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Confectionery

Equipment for the production of marmalade and pastilles.

In the confectionery industry, the production of marmalade and pastilles is relatively small.

The raw materials for their production are fruit and berry preparations and sugar. Fruits and berries in this production are mainly used in canned form.

(Pulp or puree). The pulp is converted into fruit and berry puree.

In the process of making marmalade and marshmallow, an important role is played by the processes of gelling. Applesauce contains pectin, which is a good student educator.

In the production of jelly marmalade, agar and agaroid prepared from seaweed, as well as apple, beet and citrus pectin are used as gelling components.

Our confectionery industry produces the following types of jelly-pastilles:

 Fruit and berry marmalade:

  • molded - made in the form of individual products of various configurations by pouring marmalade mass into rigid forms;
  • carved - made by cutting the marmalade layer into individual sticks;
  • plastic - it turns out by pouring marmalade mass into boxes filled with parchment, or into tin and cardboard boxes;
  • fruit yams - are produced from apricot, cornel, plum and other types of mashed potatoes by casting boiled mass into sugar or powdered sugar.

 Fruit jelly:

  • molded - made in the form of individual products of various configurations by casting marmalade mass into rigid forms;
  • three-layer - produced by cutting a three-layer marmalade layer into individual rectangular or diamond-shaped bars. The upper and lower layers are obtained from the marmalade mass, the middle - from jelly, whipped on proteins.
  • lemon and orange slices - are made in the form of semicircular slices of lemon and orange by cutting the semi-cylindrical marmalade loaves with the crust into separate slices.

 Pastila products:

  • carved marshmallow - produced in the form of rectangular products obtained by cutting the pastille layer;
  • marshmallow - gum sticks - is produced in the form of products of spherical or oval shape, formed by jigging halves with their subsequent gluing.

Carved marshmallow after molding is dried in the dryer. After molding, the marshmallow matures in the workshop or in special chambers.

The production of the listed marmalade-pastila is carried out on semi-mechanized and mechanized production lines. Each of the marmalade paste production lines usually consists of the following equipment groups:

station for the preparation of prescription blends (mixtures of fruit and sugar-syrup-agar syrup);

Equipment for molding blanks of products (castings jelly products, marmalade seams, pastes, jigging marshmallow pieces, etc...), their vystoyki, drying and cooling;

Equipment for finishing (sugar dusting, broadcasting), filling or packing products in retail packaging.

 The computer-hardware circuits manufacturing marmalade and pastilles

Mechanized production line for the production of shaped apple marmalade. The line (fig. 7.1) consists of a recipe and cooking station, a marmalado dispenser and a dryer. Mashed potatoes, previously rubbed on a wiping machine through a sieve with a cell diameter of 1,5 mm, are pumped into the 7 mixers, which are used to make a blended mashed potatoes in order to obtain a homogeneous mass of mashed potatoes of necessary acidity and gelling ability.

From faucets puree using 2 pump pumped into the car wiper 3 to control rubbing through a sieve with holes of 0,8 mm. Pureed mashed metal descent enters the collecting bag 4 further gear pump 5 10 pumped into the mixer for sugar-apple mixture. The required amount is determined by the level puree.

The mixer has a horizontal mechanical stirrer with U-shaped blades, mounted on a shaft along a helical line. Sugar, shore, sodium lactate, syrup and waste are loaded into the 10 mixer according to the recipe. Before being loaded into the mixer, granulated sugar is sifted, passed through magnetic catchers, and is supplied to the 7 bunker of 6 autoweights by a bucket elevator. Molasses is supplied from the measuring tank 8, and sodium lactate from the tank 9.

From the mixer, the sugar-apple mixture is fed by an 12 gear pump through the 11 filter to the 13 digester with a stirrer where it is brought to a boil. Next, with the 14 plunger pump, the mixture is fed to the 15 continuous three-chamber cooker for vacuum-free boiling. From the cooker, the boiled mass enters the 16 steam trap. The final moisture content of the marmalade mass is 30 — 32%, the mass temperature at the outlet is 106 — 107 ° С.

