooking process, the 7 plug with the lower boiler 26 is rotated around an axis and the lower boiler is pulled out from under the 3 cover for unloading. The 3 cover has two inspection windows to observe the mass draining process from the upper boiler.
The device is equipped with a 13 pressure gauge thermometer, 15 pressure gauge, 14 vacuum gauge, 16 safety valve and has a 4 push-button control of 6 and 23 electric motors.
Fig. 5.3. Universal cooking vacuum apparatus M-184
The small-sized rotary wet-air water ring vacuum pump 23 built into the apparatus, pumping the air-water mixture through the 21 condenser, creates a vacuum in the lower boiler and in the 72 pneumatic valve that opens the mass drain hole to the lower 26 boiler. At the same time, due to the rarefaction, the mass is accelerated into the boiler and an intensive self-evaporation process takes place, leading to an additional removal of moisture from the mass sucked from the upper to the lower boiler. Due to the self-evaporation of moisture, the temperature of the mass is significantly reduced.
The 23 vacuum pump is mounted on a separate 24 plate, mounted on the stands of the machine, and driven by an 25 electric motor.
The 21 condenser is a pipe connected at one end to the 3 cover with the 20 pipe of the device, and the other to the pump. Inside the condenser, cold water flows through the 22 pipe with holes, which flows in thin streams and creates a water curtain, condensing the secondary steam.
The operation of the apparatus is carried out in the following order. Components of the mixture or a pre-prepared mixture of a mass to be boiled are loaded into the upper boiler, including steam and a stirrer. The temperature of the mass is monitored by a contact pressure gauge thermometer 13, the 18 thermal bulb of which is immersed in the mass to be boiled. As soon as its temperature reaches the required value, the 12 overflow valve is automatically switched on to discharge the mass to the lower boiler, the 25 electric motor of the rotary vacuum pump and the water supply to the condenser. When the boiled mass is completely merged into the lower boiler, the vacuum pump is stopped, the water supply valve to the condenser is closed and the boiled mass is unloaded.
Serpentine vacuum apparatuses are primarily intended for the preparation of caramel mass by evaporation of excess moisture from the caramel syrup.
Coil apparatuses are also widely used in syrup preparation stations in the preparation of syrup, in boiling units for fruit and berry fillings, in universal stations for boiling candy, toffee, jelly, marmalade and other masses.
The confectionery industry is currently equipped mainly with standardized coil apparatuses.
The unified coil vacuum apparatus 33-А with manual unloading of the mass (fig. 5.4) consists of three parts: heating I, evaporating II and separator-trap III. The heating and evaporation parts are interconnected by a pipeline. The trap is installed on the pipeline connecting the evaporating chamber with the mixing condenser and the vacuum pump.
The heating part I is a cylindrical steel case 4 with a stamped steel bottom welded to it at the bottom and a removable 6 cover. Inside the case is mounted copper coil 5, which has two rows of coils connected in series with each other. The lower end of the coil is connected to the pipeline from the syrup plunger pump supplying the vacuum apparatus, and the upper end to the connecting pipeline 10, which goes to the evaporation part of the vacuum apparatus, which, in turn, is connected to the mixing condenser of the reciprocating WAN vacuum pump.
In the upper part of the 4 casing of the heating part of the apparatus there is a fitting for supplying heating steam: the pressure gauge 7, the safety valve 8 and the air tap 9 are mounted on the lid. At the bottom of the apparatus installed fitting 2 for supplying syrup, fitting 1 for draining condensate and valve 3 for blowing apparatus.
The evaporator part II of the vacuum apparatus consists of two steel shells (upper 23 and lower 22) and lower steel cone 17, interconnected by flanges and hinged bolts. Between the shell is placed conical copper bowl 20, the neck of which is covered with a valve 18. Cone bowl, cavity top-
Fig. 5.4. Unified Coil Vacuum 33-A
The shells and the spherical steel cover form the upper vacuum chamber with a capacity of 140 l. To prevent solidification of the weld mass on the walls of the 20 cone bowl, an 21 coil is mounted on the outside, in which heating steam is circulated through the 14 pipe.
The upper internal valve 18, opened and closed with the 12 handle, serves to ensure the continuity of the boiling process (when unloading the finished mass, it is blocked) and for release from the upper chamber to the lower receiving cone of the caramel mass accumulating during unloading of the device.
On the upper side of the vacuum chamber on the workplace side, a 25 vacuum gauge is mounted to monitor the vacuum.
