The equipment of this group include:
- cooling and steam (warm) tables;
- cooling machines used in mechanized production lines to replace the cooling table;
- prominalnye machines and devices;
- hauling machines for pulling caramel mass — batch or continuous.
Tables for manual processing caramel mass
The cooling table for cooling the candy mass after unloading it from the vacuum apparatus in polumehanizirovannyh lines. These tables are also used to cool the Gladden and other confectionery masses.
The cooling table OS-5 (Fig. 30, a). It consists of a 3 worktop and two 1 cast iron racks. The tops of the racks have supports in which the 2 semi-axes of the working plate are installed. The working plate of the table is a rectangular cast-iron hollow construction. Both horizontal planes of the plate have a polished work surface. To prevent spreading of the mass around the perimeter of the table, the 4 boards are reinforced. The table is cooled with running water at a temperature of 12 — 18 ° C. Inside the plate there are partitions that ensure uniform circulation of cooling water. In the hollow axles 2 installed seals, which join the water supply pipe.
The caramel mass from the vacuum apparatus is fed to the table, the additives provided by the formulation — acid, dye, essences — are introduced into it and mixed by hand using a metal spatula.
When heated during operation of one surface of the table, the plate is periodically turned to 180 ° and is operated on another, cooled surface of the table.
The caramel mass prepared on the cooling tables is shifted to heated (warm) tables so that a frozen crust does not form on it.
Steam table PS-2 (Fig. 30, b). It consists of an 1 worktop with dimensions 1618 X 900 mm and cast-iron racks 2.
The working part of the table is a welded box, at the bottom of which asbestos insulation is laid, and an 3 coil made of steel pipes through which steam or hot water is passed over the insulation. A steel plate with a polished working surface is mounted on top of the coil. The steam or hot water circulating on the coil transfers heat to the surface of the stove on which the caramel mass is prepared.
Technical data tables OS and MS-5-2
|Working surface area||1,5||1,5||Dimensions, mm|
|STI table m2||length||2084||1800|
|Cooling water pressure, MPa||Before||—||width||900||830|
|Working steam pressure, MPa||—||0,12||Weight, kg||700||290|
Fig. 30. Tables for manual processing of caramel mass: a - cooling table OS-5; b - steam (warm) table.
Cooling machine KOM-2 for caramel mass
The machine is designed for continuous cooling of the caramel mass and the mechanized introduction of additives provided by the formulation. It is used in mechanized production lines for the production of caramel. It is installed after the coil vacuum apparatus.
The cooling machine (fig. 31) consists of an 1 hopper, rotating 2 and 3 cooling drums, an inclined 4 cooling plate,
Fig. 31. Cooling machine KOM-2 for caramel mass.
5 dispensers for crystalline acid, essences and food dyes, wrapping 6 grooves, 7 pulling teeth. The 2,3 drums and the 4 plate are hollow and are continuously cooled with running water at a temperature of 12 — 18 ° C supplied from the water mains.
The caramel mass boiled to moisture 1,5 — 3% flows from the vacuum apparatus to the receiving funnel 1, passes between the rotating cooling drums 2 and 3 and continuously moves in the form of a calibrated ribbon 4 — 5 mm and width 400 — 500 mm along an inclined cooling plate XUMUM mm . During the passage on the surface of the lower cooling drum, a crust forms on the caramel mass, preventing adhesion and facilitating the best movement of the caramel tape on the inclined 4 cooling plate installed at an angle of 4 ° 12 (U. At this angle of inclination, the mass slides along the plate with a constant, uniform speed The gap between the 3 and 2 drums is adjusted using the handwheel.
Above the stove before 4 wraps grooves installed dispensers from which crystalline citric acid, dye and essence are continuously supplied to the surface of the caramel ribbon in certain ratios. The supply of flavoring and coloring additives is regulated depending on the type of caramel and machine performance.
In the lower part of the cooling plate, the caramel tape passes between the grooves (plowshares) 6> wrap the edges of the tape with the cooled crust upwards, with additives inward. Then the mass falls under the pulling gears 7, which support the uniform movement of the belt along the plate and partially puncture it.
Performance of the machine is adjusted by changing the thickness of the ribbon of caramel mass damper in the hopper 1.
