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Confectionery

Equipment for the production of marshmallows and marshmallow

 For the manufacture of pastille and marshmallow masses are used beaters of periodic action and continuously operating units.Formation of marshmallowstvlyaetsya on machines for casting pastille mass into the layers, followed by cutting them into pieces of workpieces on pastiral cutting machines, after which the pastila is dried in special dryers.
For marshmallow molding machines used zefirootsadochnye.
Beating unit K-18 continuous. The unit is designed for continuous preparation of pastila and marshmallow mass by whipping a mixture of apple puree with sugar and egg white and mixing the whipped mixture with sugar-sponge-agar syrup, dye, acid and essence.
The unit (Fig. 7.7) consists of two beaters 14 and 16 and 20 mixer mounted on a welded frame 26.
The top whisking machine 14 is a horizontally arranged cylindrical stainless steel body, which in the lower part has an 27 shirt, which is necessary for tempering an apple puree mixture with sugar. Steel flanges 12 are welded to the body, to which end caps 13 with two 6 brackets are attached to the bolts, which are used for mounting 7 23 shaft bearings with 25 blades on them.
25 blades are designed to whip the mass and move it along the body. On the shaft there are six 24 crossings, consisting of sleeves, to which the blades are welded at an angle 15 ° to the generator cylinder. In each blade there are three holes through which the longitudinal bars are passed, fixed on the extreme crossings. These rods are designed to whip the mixture.
All parts of the crosses and blades are made of stainless steel. The shaft is made of 45 steel and in places of contact with the mass is covered with covers made of stainless steel pipes.
The body has an 8 pipe for receiving a mixture of mashed potatoes and sugar, an 11 pipe for tapping the mass from the first whipping machine to the second and an 10 pipe for connecting to an exhaust fan that removes sulfur dioxide (IV) emitted from the apple sauce during the whipping . For cleaning the machine, four 9 covers are provided in the housing, which can be closed during operation.
The bottom whipping machine 16 has a similar design. The only difference is that the movement of mass occurs in the opposite direction, and, consequently, the blades of the crosses and the blades for moving the mass are turned in the opposite direction. In addition, the inlet and outlet connections have the same diameter.
The 20 mixer is similar in design to a whipping machine. There are four T-shaped 29 blades on the 30 shaft,Beating unit K-18 continuous.
which are located so that they occupy one third of the shaft, and the rest of the four pairs of 28 blades are placed through which two stainless steel strips are passed to clean the walls of the case from the mass. T-shaped blades can be rotated up to 15 ° to the longitudinal axis of the shaft. Two pairs of middle blades are located at an angle 15 ° to the shaft axis, and the extreme ones - at an angle 45 ° in the direction of rotation, which provides the best cleaning of the end walls of the mass.
The mixer housing has an inlet 2 and an outlet 22 inlet; two inspection hatches 4 and 21 with hinged lids, which are located at an angle 15 ° to the vertical plane passing through the axial line of the cylinder; 3 nozzle for supplying agar glue, nozzle for supplying dye and essence and two 5 covers.
The drive of the whipping machines consists of an 1 electric motor and two belt drives. The motor drives the rotation of the paddle shaft of the lower whipping machine via a belt drive, from the other end of which via a belt drive with the gear ratio 1: 1 the rotation is transferred to the paddle shaft of the upper machine. For tensioning the belts, an 15 tensioning pulley is provided.
The drive of the mixer consists of an 17 electric motor, a 18 worm gearbox with a 1: 16 transmission ratio. The shaft of the worm gear wheel is connected to the paddle shaft of the whipping machine using an elastic 19 clutch.
Dosing of sugar-apple mixture and agar glue is carried out by plunger syrup pumps used in caramel production. Instead of valves, rotary valve spools are used in them. The egg white feeder is a constant level tank with a float valve on the inlet line and a cork discharge valve in the bottom.
From the dosing devices, apple puree, granulated sugar and egg white are continuously fed through the feed funnel to the top whipping machine. With continuous stirring, the sugar completely dissolves in the mass of applesauce and protein. The resulting homogeneous mass as whipping gradually thickens, is saturated with air and increases in volume. At the same time, it moves with blades along the body of the machine. Then the mass through the discharge funnel enters the lower whipping machine.
From the second machine, the mass enters the mixer, where syrup is continuously supplied by the plunger pump, and through special measuring tanks - dyes and essence. The rotating shaft of the blades mixes the mass thoroughly, moving it to the outlet, and the finished pastile mass with a humidity of about 40% at 38 — 42 ° C comes through the discharge funnel to be poured into trays.