The bottom steel cone of the 17 vacuum chamber to prevent the height of the height prepared for unloading of the caramel mass on the 3 / 4 is hardened by the heating steam supplied to the 16 steam jacket through the 14 pipe. The air from the 16 jacket is exhausted through the air valve, and the finished caramel mass through the 15 external valve with handle. The output of the caramel mass can be observed through the 19 sight glasses in the lower receiving part of the vacuum chamber. For the communication of the upper vacuum chamber with the lower receiver and the lower receiver with the atmosphere, a connecting pipe with 11 and 13 taps is provided.
The evaporating part of the vacuum apparatus is fixed on the rods to the ceiling
Coil vacuum apparatus of this type are convenient for installation in production lines for the production of caramel and do not require the construction of special sites for the installation of the heating part of the apparatus. In addition, the heating part of the vacuum unit together with the plunger syrup pump and the wet-air vacuum pump can be installed at some distance from the evaporating part of the vacuum apparatus or in another room, which ensures the best sanitary condition of the workshop.
Separator-trap III, designed to trap caramel particles carried away by secondary steam, is a cylindrical steel vessel 28 with a flat lid and inside the 27 septum opposite the inlet nozzle. The delayed particles of the caramel mass are discharged through the bottom nozzle of the trap with a 29 tap for further processing.
Caramel syrup from the supply syrup tank is continuously pumped by the plunger pump into the device coil under pressure of 0,4 MPa. At the same time, heating steam is fed into the body of the heating part of the apparatus through the upper fitting. In the vapor space of the apparatus, the heating steam washes the 5 coil and condenses. Condensate is continuously discharged through the 1 nozzle into the steam trap.
The pressure of the heating steam is monitored by the 7 pressure gauge; in case of an increase in the vapor pressure above the allowable one, the safety valve 8 is activated.
The caramel syrup entering the dual coil rises first along the coils of the inner coil, then passes through the vertical connecting pipe to the lower coil of the outside coil and moves further up its coils. From the upper coil of the outer coil, the caramel mass passes through the 10 connecting pipe into the vacuum chamber of the apparatus, in which a vacuum is created with the help of a mixing condenser, supported by a wet-air piston vacuum pump connected to the vacuum chamber. The caramel mass obtained as a result of boiling the caramel syrup in the coil continuously enters the vacuum chamber, while the process of boiling the mass to the final moisture 1,5 ... 2,5% continues due to the intensive self-evaporation of moisture in a rarefied space.
The secondary vapor released from the syrup when boiling it, and the air drawn in when the vacuum chamber is periodically unloaded, is directed from the vacuum chamber through the 26 pipeline through the 28 trap to the mixing condenser, to which cooling water is continuously supplied. The secondary steam is cooled and condensed.
The secondary steam entering the condenser occupies a significant volume: 1 kg of steam takes up to Yum3 volume; when turning steam into water, 1 kg of water will take about 1 l. Because of such a sharp reduction in volume, a vacuum is created in the condenser and in the vacuum chamber. The airborne mixture formed in the condenser is pumped out of it by a vacuum pump, due to which a vacuum in the condenser and in the vacuum chamber is constantly maintained
Located on the spherical cover of the vacuum chamber, the 24 chipper prevents the caramel mass from being carried to the condenser.
As the finished mass in the vacuum chamber accumulates, it periodically, every two minutes, is discharged without disturbing the continuity of the boiling process.
To unload the accumulated finished caramel mass from the lower cone 17 of the vacuum chamber, with the upper valve 18 closed, open the lower valve 15 and simultaneously connect the lower cone to the atmosphere, opening the 13 air cock. After the caramel mass is unloaded, the bottom valve 15 and the 75 valve are closed, then before opening the top 18 valve, the pressure in both parts of the vacuum chamber is equalized, for which, with the bottom valve 15 closed, the valve 17 connecting the top and bottom parts is opened. The 17 valve is then closed, the upper 18 valve is opened, and the boiling process continues using the full volume of both parts of the vacuum chamber.
They produce two standard sizes of the unified 33-A apparatus, differing only among themselves by the surface area of heat exchange of the coils and the height of the heating part. The performance of these devices is respectively 500 and 1000 kg / h
Unified coil vacuum apparatus can be equipped with a mechanical or vacuum device for automatic unloading of mass
Before you start, you need to warm up the device. To do this, open the common steam valve and valves for purging the coil and heating the vacuum chamber. The excess vapor pressure in this case should be no more than 0,2 MPa. After the apparatus is warming up, close the coil purge valve, and then the valves of the vacuum chamber and the lower receiving cone, turn on the wet-air vacuum pump, open the valve on the syrup pipeline, turn on the food pump (if the device is equipped with automatic unloading, turn on the automatic unloading machine) and open the valve on steam line to gradually get a working
In order to avoid sugaring, the coil is washed at least twice a shift with hot water at a temperature of approximately 90 ° С, passing it through the syrup storage tank, syrup plunger pump and apparatus. At the same time, the washing sweet waters are diverted through special pipelines to the collection and after filtration are used in the preparation of syrups and fillings.