The caramel belt passes through the cooling machine for about 20 s and cools during this time from 125 — 130 to 90 — 95 ° C. The final temperature of the mass is controlled by changing the supply of cooling water and the thickness of the mass layer.
The performance of the cooling machine may decrease with decreasing content of molasses in the caramel mass, since this increases the temperature of the mass and must be supplied in a thinner layer. In the summer, when the temperature of the tap water reaches 20 ° C, mass sticking to the cooling drums can occur, therefore for their cooling it is recommended to supply artesian or artificially cooled water with the temperature 3 — 6 ° C.
To increase the heat transfer coefficient, it is advisable to periodically pickle the internal cavities of the rolls and the 10 plate with a% caustic soda solution.
For introduction into the caramel mass of acid, dyes and essences, the machine is equipped with metering devices.
For dispensing acid, a plate dispenser is used (Fig. 32, a), consisting of a conical 1 conic tank without a bottom, under which the 6 disc is reinforced. The adjusting ring 8 is provided at the bottom to change the distance between the outlet and the disc.
Inside the tank is placed a vertical shaft 3, on which the agitator 4 and the blades 5 are fixed. The 3 shaft is driven by a synchronous small-sized 2 electric motor (shaft speed 4 r / min). The crystalline acid is loaded into the hopper from above. As the blades rotate, the acid is dropped from the disk and the 7 hinged flaps are directed to the surface of the caramel mass tape. Acid consumption is regulated by the 8 ring in accordance with the dosage for different types of caramel. The dispenser has a 9 acid level indicator.
For the introduction of dyes and essences used disc dispensers. The dispenser (fig. 32, b) consists of a tank /, a rotating disk 2У of the groove 3 and a screw regulating device 4.
Dosing liquid is poured into the 1 tank. When the disk is rotated, its surface is moistened with liquid in the dispenser, and with the help of groove 3, adjacent to the side surface of the disk, the liquid flows onto the caramel ribbon. With the help of the screw device 4, the size of the liquid removal area and the dispenser capacity are regulated.
The dispenser disc is made of stainless steel. The drive of a disk is carried out from the cooling machine by means of chain and gear transmissions. A block consisting of two disk dispensers is installed on the cooling machine for the essence and the dye. Dispenser discs are on the same shaft, and under each of the discs, capacities are installed for the essence and for the dye solution.
Dispenser capacity for essences up to 100 cm3 / min, capacity 3 — 4 l, disc diameter 320 mm, disc rotation speed 40 r / min. Accuracy of dosing ± 2%.
Disc and disc feeders have independent drives, which makes it difficult to simultaneously control their performance. These deficiencies do not have a metering station KD S - 1.
Fig. 32. Dispensers for cooling machine KOM-2:
and - the scheme of the disk dispenser for crystalline acid; b - diagram of disk dispenser for essences and dyes.
Fig. 33. Driving dispensing CDS-1 stations acid, essences and dye to the cooling machine KOM-2.
Station (Fig. 33) is mounted on the U-shaped frame 15, hardened bolts above the work surface cooling 1 machine. In the center of the horizontal portion of the frame plate mounted dispenser acid 13. 14 15 bracket to the frame attached two-disc fluid dispenser essences and dye. Spa 4 dual-dispenser hung using 16 staples.
The 5 discs of the essence and dye dispensers are driven by 2 and 6 asterisks from the middle shaft of the cooling machine, which makes 10 rpm (1: 4 ratio). The 8 acid metering shaft with the 9 agitator and 7 paddle ejector is driven using 3 and 10 sprockets and 11 and 12 bevel gears.
Consumption per minute: acids 20 — 150 g, dyes 8 — 30 g, aromatic substances 15 — 100 g
|Technical characteristics of the machine||COM-2|
|Productivity, kg / h||to 700|
|Belt speed caramel mass||5|
|on the cooling plate in m / min|
|Total area of the cooling surface, m2||0,6|
|Cooling water consumption, m3 / h||to 3, 0|
|The average heat transfer coefficient, W / (m2-K)||175|
|Electric motor power, kW||1|
Performance of a cooling machine (kg / hr) is determined by the formula
where B is the width of the caramel ribbon, m;
h - the gap between the cooling rolls, m;
D is the diameter of the lower drum, m; n is the frequency of rotation of the lower drum, min;
p — caramel mass density, kg / m3 (p ^ 1,5);
φ is the volumetric feed rate of the cooling rolls.