The boiled mass from the 16 steam trap enters the 17 tempering machine, and from there the 18 plunger dosing pump into the 21 casting head of the casting machine. The essence, food coloring and acid are added to the 20 mixer. There are only four mixers. The casting head is also divided into 4 sections, which allows you to cast marmalade of four colors.

At the bottom of the casting head mounted metering and Finish mechanism 20 plungers.

The casting machine has a chain conveyor 22; Four rows of molds, stamped from stainless steel, are mounted into the cells of metal plates. The dosing mechanism pours mass into the cells of the forms of a moving conveyor The upper branch of the conveyor passes after casting the molds through the cooling chamber 19 with the fan 36 and the cooling battery 37, where gelation and structure formation of the marmalade mass takes place. Forms from the conveyor then go to the bottom of the machine, heat up from the 23 coil, and marmalade sampling approaches the 4 mechanism.

When heated, it melts and forms multiple product surface in contact with the metal, resulting in weakening of the bond between the articles and material forms. Extraction of product forms performed pneumatically. To have the general shape of the cavity and the bottom of each cell is connected with it several openings. At sampling portion is pressed to form a chamber in which the compressor in the intermittent mode is supplied with compressed air. Through a common cavity and the air holes in the bottoms product presses and pushes them into the tray mounted on 33 conveyor.

Trays are introduced into the machine conveyor marmeladootlivochnuyu 34, removed from his two shelving vertical conveyors 35, rise and set on the conveyor mechanism under the 33 24 sample.The computer-hardware circuits mechanized flow production line of mold and apple fruit jelly

 Figure 7.I. The computer-hardware circuits mechanized flow production line of mold and apple fruit jelly

Trays with marmalade conveyor 33 served in the dryer 25. The dryer is designed for continuous drying and cooling of marmalade. The dryer is made in the form of a welded frame, insulated with shields, inside which are mounted two closed vertical shelf conveyor 26, serving to lift the trays, and two similar conveyor 30 for lowering them. Vertical conveyors are interconnected by an 27 overhead conveyor. While lifting up, the trays are blown with hot air, which is supplied by 28 fans. The air is heated by 29 steam heaters. The 27 conveyor removes trays from the shelves of the 26 conveyors and installs them on the shelves of the 30 conveyors that lower them. Moving in the vertical mines, the marmalade is heated with hot air and dried.

With the passage of the last tiers of the second shaft, before the trays leave the dryer, the marmalade is blown out of the 32 fan with air from the workshop temperature and cooled.

Bottom conveyor 31 trays with marmalade removed from the dryer and transferred to the installation. Empty trays are returned to the 34 conveyor to the casting machine for loading.

The line is 290 kg / h.

Semi-mechanized production line for the production of three-layer jelly marmalade. From the 1 collection (fig. VII.2), the sugar-agar syrup is supplied to the 2 coil cooker with a 3 metering pump. The syrup, boiled to the required moisture, is fed to the preparation of colored layers of products in 5 tempering machines and to the preparation of a whipping layer to an 6 whipping machine. The secondary steam from the boiled syrup is taken to the 4 steam trap.

When preparing the jelly mass for the upper and lower layers of the formation, molasses, applesauce, acid, dye and essence are added to the tempering machine. After mixing, the jelly mass enters the filling machine 7. When preparing the mass for the middle layer of the reservoir, egg white is added to the whipping machine. The whipped mass is also fed to the filling machine 7. The casting of the layers is carried out sequentially with the appropriate intervals of time necessary for the gelling of each of the layers.The computer-hardware circuits polumehanizirovannoy flow production line three-layered fruit jelly

 Fig. 7.2. The computer-hardware circuits polumehanizirovannoy flow production line three-layered fruit jelly

At the Udarnitsa factory, layers are being poured from a hose into trays installed on 8 mobile racks. After the upper layer is cast, the trays on the 8 mobile racks are transferred to the 9 stand-up chamber or stand in the workshop.

The finished marmalade formations are laid on the 10 cutting machine loading conveyor, where they are cut into separate slices and sprinkled with sugar. The sliced ​​marmalade is laid out on a sieve, mounted on 9 rack trolleys, and fed to an 11 dryer. After cooling, dried marmalade is placed in a container on an 12 conveyor.

The line up to 4 tons per shift.