Performance whipping unit (kg / h) can be calculated by the formula
P = 60Vрφ / τ, (VII.3)
where V is the capacity of the beater body, m3 (Y = 0,35); ρ is the density of the knocked down mass, kg / m3 (for marshmallow p = 650, for marshmallow p = 500); φ is the filling factor of the body with the mass at the outlet (f = 0,2- ^ 0,4); t - whipping time, min (t = 6-8).
Technical characteristics of whipping unit K-18
The unit SHZD-1 for continuous cooking zephyr mass under pressure. The unit (Fig. 7.8) developed VNIIKP.
Preparation of the mixture for beating is made in the 10 mixer, to which all components of the mixture are continuously fed - applesauce from the 1 collection through the 2 constant level tank with the 3 plunger pump, egg white {from the 4 tank with 5 pump, boiled sugar-patar-agar pump from the collection 6 with the plunger pump 7. Sugar is fed into the mixer funnel from the 16 collector through the 15 magnetic catcher and the 14 metering device. For dosing of acid and dye with essence, 8 and 9 tanks are installed. The recipe mixer is equipped with a water jacket for tempering the mixture.
The finished recipe mix comes from the 10 mixer to the 11 receiving tank (heated), from which the 12 gear pump is continuously fed to the 13 rotary mixer emulsifier, and air from the 20 receiver is injected into the mixture.
Productivity, kg / h When φmin= 0,2  At φmах = 0,4
by weight Pastila 468 936
"Zephyr mass 360 720
Dimensions of enclosures and the mixer beaters, mm
length 2000
diameter 350
shaft speed, rev / min
Beating machines 300
mixer 94
Power, kW Frequency of rotation, rpm
Electric motors
Beating machines 10 980
mixer 1 1410
plunger pumps
for sugar-apple mixture 1 930
for sugar-agarovo 1 930
of syrup
Overall dimensions (without 3190CHXXXXXXXXXXX
gatelnogo equipment), mm
Weight, kg 1260

To regulate air pressure, an 19 air reducer with 17 gauges is installed. The amount of incoming air is measured with a rotor 18.
The whipping installation consists of a split whipping chamber and a drive with a variator. Inside the whipping chamber (see fig. II.8) there are two stators, of which one is fixedly fixed to the housing, and the second to the chamber cover. On the inside of each stator there are teeth located in 16 concentric rows. Between the teeth of the stators areThe scheme of the unit SHZD-1 for beating marshmallow mass under pressure
Fig. 7.8. The scheme of the unit SHZD-1 for beating marshmallow mass under pressure
 rotor teeth; tooth sizes are chosen such that an annular channel of a tortuous shape with a width of I mm is formed. The prescription mixture together with the air coming from the compressor and having pressure 0,4 — 0,6 MPa is fed into the chamber. The rotor is made of bronze and has a diameter of 348 mm. The inner surface of the whipping chamber is made of stainless steel, and the stators are made of bronze. Whipping chamber equipped with a jacket for water cooling.
Technical characteristics of the unit SHZD-1
Productivity, kg / h 600
Capacity whipping chamber, g 200-250
mass
Rotor diameter, mm 348
Rotor speed, rev / min 280
Power rotor motor, kW 4
Overall dimensions, mm 3710X3500X3245
Total weight of the unit, kg 2793
Shestyruchevaya pastylorezatelnaya machine. The machine is designed for cutting layers of pastel mass into pastille blanks with dimensions 73x21x20 mm. Shestyruchevaya pastylorezatelnaya machine.The main units of the machine (fig. 7.9) are: 3 belt conveyor for receiving pastille bed, pump, 1 vibrating sieve for powdering the conveyor belt with sugar powder, 4 machine for cutting the layer into longitudinal strips, six-belt 5 conveyor for feeding strips to the cross-section 6 belt 2 conveyor for sieves with 12 lever sieve on the chain and 7 overtaking mechanism, 8 drive, 9 auger for returning the fragments of the lateral sides of the formation during longitudinal cutting. All mechanisms are mounted on the 11 frame.
The slitting mechanism consists of a shaft on which 7 circular knives with a diameter of 100 mm are hardened. The disks are mounted at a distance of 73 mm from one another, so that the width of the cut strips is also equal to 73 mm. The cutting edges of the discs pass between the 5 six-ply conveyor belts and are pressed against the rubber discs attached to the roller mounted under the belts. The peripheral speed of the knives is equal to the speed of movement of the reservoir. Each cutting disc is equipped with a double-sided spring scraper, which cleans its surface from the stuck paste mass.
When switching from the 2 conveyor to the 5 six-way conveyor, the formation is supported from below by the freely rotating 10 roller.
As we approach the mechanism of cross-cutting 6 tape conveyor streams diverge in the horizontal plane, pushing Pastila weight bands from each other.