With a known cooling surface, the performance of the cooling machine can be determined by the formula
where F- total surface area of cooling, m2;
k — average heat transfer coefficient, W / (m X NUMX-K);
∆t is the average logarithmic temperature difference between the caramel mass and cooling water, ° С;
c — specific heat capacity of the caramel mass, J / (kg-K) (c ^ 2100);
t1, t2 - the initial and final temperature of the mass, ° C.
If the machine capacity is set, then the required cooling surface is equal to the surface of the cooling plate Pu and the working surface of both drums FбDetermined by the formula (1-28) (in m2)
where Q is the amount of heat given off by the caramel mass, W;
k - heat transfer coefficient, W / (k2-K);
∆t is the log average temperature difference between the caramel mass and cooling water, ° C.
where Psecs - car productivity, kg / s;
s - specific heat of the caramel mass, J / (kg-K) (s 2100);
t1—The initial temperature of the caramel mass, ° С (t1 = 125)
t2- the final temperature of the caramel mass, ° C (t2 = 95)
tIn - initial water temperature, ° С (tв1 = 15)
tв2 - final water temperature, ° С (tв2 = 25).
Since the caramel mass contacts the surface of the drums only on one third of their circumference, their working surface can be calculated as
where D1 and D2 - diameters of the lower and upper drums.
The need for cooling water flow (kg / s) is given by the formula
where cв - specific heat capacity of water, J / (kg-K) (c = 4190); tв1 and tв2 - the initial and final temperature of the water, ° C.
The machines are designed for dragging the caramel mass, mixing it with coloring and flavoring substances and saturation
Fig. 34. UTM-53 pulling machine of periodic action.
her air. In semi-mechanized lines of caramel production in the manufacture of caramel with an opaque shell used machines of periodic action, which are installed between the warm tables and caramel-brocade machine.
In the mechanized production lines for the production of caramel, continuous-draw pulling machines are used.
Haul-off machine UTM-53 of periodic action. The main working parts of the machine (fig. 34) are two movable fingers 2 with
complex motion, carried out by a planetary mechanism, and a fixed finger 1, mounted on a fixed bracket. The movable and fixed finger is protected by the 3 cover.
The movement of the working bodies is transmitted from the electric motor by means of a V-belt transmission to the 12 drive shaft, then to the 10 intermediate shaft and then through the system of planetary gears — the two shoulders 14 lever, on which the 2 moving fingers are rigidly fixed.
Fig. 35. Tyanulnaya machine K-4. continuous.
The two shoulders 14 lever rotates around the axis of the intermediate shaft 10 and the shaft 5; The 16 disc with the 5 counterweight is a leash for the 17 gear. As the driver rotates, the gear rolls along the fixed gear 4, which sits on the fixedly-mounted 6 bushing. The movement of the driver is transmitted from the 11 pulley through the gear system 13, 9, 18, 7 and the shaft 8. The 15 wheels are installed to reduce friction on the X-NUMX two-armed lever.
A portion of up to 25 kg of caramel mass with a temperature of about 80 — 85 ° С with the additives added to it is placed manually on the moving fingers 2 and the fixed 1, then the electric motor of the machine is turned on.
During the rotation of the mobile fingers, carrying on itself a caramel mass, the latter, meeting on the way a fixed finger 1, stretches and folds. With alternate folding and stretching, the mass is saturated with air, forming in it the finest parallel capillaries. Gradually, the mass density decreases, the mass loses transparency and acquires a brilliant silky appearance. The dragging process lasts 3 — 4 min.
Hauling machine K-4 continuous action. In this machine, the combined process of advancing and dragging the caramel mass on inclined planetary moving fingers and its mechanized unloading with a slot puller is carried out.
The main working parts of the machine (fig. 35) are the movable fingers 1, mounted on the rotating double-arm lever, and the fixed finger 2, on which the caramel mass is processed by repeatedly stretching and folding it. A double-arm lever with movable fingers performs a planetary motion around a fixed axis, similarly to the periodic action machine described above.
The drive of the machine is carried out from the 6 electric motor through the 7 V-belt transmission.