Mechanized production line of carved marshmallow production. In the production of carved adhesive pastes, in addition to the main raw material: fruit preparations, sugar, molasses — agar is used in an air-dry form (with a moisture content of 15 — 28%) or in the form of 1% water jelly, essence and dyes. The marshmallow is usually available in white and pink colors, in the form of rectangular square rods.

The line diagram is shown in fig. 7.3. Entering the mill barrel with canned sliced ​​apples (pulp) after the washing using bochkooprokidyvatelya 1 discharged into the crusher 2, and then shredded pulp from the collection 3 pump 4 fed to the digester 5 with vertical stirrer and exhaust ventilation to remove vapors with vydeliyuschimsya during desulfurization with sulfur dioxide - sulfur oxide (IV). The unloading nozzle of the boiler is located above the 6 cleaning machine funnel. The desulfitated apple sauce from the 5 boiler goes by gravity to the 6 wiper. The cleaned mash from the 6 cleaning machine enters the 7 collector, which is a rectangular container with a sloping bottom, from where the mass of the 8 gear pump is pumped into the cylindrical collector 11.

From the mernik puree by gravity enters the 10 autobalance, which weighs a certain dose and is fed into the 9 sugar-apple mixture mixer with a paddle stirrer. Along with the mashed potatoes, sugar, previously sieved on a vibrating screen, is fed into the 9 mixer. The sifted sugar is pneumatically transported to the 14 hopper, from where the 15 screw is transferred to the 16 autoweight, weighed and fed through the 17 tray to the 9 mixer. Returnable waste is fed to this mixer. They enter the collection 32, divided by a partition into two parts. They are loaded waste, respectively, pink and white.

After the 31 machine was rubbed with waste from the 30 collection, the 29 pump piped into one of the collections: for pink waste — 12 or for white waste — 13. From these collections, the waste enters the autoweights / 0, is weighed, and in a specific dose is fed into the 9 mixer, from which the mixture is fed by an 18 gear pump into the 39 tank. From this tank, the prepared sugar-apple mixture is fed with an 40 plunger dosing pump with an adjustable plunger stroke into the first body of the 41 unit for continuous beating of the flat mass.

In parallel with the preparation of the sugar-apple mixture, a sugar-agar syrup is prepared. In a double-sided 20 cooker, specific portions of pre-soaked agar, molasses, sugar and water are served.

Molasses enters the factory in tank trucks and is discharged into the 28 collection, in one part of which there is a steam coil that provides the necessary quantity of molasses. The heated molasses by the 27 gear pump is pumped into the 23 collector with a float device, from where the measure “24 measuring device is in a certain proportion supplied to the 20 cooking appliance.

Sugar 14 auger fed from a tank truck scales 22 21, weighted portion of which enters the sugar cooker 20. At the same time of the measuring device in the 25 20 cooker with water.

The mixture of agar, sugar, molasses and water is mixed and boiled down to a homogeneous mass, then through the filter collection 26 pump 19 is fed into the collection 33, and from there by pump-dispenser 34 into the cooking apparatus 35. The heating part of the coil apparatus is used as a cooking apparatus. From the apparatus, boiled syrup enters the 36 steam trap, which is a cylindrical tank with a grill inside. Boiled syrup, striking this grate, releases secondary steam sucked by a fan, and then the partially cooled syrup enters the 37 collection, from where it is pumped by the 38 plunger dosing pump into the second body of the 41 aggregate for continuous pastiring

In addition to the sugar-apple mixture and sugar-syrup agar syrup, protein, essence, acid, and food coloring are introduced into the 42 dispenser unit.

The finished pastile mass from the 41 whipping unit enters the 43 hopper of the casting head of the slab-free casting unit, which spreads the mass in a uniform layer on the 55 oil belt, which is on the 54 steel steel strap. To eliminate the spreading mass at the edges of the tape, two restrictive 56 conveyors are installed. The steel tape is continuously cooled with water using an 44 spraying device.

When passing through the 46 and 47 chambers with forced air flow from the 48 fan, the continuous pastila layer is completely standing and then goes to the inclined 49 conveyor belt. The reverse branch of the oil-conveyor belt is continuously flushed in the 45 bath.

