The total production of confectionery products in the USSR, candy and toffee take 25%.
Candy and toffee are confectionary products of a predominantly soft consistency, made on a sugar basis. The range of these products is very diverse; It includes the following main product groups:
- sweets, glazed with chocolate icing, with fondant, fondant-milk, fruit-jelly, liqueur, whipped, praline on a nut basis and other cases; at the same time, candy cases can be made from one or several masses, sometimes interleaved by waffles;
- unglazed sweets dairy, fondant, fondant two- and three-layer, praline type of bars, etc .;
- iris (creamy, milky) solid - replicated with partially crystallized mass and semi-solid - cast with amorphous structure.
The main raw materials and semi-finished goods for the production of chocolates and toffee are sugar, syrup, condensed milk, fruit and berry harvesting, nuts and other zhirsoderzhaschie core.
Production of candy consists essentially of the following steps: preparing a mass of candy, candy shells forming, glazing buildings, packing and wrapping.
There are the following methods for forming the boxes of candy and toffee:
- casting liquid candy mass into cells of corn starch forms, followed by vystoyka cast casings of candies in the same forms;
- production of single-layer or multilayer layers of various thick pastry masses by spreading or rolling the layer, followed by drying and cutting into individual products or candy bodies;
- Vypressovyvanie candy, mainly fatty praline mass through the holes of the matrix in the form of continuous bundles of round or rectangular cross-section, followed by cooling and cutting the bundles into individual products or enclosures for glazing;
- jigging of the candy mass through the holes of the matrices of various outlines to produce dome-shaped or spherical candy;
- Gladden continuous tow stretching mass, rolling it in the grooved rollers to obtain a rectangular section and cutting into individual products.
Depending on the required range, adopted technology, power and degree of mechanization of enterprises in confectionery factories, the following types of production lines for the production of sweets and toffee can be installed:
- for the production of glazed sweets - mechanized production lines with an accelerated vystoyka cases and automatic or semi-automatic wrapping of candies;
- for the production of multi-layered candy - mechanized production lines with roller forming mechanisms or semi-mechanized lines with spreading carriages;
- for the production of praline sweets - mechanized or semi-mechanized lines with molding mass extrusion;
- for the production of toffee - mechanized production lines wrapped toffee with a unit for continuous boiling and cooling of the toffee mass.
Along with this, various equipment is also used for the semi-mechanized production of certain types of candy, including dessert varieties. For example, for the manufacture of dome-shaped candies like truffles, the SHOC unit, developed by the Red October factory and VNIIKP, is used for the jigging of the Creamy Fudge type candies at the Red October factory.
The computer-hardware circuits production of chocolates and toffee
The mechanized production line production tidal glazed candies with automatic wrapping. The line (fig. 5.1) is intended for the manufacture and automatic wrapping of molded glazed sweets with fondant, fondant milk, fruit and juice and other bodies.
Fig. 5.l. The computer-hardware circuits mechanized flow production line tidal glazed candies with automatic wrapping
On the line, the processes of mechanized preparation of various candy masses are carried out, the formation of candy bodies is cast by casting into starch, the accelerated vystoyka cast casings of candies in the flow, cleaning them from starch, glazing with chocolate or fatty glaze, automatic wrapping of the coated candies in the flow of mechanized collection and transportation of wrapped candies, automatic weighing and packing them in trade packaging.
The line includes a universal station for making candy masses, a semi-automatic casting machine with the installation of an accelerated vystoka of buildings, an enrobing unit and an automatic wrapping and packaging unit for candies.
The components necessary for the preparation of various candy masses: syrup, molasses, condensed milk, fruit-flavored puree - are fed through pipelines to consumables tanks 1. The 2 plunger metering pumps pump the components to the 3 sectional mixer. The mixture of components in the form of syrup from the mixer by the 4 plunger pump is fed to boiling in the coil apparatus (column) of the 5. Here, the syrup boils down to a moisture content of 8 — 12%.
When cooking fondant and other masses that are knocked down, after boiling, syrup flows through the 6 steam separator into the 7 lipstick machine, from which the whipped mass enters the intermediate collection 8, and then the 9 pump is pumped to the 11 tempering machines with an agitator. Here, flavoring, coloring and aromatic additives, prescribed by the formulation, are introduced into the mass, the temperature is brought to 68 — 75 ° С. Then the mass is pumped by the 12 pump into the receiving funnel of the 13 candy maker (when cooking fruit and vegetable mass, the latter, after boiling, is passed through the second 10 steam trap, bypassing the lipstick machine, to the 11 prescription tempering machine).