In fig. 36 shows the kinematic scheme of the continuous machine (a) and the planetary motion scheme of the moving fingers (b)
To ensure continuity of stretching and folding the mass, the 8 machine body (see fig. 35) and the working fingers are located at an angle 9 ° to the horizon. For continuous unloading of the drawn mass, a slotted puller 4 is provided.
Caramel mass 3 conveyor belt is continuously fed with a cooling machine to the receiving frame of the fixed finger 2.
When stretching and folding the caramel mass on the inclined fingers, the mass simultaneously gradually moves in the axial direction along the fingers. In the wall of the unloading puller 4 there is a slot through which the end of one of the moving fingers passes, transfers the drawn mass into the puller cavity and simultaneously displaces the mass exiting
Fig. 36. The kinematic scheme of the continuous continuous action machine (a) and the planetary motion scheme of the moving fingers (b).
to the 5 belt conveyor, continuously transferring mass to the candy machine.
The processing time of the mass on the machine 1,5 — 2 min.
When operating the pulling machines on production lines, it is important that the mass is properly tempered on cooling machines. To ensure the weight is pulling for 1,5 — 2 min, a certain viscosity and mass temperature are required within 83 — 88 ° C. At higher temperatures, the mass travels too quickly to the puller and unevenly pulls, and at low temperatures, the mass is retained on the fingers and deteriorates plastic properties, and hence the conditions for further formation of the mass.
Technical characteristics tyanulnyh machines
|Productivity, kg / h||500||1000||speed, rev / min||1420||950|
|Rotational speed of the planetary box, rpm||32-35||10||Dimensions, mm|
|The angle of the fingers and the frame to the horizontal, hail||0||9||width||1050||1100|
|Electric motor power, kW||2,8||2,8||Weight, kg||820||950|
Equipment for the formation of a plait of caramel mass
Forming caramel and other confectionery (for example, toffee) is preceded by the preparation of a harness from plastic mass. At the same time, depending on the range of products, the harness is prepared with a vein of filling inside or without filling.
By running in the moldable mass, they first give the shape of a conical loaf, which is then drawn out, calibrated into a bundle of the desired diameter and fed to the molding of products.
Fig. 37. Schematic diagram of the formation of harnesses from confectionery masses.
For the preparation of harnesses of caramel and other masses, caramel-knitting machines are used, giving the mass the shape of a conical loaf with the help of rotating conical corrugated spindles, and harness-pulling-calibrating devices, pulling and calibrating the desired dimensions from the caramel loaf using the system of rollers.
In fig. 37 shows a schematic diagram of the formation of harnesses from confectionery masses. A solid plait without filling inside (fig. 37, a) is prepared by molding candy varieties of caramel (or toffee). In fig. 37, b shows the formation of a harness with a thick nut-chocolate or soft filling inside, obtained from the so-called “cake”, which is prepared by hand with semi-mechanized production of caramel like “Cancer neck”, “Snowball”, etc. Formation of a harness with mechanized feeding inside it liquid filling with the help of the filling pump is shown in fig. 37, c.
The equipment for the preparation of the harness includes: horizontal caramel-rolling machines with a filling machine (for caramel with filling) or without it (for candy caramel and toffee); vertical caramel loafing machines (the latter are not widely used); cable harness for pulling and calibrating the cable harness; ring folders used to mechanize the folding of a caramel tow in the production of some varieties of caramel with fillings interleaved with a caramel mass.
Horizontal karameleobkatochnaya machine KPM
The machine is designed for running caramel stick and give it a cone-shaped; installed between the machine and tyanulnoy zhguto- puller.
The machine (fig. 38) consists of a frame /, a 8 trough body, covered with a 6 sliding cover, 11 spindles, 10 filling machine, 3 drive and 4 switch box.
The main working body of the machine are corrugated conical spindles 11. The rotation of the spindles is carried out either in one direction only - clockwise, or with variable rotation switching, one or the other (reversing).
Fig. 38. Horizontal karameleobkatochnaya machine KPM.
Rotation in one direction is attached to the spindles usually in the manufacture of mass varieties of caramel in the event that the caramel loaf is molded directly in the grinding machine and the filling is introduced into the loaf using a filling machine.
Rotation with reversing is attached to the spindles when the loaf with the pie-like filling is prepared separately and placed manually on the machine's spindle.