Withstand pastel layer is then fed into the installed flow and cutting machine, which disc blades 50 cut into six longitudinal stripes.7.3

Knives 51, fixed to an endless chain, strip cut across the pas some lozenges that are placed on a sieve, moving on chain conveyor 52.

Filled with blanks pastes sieves stacked on the trolley, which by means of the traction chain, mounted on the floor, pass through the tunnel dryer 53. After drying, the paste is placed on the conveyor dusting machine 57 and transferred to the packaging.

The line with a slot loading unit casting weight up to 4,5 tons per shift.

The production of marshmallow is carried out according to a similar machine-instrumental scheme and is characterized by the final operations: the whipped mass will be fed into the marshmallow marshalling machine, the halves of the products placed on the trays stand, and then glued together and sprinkled with powdered sugar.

 Equipment for the manufacture of marmalade

Machinery for making marmalade-pastilla are devices for boiling marmalade mass and a machine for forming blanks for marmalade products: marmalade machine for tin fruit and jelly marmalade, cutting machines for jelly marmalade and equipment for making lemon and orange slices. The shaped marmalade blanks are dried in a dryer.

When boiling marmalade masses, excess moisture is removed from the sugar-apple mixture and at the same time the removal of sulfur dioxide - sulfur oxide (IV), which was used to preserve the applesauce. Sugar-apple mixture has an initial moisture content of 43-45%, sugar-and-syrup agar syrup 30 - 33%. Final moisture of marmalade

mass depends on the formulation and type of products. It ranges from 24 — 33%.

For boiling marmalade masses in large enterprises, coil ovens of continuous action are used, and in enterprises with a small output, three-chamber, spherical or universal vacuum cooking apparatuses are used.

Marmeladootlivochny unit SHF1-M6. The unit is intended for the production of shaped apple and jelly marmalade by casting the mass into molds. The following operations are performed on the unit: dosing of flavoring and coloring matter and mixing them with the marmalade mass; simultaneous casting of marmalade mass of four colors; gelatinization of marmalade in forms; extraction of marmalade from forms on trays; sprinkling of jelly marmalade with sugar; feed trays from the feeder to the sampling mechanism; washing forms.

Marmeladootlivochny unit SHF1-M6 (fig. 7.4) consists of a gelling chamber, a casting head, a conveyor with molds and a feeder for trays.Marmeladootlivochny unit SHF1-M6.

A mixture of acid, dye and essence is mixed with the marmalade mass in a vertical hopper 3. There are four such hoppers on the unit, therefore, it is possible to prepare a marmalade mass of four colors. A portion of the prepared marmalade mass is pumped by metering pumps 4 through the pipeline 5 to the corresponding sections of the hopper 6. The hopper has four sections and is equipped with a jacket for hot water circulation. The temperature of the mass is controlled by a thermometer 7. The hopper has a shaft with blades, which during operation continuously rotates and mixes the mass with the blades, preventing it from accumulating on the walls of the hopper.

Attached to the bottom of the hopper is a spool box 8, containing 20 vertical plungers and spools. The plungers and spools are driven through a system of levers from the camshaft. Regulation of the volume of the poured marmalade mass is provided for on the common drive and on each plunger separately, which allows to achieve accurate dosage of the portion.

Devices for preparing and casting memeladic mass are located above the 9 conveyor with forms. It consists of two infinite chains with four plates attached to them, each of which has two rows of stamped molds of various configurations with a relief pattern. The volume of the mold is designed for one product with a mass of 14.

Forms with the marmalade mass cast in them are sent to the gelling chamber 2. It is a closed insulated cabinet, divided into upper and lower compartments. In the upper compartment is moving multi-tiered chain conveyor with forms. In the lower compartment is an air cooler, consisting of two brine batteries and a fan installation. The air passing through the air cooler is cooled and then supplied to cool the marmalade. On the overlap of the gelling chamber, two 1 nozzles of rectangular cross section are installed for suctioning fresh air and removing humidified air. Nozzles overlap with gate valves.