The candy filling machine is integrated into the unit with the 14 installation for continuous accelerated drying of the cast candy cases and is connected with it by intermediate chain conveyors. The candy semi-automatic machine performs the operations of filling trays with corn starch, stamping cells in it that correspond to the shape of candy cases, casting candy mass into cells using a dosing piston pump system located under the funnel, and cleaning the candy cases from starch after making it.
Trays with cast casings of candies are fed by means of an intermediate chain conveyor to the 14 accelerated drying unit, which passes through 38 min in the air cooled to 6 — 10 ° C air - first along one vertical shaft upwards, then down another (see the direction of movement indicated by the arrows) and at the end of the cycle the vystoyka are returned with hardened hulls to the loading part of the semi-automatic machine. Here the candy bodies are cleaned of starch by the sieve system and brushes.
The body of candies cleared of starch is then transferred via the 15 diverter to the 16 self-dispensing bunker of the 17 enrobing unit. The 15 conveyor is closed with a wooden box, in which additional cooling is provided with air of the same temperature, as a result, the candy bodies are cooled before serving for enrobing to 22 — 25 ° С.
For bisque varieties of candies, the possibility of transferring the shells to wrapping is provided, bypassing the enrobing unit.
In the process of passing through the 17 enrobing unit, the candy bodies are covered with a layer of chocolate glaze, which solidifies when the candies pass through the cooling chamber of the unit, where the air cooling mode is maintained within 8 — 10 ° С. From the conveyor of the cooling chamber, the glazed candies are transferred to the belt of the intermediate conveyor 18, and from there to the vibrodistributor 19. When a random flow from the 18 — 22 series enters the vibrodistributor, the candies emerge from it clearly regrouped in half or three times fewer rows — by the number of wrapping machines installed in the line with tape feeders. Then, through a system of 20 ribbed conveyors (also mounted according to the number of wrapping machines installed in the line) and turn-by-turn devices, candies are transferred to 22 candy wrappers 21.
Wrapped candies are diverted from the wrapping machines by 23 cross conveyors to the horizontal 24 finished products conveyor. Then, via the 25 intermediate scraper conveyor, candies are fed to the automatic 26 scales and then to the packaging in corrugated boxes. The gluing of the valves of the 27 boxes and the pasting of them with a parcel post is carried out on the 28 pasting machine installed at the end of the line.
In the case of stopping individual wrapping machines during operation for any reason or overloading (congestion) of feeders, photoelectric locking devices installed on the tape feeders of the machines operate, which are used to automatically open the valve for the release of unwrapped sweets on the rotary-pull device. In this case, without stopping the work of the line, unwrapped candies through the inclined tray are removed from the machine by a partitioned part of the 24 conveyor at the end of the line to the two-channel vibration distributor and two wrapping machines with bypass devices. The bypass devices further, after wrapping, introduce these products into the general flow, providing them also for weighing and packaging.
The introduction of such lines has provided for the first time in the practice of confectionery production the complex mechanization of the candy production process; reduction of the duration of the technological cycle in 7 — 10 times due to the accelerated vystoyka cases of sweets and automatic wrapping in the stream; reduction of demand for production space in 1,5 — 2 times; increase productivity 1,5 times; a sharp reduction in losses of the main raw material reduction in returns frommoves, lining paper consumption, molding starch; significant reduction (more than 10 times) of the number of trays; complete elimination of intermediate packaging; facilitation of working conditions and a dramatic improvement in sanitary and hygienic production conditions, since work on the line is carried out almost without touching the product’s hands.
|Main technical data lines|
|Productivity, kg / h||From 700 1000 up|
|The number of installed lines inzavertochautomata (including stand)at sheaReena of the coating unit|
|Total motor powerequiption line, kW||Until 60|
Mechanized production line of production of multi-layer unglazed candies with roller forming mechanisms. Multi-layered (2- or 3-layered) candies are made mainly from fondant pastry masses without enrobing the candy bodies.
The line includes a site for the preparation of raw materials, a recipe mixing station for making candy masses on fondant base; equipment for forming a multi-layer formation; receiving candy from the reservoir, their vystoyka, wrapping and laying wrapped products in cardboard boxes.
Sugar from the bags is loaded into the bunker of the 4 elevator (fig. 5.2), which is fed to the 5 sifter to remove impurities and large particles. Passing by magnets, granulated sugar is cleaned from metal impurities. The sifted sugar enters the receiving bin, and from there, through the chute, into the 6 drum dispenser of the syrup station.
The dispenser consists of a hopper, the bottom of which is a rotating drum made of stainless steel, and in the bunker on one side there is a slot with a flap. Raising or lowering the flap, adjust the height of the slit, and hence the performance of the dispenser.
The 8 1 twin-plunger dosing pump type HC-250 dispenses hot water from the 7 tank, syrup from the 3 tank or invert syrup from the 2 tank to the mixer and 9 solvent. The plunger pump 120 of type ANV-10 solution is fed to the coils of the 23 cooking column. Here it is boiled down to a moisture of 25 — XNUMX%.