To change the direction of rotation of the spindles is a switch box.
Caramel mass during rotation of the spindles takes the form of a cone, the axis of which has a slope to the point of exit of the harness. The slope can be varied by lifting the left side of the body with a screw and 9 handwheel. Spindles receive movement from the drive pulley through the switch box, the vertical shaft, bevel gears and spur gears mounted on the spindles.
To prevent mass cooling during the run-in, the machine body has a steam-heated 2 coil and an 6 cover, which is balanced by a counterweight 5.
The thickness of the harness coming out of the break-in machines governed handles 7. To mass at podkatke on moves back to the base of the cone, is provided pear-shaped blank.
The 10 filling filler is designed to feed the filling inside the caramel loaf produced on the caramel-broiler. It is a horizontal plunger pump.
Nachinkonapolnitel supplied by the manufacturer, complete with karameleobkatochnoy machine and as a separate removable unit.
Fig. 39. Plunger nachinkonapolnitel SNB.
Nachinkonapolnitel SNB (Fig. 39) has a funnel with 6 5 inserted therein grid for filtering filling and thermometer 4. The funnel is connected to the cylinder in which the plunger moves 1 receiving the motion from the crank 3, associated with the drive karameleobkatochnoy machine. The cylinder has a discharge ball valve 7.
The filling machine is mounted directly on the frame of the 2 caramel machine. In some foreign constructions, the filling machine is installed separately at the caramel-rolling machine and is an independent machine.
The filling is fed into the 6 funnel through a 5 screen. When the 1 plunger moves to the right, a hole opens connecting the funnel with the cylinder, and the filling fills the cylinder; during the working stroke of the plunger to the left, the discharge valve is triggered and the filling is pushed through the hose or 8 pipe and the metal tube 9, is pumped into the loaf of caramel mass located in the caramel-knitting machine body.
Nachinkonapolnitel has a device for controlling the amount of feed by changing the filling plunger.
In addition to plunger fillers, there are gear, they are less common.
Horizontal break-machines are manufactured without nachinko- filler. They are supplied with the forming and wrapping machine guns IPE-MOD that is used to manufacture sugar candy caramel wrapped and wrapped toffee. Description of these machines is given in Chapter VII.
|Technical characteristics karameleobkatochnoy machines|
|Productivity, kg / h||1800|
|number of spindles||6|
|Rotational speed of spindle, rev / min||50|
|stick weight at full load, kg||50|
|Estimated diameter loaf, mm||250|
|Estimated diameter of the harness outlet mm||54-60|
|Performance plunger nachinkonapolnitelya, kg / h||500|
|The number of double strokes pump plunger||74|
|nachinkonapolnitelya per minute|
|Pressure steam for heating the trough, MPa||TO 0,6|
|Electric motor power, kW||1,5|
Performance karameleobkatochnyh machines (kg / h) with continuous operation of the line is determined by the formula
and periodically acting when running caramel "cake" - according to the formula
where G is the mass of caramel cake, kg;
ƒ — cross-sectional area of tow, m X NUMX;
ʋ —speed of the exit of the tow, m / s;
τ0 —Time spent on laying the caramel cake in the car, s;
p — conditional density of tow, kg / m3; determined by the ratio
the ratio of filling and caramel mass in one product according to the recipe;
ρн and ρк - the density of the filling and caramel mass.
The harness is intended for pulling the caramel loaf coming from the caramel machine in a harness and calibrating it to the desired size before being fed to the molding; it is installed between caramel and caramel forming machines.
The harness (fig. 40) consists of three pairs of vertically positioned 4 calibration rollers and one 3 pickup roller. On the working surface of the rollers there is a notch. The rollers are mounted on the ends of the rollers on the outside of the 2 box. The box, which encloses the transmission mechanism and the adjustment mechanism, is attached to the cast iron uprights 1. With the help of the adjustment mechanism, the distance between the centers of the last pair of rollers is changed depending on the required diameter of the tow.
Each pair of rollers has a different point and a different linear speed, thereby achieving a uniform stretching of the rope and its calibration. In between the rollers are mounted guide trays 5.
The rollers rotate from the drive of the caramel-forming machine by means of a pulley or a 6 sprocket belt drive and the 7 system of spur gears located in the 2 box. During operation, the rollers are closed with a removable 8 railing.