At the end of the gelling, the forms with the marmalade are turned upside down out of the gelling chamber and transferred to the sampling mechanism. It is installed inside the machine frame and consists of a heater and a pneumatic shaker. When heated, the surface of the products is melted and their connection with the mold material is weakened. In addition, compressed air is supplied to the backs of the cells in which 8 — 10 holes have been drilled with a diameter of 0,3 mm. By air pressure, the marmalade is pushed onto trays.

Trays are installed in the hopper of the 11 feed conveyor. It separates the bottom tray from the stack and inserts the tray into the machine. The system of two vertical shelf conveyors rises to the sampling mechanism and, after filling with marmalade, is taken out of the machine with the 10 conveyor.

During the transition to the release of jelly marmalade on the conveyor 10 conveyor feed trays additionally set the belt conveyor, which is sampled marmalade. The conveyor dumps marmalade into trays with sugar. Gelling time can be changed using the variator included in the drive of the unit.

The basic technological scheme of the unit ШФ1-М6 is shown in fig. 7. 1 (pos. 19 — 24, 33 — 37).

Performance marmeladootlivochnogo unit (kg / hr) is determined by the formula

P = 60mnq, (VII. 1)

where t is the number of pistons of the dosing device (t = 20); n is the number of low tides per minute; q is the average mass of marmalade in one cell of the mold, kg (<7 = 0,014).

Technical characteristics marmeladootlivochnogo unit SHF1-M6

Productivity, kg / h 290
gelation time, with 240-3600
Number of simultaneously molded products 20
cold consumption, kW 20,8
Air pressure in the mold at-blowing, MPa 0,1-0,15
The vapor pressure when heated, MPa 0,04-0,06
Electric motor power, kW 9,84
Number of staff 3
Overall dimensions, mm 10 700X2450X2490
Weight, kg 10 000,

The unit for the production of marmalade type of orange and lemon slices. The unit carried out casting and studneobrazovanie white and colored layer of crust, pouring the mass on the surface of the crust and studneobrazovanie loaves and loaves of sugar dusting, their vystoyka and cutting into slices.

The unit (fig. 7.5, a) consists of 2 and 5 casting heads for crusting; whipping machine 4 \ mechanism for cutting the crust into strips; 6 casting head for the formation of a loaf; 9 grooved conveyor for forming loaf; 10 devices for sprinkling loaves with sugar; 1 cutting machines \ 3, 7 and 8 tempering machines to prepare marmalade masses for casting; belt conveyor systems for gelling of crusts and loaves.

The sugar-syrup agar syrup is boiled in a coil cooking column to a moisture content of 27 — 28%, cooled to a temperature of 40 — 50 ° С. Aromatic substances, colorants and acid are added to the cooled syrup.

For the upper crust of the lobules, the syrup is colored in two colors: yellow for lemon slices, orange or red for orange slices.

The technological diagram of the unit is shown in Fig. 7.5, b. 11 Colored syrups are fed into two sections of the funnel 3 of the casting mechanism, which simultaneously pours the upper layers of the crust of two colors onto the belt conveyor 1. The syrup is dispensed with a two-section slotted tap. The thickness of the syrup layer is 1-1,5 mm. The surface of the layer is leveled with a knife plate. After passing through the cooler 4> the layer hardens and fits under the filling mechanism 5.The unit for the production of marmalade-type lemon and orange slices:

 Fig. 7.5. The unit for the production of marmalade-type lemon and orange slices:

a - general view; b - technological scheme

In the funnel of the 5 mechanism from the 6 whipping machine, a white whipped mass is fed for the inner layer of the crust. The mass is poured out through the slotted crane of the mechanism and is applied in an even layer on the first layer. Additional leveling of the second layer is carried out with a knife plate. A two-layer formation up to 3 mm thick passes the 7 chamber, where it is subjected to air blasting. After geathing in the 7 chamber, the layer passes to the additional belt conveyor and passes under the 9 disk knives. Knives cut a layer into longitudinal strips 70 mm wide.

The cut strips go into the longitudinal gutters of a semicircular cross section of the 11 grooved conveyor. By design, it is a chain plate conveyor, the plates of which have channels of semicircular cross-section. When plates are closed with each other, continuous channels are formed - troughs in which the strata of the reservoir are laid, lining the entire surface of them.