Secondary steam is separated in the 11 steam trap. The syrup enters the 12 collection, and from there through the 13 cup filter, the 14 pump is supplied to the production, including one of the sections of the three-section collection tank 15. In the other two its sections served syrup and puree. level components in each section is automatically maintained within predetermined limits by means of level sensors ESG.
16 type M-193 plunger metering pumps dispense components into a 17 continuous mixer. After thorough continuous mixing, the mixture is pumped by the 18 type M-193 plunger pump for boiling into the brewing column.
Fig. 5.2. Machine-instrumental scheme of a mechanized production line for the production of multi-layer unglazed candies with roll forming mechanisms
19. Passing through the coils, the mixture is boiled down to them to a moisture content of 10 — 12%
In the 20 steam trap, the secondary steam is removed, and the boiled syrup is fed into the funnel of the 21 fondant. The finished lipstick with a temperature of 65 — 70 ° C flows by gravity into the tank 22, located under the body of the machine for whipping lipstick. The inner surface of the tank is made of stainless steel. At the bottom of it is installed auger, which gives lipstick to the gear pump 23.
With this pump, pipelines that have a pipe-in-pipe steam jacket, lipstick are fed to two 24 and 26 mixers with a capacity of 650 and 300 liters with 2-shaped blades.
Two mixers are installed in line to prepare two or three layer candies. Prescription amount of lipstick and grated walnut is measured by weight. Alcohol, wine, essences are loaded last. Then all components are thoroughly mixed for 10 — 20 minutes. Indicators of the finished mass are as follows: moisture 9 — 11%, content of invert syrup 5 — 8%, temperature 60 — 72 ° С.
After thoroughly mixing the mass, the 24 mixer body overturns and the mass flows into the receiving tank with the auger and the heated body. The auger injects mass into the 25 pump of the ShNK-18,5 type, feeding it through pipelines to the receiving hoppers of the first and third 30 forming mechanisms.
Similarly, from the 26 mixer, the mass enters the 27 tank with the screw, injects into the inclined 28 and horizontal 29 screws and feeds them into the funnel of the second forming mechanism.
The formation of an endless candy layer on a moving conveyor belt is carried out by roller forming mechanisms that have two smooth rolls rotating towards each other. Roll length 500 mm, diameter 212 mm, average speed 4,5 r / min. Rolls, hollow from the inside, cooled by brine temperature - 7 — 10 ° С. The temperature of the 45 — 55 ° C candy roll coming from the rolls.
To synchronize the belt speed and roll each mechanism has a speed variator.
The thickness of the layer is determined by the width of the gap between the rolls, which can be adjusted by a special device. The total thickness of a two- or three-layer formation is about 12 mm.
To remove the layer from the rolls, two steel plates are installed at the bottom - knives covered with sheet fluoroplastic. When the conveyor belt 32 moves, the layers overlap one another, forming a two- or three-layer formation. There is no additional cooling of the formation between the forming mechanisms. After molding, the reservoir passes under a roller lined with fluoroplastic, whereby the surface is flattened and the individual layers of the formation merge.
Moving along with the conveyor belt, the candy layer enters the cooling chamber 31, inside of which there is an air cooler with brine-ribbed batteries. The reservoir is located in the chamber for about 7 min. Reservoir temperature before cutting 32 — 40 ° С.
After the chamber, the reservoir enters the continuous cutting machine 33. For longitudinal cutting, circular knives are installed, for transverse cutting - a guillotine knife, making a complex movement. The seam is cut into 22 rows of 20 mm width each, the length of the candy body is 38 mm, height is 12 mm.
The chocolates after the cutting machine are placed on rigid sheets of pressed cardboard, which are fed individually by hand from the 34 stack into the slot between the cutting machine's conveyor and the 35 conveyor. With this conveyor, candy sheets are fed to the 36 circular conveyor designed for smooth rotation of the sheets at an angle 90 °, if the length of the room does not allow the entire line to be arranged in a straight line.
Next, the flow of candy on the sheets enters the three-tier 40 belt conveyor for continuous drying. Sheets of candy from the top tier to the bottom are transmitted using the 39 mechanism.
In the process of moving along the two upper tiers, the candies are continuously blown with air with the temperature 18 — 25 ° С through the slots of the air ducts located along the entire length of the conveyors above the belt or on the side of it. The hulls are cooled in the lower tier of the conveyor vystoyki by blowing them through the gap cooled air. Duration of blow and cooling about 24 — 25 min. The temperature of the body after vystoyka and cooling about 24 — 26 ° С.