From the carameloobkatochny machine, the conical loaf of caramel mass in the form of a rope with a diameter of approximately 54 — 60 mm is passed through the receiving and calibrating rollers, gradually drawn out, reduced in diameter to the value required for the production of a given type of caramel, calibrated and fed to the caramel forming machine.
The rotational speed of the drive pulley depends on the linear speed of the forming chains.
|Technical characteristics zhgutovytyagivatelya|
|Productivity — according to the capacity of the forming machine|
|The diameter of the point, mm|
|a receiving pair of rollers||42|
|middle pair of rollers||28|
|the last pair of rollers||14|
|The required drive power, kW||0,5|
|zhgutovytyagivatelya Weight, kg||152|
Fig. 40. Zhgutovytyagivatel TM-1.
Between the diameters of the gauge rollers of the harness, the frequency of their rotation and the diameter of the harness to be calibrated, there is a relationship arising from the continuity condition of the harness volume:
The gear ratio between the pairs of adjacent rollers
Ravnyalnye drums and calibrating rollers
Equal drums and calibrating rollers are designed for more accurate calibration of the caramel tow in comparison with a harness. They are used mainly in the production of caramel type "Cancer neck" and other varieties, which are molded on caramel chains with platforms, followed by machine wrapping.
Equal drums and gauge rollers are also used when working without a harness or when it is difficult to adjust the harness to the required cross-section (an equal drum or calibrating rollers serve as an additional pair of calibrator rollers).
Equal drums are vertically mounted on a bed two cast iron drums with steam heating, on the surface of which there are a number of grooves with a semicircular cross-section corresponding to
size required diameters of the caramel tow - 14, 16, 18, 20 mm, depending on the varieties and sizes of formable caramel. The grooves of one drum strictly coincide with the corresponding grooves of the other, forming gauge holes with a notch inside for a better grip of the tow. The drums rotate in opposite directions towards each other, thus calibrating the caramel tow passing through them.
1 gauge rollers (fig. 41, a), replacing gauge drums, are usually mounted one below the other on the 2 stand and have matching semicircular grooves of the streams on the surface. Rotation rollers are obtained from the drive of the caramel-forming machine using a belt (or chain) 3 transmission.
Fig. 41. Caliber rollers (a) and skladyvatel ring (b).
The performance of carameleobkatochnye and plaits gagging machines is determined by the performance of following them in the line of caramel forming machines.
The ring folding machine is designed for mechanization of the process of multiple folding of a harness in the manufacture of caramel with thick walnut-chocolate or soft fillings interlaced with caramel mass, as well as in the manufacture of candy bodies with a multi-tubular structure. An annular folding machine is used in the semi-mechanized production of caramel and is installed after the caramel-blanking machine and harness.
The ring folding machine (fig. 41, b) consists of a welded 7 frame, a vertical 1 shaft, a horizontal 4 shaft and a 2 bowl.
The horizontal shaft is mounted in bearings and has an 3 bevel gear on one end and an 5 drive pulley on the other. The bevel gear 3 engages with the bevel gear 6, mounted on the lower end of the vertical shaft 1. On the 1 vertical shaft, a 2 bowl is mounted, supported by a thrust ball bearing. The bowl has a wooden bottom and a metal shell, the inner surface of which is covered with a belting fabric.
The drive is provided by an annular skladyvatelya karameleobkatochnoy machine by a belt drive in such a way that the circumferential speed of the cup matches the circumferential speed of the last pair of rollers zhgutovytyagivatelya.
The caramel harness that passes through the harness extends between the last pair of calibrating rollers and the bowl, and slides off of it to the bottom of the rotating bowl of the ring foldr, where, due to the rotation of the bowl, it automatically fits into the ring coils.
The rings thus obtained are manually folded fourfold or sixfold, the resulting layered loaf is rolled up in a bowl to give it a cylindrical shape. Then the loaf is wrapped in a prepared shirt of caramel mass and again placed in a caramel-blanking machine, from which the harness, after passing through the harness, is fed to the molding.
Technical characteristics of the ring
|Productivity - depending on the type of products. Pulley dimensions, mm|
|bowl speed, rev / min||16-20|
|The required drive power, kW||0,4|