The 10 piston filling mechanism fills the gutters with jelly syrup for loaves. The syrup is quickly aggravated by the flow of air into the 12 cabinet, cooled to a temperature of 8 — 10 ° C.

After gelling, the loaves go to the inclined 14 belt conveyor, which then transfers them to the / 5 belt conveyor, which is pre-sprinkled with sugar-sand. When switching to this conveyor, the loaves are also sprinkled with sugar. The sugar dispenser has two 18 vibrating sieves, an 16 elevator for returning excess sand and an 17 dispenser.

From the 15 conveyor, sprinkled loaves are transferred to the 19 conveyor belt for holding. The air in the 20 box is cold. After vystoyka loaves transferring conveyor 21 served under the guillotine knife 22 cutting machine. Cut slices sprinkled with sugar from the dispenser 23 and removed from the machine conveyor 24.

The 1 crust conveyor belt and the 11 grooved lamellar conveyor on the back branches have cleaning scrapers and 8 and 13 washing devices. To eliminate sticking of the mass to the 1 conveyor belt, it is lubricated with an invert syrup using an 2 spreading roller. The filling funnels are heated and equipped with agitators.

The unit is part of the A2-ShLD mechanized production line for the production of lemon and orange slices, developed by UkrNIIprodmash. The capacity of the line is 150 kg / h; electric motor power - 30 kW; Overall dimensions (in mm): 16660XXNNXXX5000; weight 3600 10 kg.

The machine for cutting three-layer jelly marmalade and lemon and orange slices. The machine consists of the following main components (Fig. VII.6, a): a feed conveyor U, an 6U cutting-folding device 7 receiving conveyor, an 4 sugar elevator, 3 sugar bins and 2 and 5 vibrating screens.

Fruit jelly in the form of long loafs or a three-layer layer is placed on the U conveyor, which moves periodically, each time moving through the thickness of the product being cut. Before serving to the cutting device, the surface of the loaves or layer is sprinkled with sugar using an 2 vibrating screen.

Cutting long loafs for lemon and orange slices is done with a smooth guillotine knife, making a reciprocating movement vertically. When cutting layers of three-layer marmalade, a smooth knife is replaced with a corrugated one with short longitudinal blades. Cutting is carried out at the time of stopping the feed conveyor.Machine for cutting three-layered fruit jelly and orange and lemon slices.

In fig. 7.6, b shows a diagram of the cutting-folding device. The marmalade layer 2, coming off the 1 feed conveyor belt, rests on the 4 bridge. The side walls of the 3 prevent the formation from shifting. The 7 knife is attached to the yoke, to which the 5 pressure plate with spring shock absorber is attached. The cut marmalade slices are removed from the surface of the knife by the blades of the rotating 8 comb, pass through the 9 tray and are picked up by the rotating 10 comb. From the blades of the 10 comb, lobules are transferred to the inclined comb

Swinging emphasis 13 evens series cloves and lowers them on the conveyor 14.

During the passage through the 9 tray, slices are sprinkled with sugar using an 6 vibrating screen. The excess sugar is sent by the 12 auger to the sifter mounted at the bottom of the machine and from there to the grain elevator, which returns the sugar to the bunker for sprinkling marmalade.

Technical characteristics of the machine to cut marmalade

Machine productivity (in kg / h) is determined by the formula

P = 60mnС / R, (7.2)

where m is the number of slices simultaneously cut in one stroke of the knife (t = 7); n is the number of knife strokes per minute (n1 = 59; n2 = 67, n3 = 82; n4 = 93); R - the number of products in 1 kg (for lemon and orange slices to— = 120 pcs./kg; for three-layer marmalade R = 60 pcs./kg); C - coefficient taking into account returnable waste

Lemon and orange three-ply
Machine productivity (in kg / h) at the number of knife strokes per minute slices jujube
pg - 59 206 412
/ Г2 = 67 235 470.
п3 = 82 287 574
я4 = 93

Proceedings of the input conveyor, mm

325 650
for cutting loaves 5
cutting sandwich layers 12
The speed of the receiving conveyor,

m / s

Electric motor power, kW

0,46
1
Motor shaft rotation frequency, rpm 930
Overall dimensions, mm 5600X 1050X2770
Weight, kg 967

 

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