From the lower tier, the sloping 41 conveyor and the horizontal 37 conveyor provide candy sheets to the 38 wrapping machines. Typists of wrapping machines manually remove the candy sheets from the conveyor and place them on the table of the machine. Wrapped candies with 42, 43 and 44 conveyors are fed to automatic 45 scales. Here there is a batch automatic weighing and filling of candies in a box of corrugated cardboard, which are fed to the 46 machine by the 47 conveyor for pasting them with a gummed ribbon. Sealed boxes on carts go to the expedition of the factory.
The described production line developed by the Leningrad Confectionery Factory. Krupskaya together with VNIIKP and other organizations. For the first time, a multi-tiered plant developed by the factory for fast drying of chopped cases of candies on sheets solved the question of the complete mechanization of the production of multi-layer candies.
The line capacity is 1,2 — 1,4 t / h. The total length of the conveyor belt is about 130 m.
The mechanized production line production of praline with molding mass pressing off. This line is intended for the production of sweets and bars made from fatty praline masses, mainly on a nut basis. On the line, the processes of making praline candy masses, forming by pressing out the blanks of candy cases or bars (in the form of braids or strips, respectively, of round or rectangular cross-section), cooling in a stream of molded harness, cutting
them on separate cases of candies or bars, glazing with chocolate icing (in the manufacture of glazed candies), transporting products to wrapping machines, wrapping and packaging in trade packaging. In this case, the wrapping of products in such a line can be semi-automatic or automatic.
The main equipment of the line is machines for molding praline cases of candies and bars by pressing out: a screw press, a forming mechanism with a roller or gear supercharger or at small scales of semi-mechanized production - auger Press MFB-1. In addition, the line may include equipment for the preparation of praline masses, including the primary processing of fat-containing nuclei: a sorting machine, roasting drum, melange, rollers, mixers and other equipment, which is described in Chapters I-III. When producing glazed sweets with praline hulls, the enrobing machine may be included in the line.
On the production line, candies of the “Belochka”, “Mask”, “Kara-Kum” and other mass varieties are produced to produce glazed sweets with a praline-hull body (fig. 5.Z).
The finished nut mass (praline) is loaded into the 1 funnel, equipped with a worm blade shaft, through which the mass is kneaded, warmed up and brought to a state suitable for molding. With the 2 conveyor (metal or rubber tape), the mass is fed to the 3 molding machine. As a forming machine, presses SHVF-22, ShGF-22 or SPF can be used with the corresponding number of outlet openings in the die (from 5 to 22). The number of holes is governed by the width of the folding sheet of the enrobing unit (with a width of
800 mm web - 22 harness; with a width of 620 mm — 18 harnesses, etc.).
From the molding machine, the praline mass is squeezed onto the 4 receiving conveyor belt in the form of continuous bundles that enter the 5 cooling cabinet. In the cabinet there are cooling batteries and fans supporting air circulation with temperature 6 — 8 ° С. Usually cooling batteries and fans are installed under the belt of the receiving conveyor.
The harnesses cool down in the cooling cabinet and are divided into bodies by a guillotine knife on an 6 cutting machine. The knife makes reciprocating movement in the vertical and horizontal planes. By changing the stroke of the knife, you can change the length of the cut candy cases. Typically, the body has a cross section of 18 × 10 mm and a length of 38 — 40 mm.
Cases of candies are fed to the intermediate (folding) conveyor 7 and then to the enrobing machine 8, where they are covered with chocolate. To harden the chocolate shell, the candy conveyor 9 is fed to the cooling cabinet 10, similar to the cooling cabinet 5.
The cooled finished products from the 10 cabinet are fed to the 11 conveyor belt, above which the 12 series tape converters are located. The converter is an endless belt, driven by a pulley with a vertical axis of rotation. Several rows of candies moving on the 11 conveyor belt and advancing on the 12 converter belt are lined up along the same line and fed to the individual 13 belt feeder, which supplies them to the 14 wrapping machine. Depending on the productivity of the forming and enrobing machines, as well as the performance of the wrapping machines, they are installed 9 — 12 pcs. This number corresponds to the number of converters series. Wrapped products are transferred by narrow 15 conveyors to the 17 assembly conveyor, and then weighed and packed in cardboard boxes (see fig. 5.1, pos. 25 — 28).
Main technical data lines
|The line capacity, kg / h||900|
Tape width for receiving and cooling bundles mm
Number zavertočnyh machine-EU or EU-5 7, no.
|The length of the production line, mm (without loading the tape)||78 500|
|The width of the production line, mm||3 300|
If any machine is overloaded or stopped, candies from the 11 conveyor are dropped onto the 16 conveyor, at the end of which they are collected in trays and then transferred to stand-alone wrapping machines equipped with individual feeders.