To remove the vacuum device that is formed during the operation, the coil is subjected to about ten times a decade thorough etching with 2 ... 3% solution of caustic soda — sodium hydroxide or (to accelerate the pickling) with its 5% solution for 30 ... 40 min , passing the solution through the syrup tank, plunger pump, coil, vacuum chamber and back. After pickling, the apparatus is thoroughly washed with hot water.
When using coil vacuum apparatus for boiling fruit fillings from the initial 40 ... 50% to the final
.20% humidity, the heating pressure of the heating steam is maintained within 0,3 ... 0,4 MPa, and the capacity of the vacuum chamber to prevent entrainment of mass into the condenser with secondary steam is increased 5 ... 7 times; in addition, a trap is set, and the residual pressure in the vacuum chamber is maintained at 45 kPa.
In practice, the fillings are boiled in the coil heating part of the apparatus without vacuum. In this case, instead of a vacuum chamber for suction of the secondary steam, a steam trap with a fan is installed. The heating part of the coil apparatus with steam trap is also used for continuous boiling of candy, toffee, marmalade and other confectionery masses
Syrup stations. The heat exchangers described above and their auxiliary equipment are usually combined into units and stations. At confectionery factories operate stations for the preparation of syrups and fillings, as well as caramel stations; in the shops of low productivity, universal vacuum cooking stations are used.
Depending on the technology adopted and the equipment available for making caramel sugar-syrup syrup, syrup boilers are pre-dissolving sugar in water at atmospheric pressure and then adding molasses (or invert syrup) and dissolving sugar in syrup at elevated water pressure in small quantities. In factories, aggregated syrup boilers of various types and capacities of batch or continuous operation are installed, with usually one factory-wide syrup boiling station serving several production lines for caramel production, as well as other types of production using syrup.
The ŠSA-1 syrup cooking station works on the basis of dissolving sugar in molasses under pressure with the addition of water in small quantities, has the shortest production cycle and allows to obtain a higher quality syrup, which increases the shelf life of caramel.
The station is equipped with process control devices and automatic controllers. The station provides light signaling and blocking the operation of the process equipment, an automatic system for blowing equipment and pipelines. Electrical equipment remote control devices and regulators are installed on the control panel and control.
At the station, you can prepare sugar-beet, sugar-invert and pure sugar syrups.
A schematic diagram of the operation of the ŠSA-1 syrup station is shown in fig. 5.5. From prescription collections, 12 and 13 metering pumps supply liquid components: molasses (or invert syrup) and water to the 11 funnel of the 8 solvent mixer. Sugar sand is fed into the same funnel with the 10 tape feeder from the 9 hopper. In the mixer, the components are mixed and a pasty mass is formed by moisture 17 ... 18%.
The temperature of the invert syrup 40 ... 50 ° С, the temperature of the syrup supplied to the mixer, 65 ... 70 ° С. In the 8 solvent mixer all components of the prescription mixture are mixed and heated with steam to the temperature 65 ... 70 CC. Duration of filling the mixer 3 ... 3,5 min.
The resulting mixture of prescription moisture 17 ... 18%, which is a slurry with not completely dissolved crystals
Fig.5.5. Principle scheme of operation of syrup cooking station ШСА-1
Lamy sugar, the 7 plunger pump is fed to the 6 coil brewing column, where the sugar crystals in 1 ... 1,5 min completely dissolve. Heating steam overpressure is maintained within 0,45 ..0,55
At the outlet of the heating column, the coil is connected to the 5 expander, inside of which there is a disk with a hole with a diameter of 10 ... 15 mm. The disc resists the flow of the moving syrup, thereby providing an overpressure in
The secondary vapor generated in the syrup is removed in the 4 steam trap. The secondary steam is discharged through the upper nozzle, to which the pipeline connected to the fan is connected. The finished syrup is collected in the lower conical part of the steam separator and is discharged into the collection of syrup 2. The collection is equipped with an 3 filter with cells with a diameter of 1 mm. As required, the finished syrup is pumped to the places of consumption by the 1 gear pump. Due to the short production cycle (no more than 5 min) and the peculiarities of the process of dissolving sugar in syrup under pressure, the syrup station allows to obtain a light, transparent syrup of high concentration (88% solids) with a low content of reducing substances in the caramel mass (up to 14%). In the manufacture of pure sugar syrup moisture
.20% the prescription mixture humidity is maintained within 24 ... 26%, accordingly, the heating steam overpressure decreases to 0,3 ... 0,35 MPa.