The mechanism of cross-cutting (rice 7.10) consists of a chain conveyor 4 \ of the 7 drive shaft, on which drive sprockets and a drum 6 \ of a tension shaft 2 with driven sprockets are fitted; spring loaded roller and 1 safety guard. The pitch of the chains is equal to the width of the pastila bar (21 mm). The links of both chains are connected in pairs by transverse blades, the plane of which is located to the axis of the chain link at an angle 84 °. The central axis of the conveyor is inclined to the horizon at an angle 30 °, and the angle between the surface of the six-segment conveyor and the lower branch of the chain conveyor with knives is 6 °. The speeds of these transporters are equal.
When moving the knives, the chains gradually cut into bands of pastes perpendicular to their surface, but not completely cut them in order to avoid damage to the conveyor belts. The final cutting of the strips takes place on the 5 pressure drum, covered with a layer of food rubber. Cut pastila bars, clamped by adjacent knives, are transferred by them to the place of laying on the tray.
Laying takes place as follows: when the chain runs on the drive sprockets, the angle between adjacent knives increases and the ends of the knives diverge, which facilitates the removal of the cut pastila bars from the inter-knife space.
The final ejection of the bars on the sieve is produced by a forced ejection device. It is a drum that is attached to the leading sprockets of the knife conveyor. Inside the drum there is a 32 longitudinal radial groove, each of which contains a punch, which is a steel rodThe mechanism of cross-cutting pastes
 Fig. 7.10. The mechanism of cross-cutting pastes
with six ledges to which ejector pins are attached. The ends of the punches come out of the drum and the pins enter the grooves of the 5 cams, which are attached on both sides to the bearings of the drive shaft of sprockets.
When the leading sprockets rotate, the drum also rotates, and hence the punches, whose shanks with their ends move in the grooves of the fixed cams. Punches at the same time make a complex movement - rotational and radial. Due to the radial movement of the punches with their ejector, they gently press the pastille bars at the moment when the knives diverge and the bars fall on the sieve.
For the convenience of washing knives, a washing device 3 is provided, which consists of a casing, a bubbler and a discharge hose. Hot water is pumped into the bubbler, from where it flows through the holes to the knives, washing the sticky mass from them, collects in the bath and from there goes through the hose to the sewage system.
The sieves are fed to the place of loading with a 2 chain conveyor (see fig. 7.9) with a chain pitch of 35 mm. The figure shows the pattern of laying the pastille bars along the length of the sieves. When the laying of the bars on the first sieve is over, the overtaking mechanism informs the conveyor of accelerated movement, and the next row of bars stacks on the front edge of the next sieve, without falling into the gap between the sieves.
The machine is equipped with a three-stage gearbox.
machine throughput (kg / h) is calculated by the formula
P = 3600bhрvС, (VI 1.4)
where b is the distance between the extreme disc blades, m (6 = 0,438); h— bed height, m ​​(6 = 0,02); p is the mass density in the reservoir, kg / m3 (p = 6504-4-700); V - the speed of the knife conveyor, m / s; C - coefficient taking into account the intervals between the layers and trimming the end sides of the layer (C = 0,934-0,97).
Technical characteristics pastilorezatelnoy machines
Speed ​​and manufacturer
of:
Speed ​​knife transPorter, m / s trans speedPorters forsieves, m / s Manufacturerof the machine,kg / h
υ1 = 0,024 0,037 423
υ2 = 0,028 0,049 555
υ3 = 0,039 0,064 732
Distance between disk 73
E knives, mm
Step on the cutter blades 21
conveyor mm
Electric motors and ektr odvi Power, Rotation frequency
kW of, r / min
for all machine mechanisms 1,0 1410
for vibrating screen 0,25 1400
Overall dimensions, mm 9250X1175X1405
Weight, kg 2300
In addition to the described six-blade pastih-cutting machine, there are four-strand machines that have not been widely distributed.
Zefirootsadochnaya machine. The machine is designed for forming halves of marshmallow jigging on the surface of trays.Zefirootsadochnaya machine.
The machine has the following basic components and mechanisms (Fig 7.11, as well.): 5 bunker Dosing-depositor mechanism 2U chain conveyor A drive mechanism 5, 6 base frame.
The chain conveyor consists of two parallel parallel endless chains with a pitch of / = 35 mm. For fixing the position of trays on a chain, links with stops are provided. During the jigging of marshmallow on the tray, the conveyor has a uniform movement. At the time of passage of the joints of the two trays under the toothed tips of the dosing-sedimentary mechanism, the conveyor receives an accelerated motion.
The machine is driven by an electric motor through a V-belt transmission and a disk-shoe speed variator.
The hopper is made of aluminum sheets. For heating the zephyr mass in the jigging process, the bunker is equipped with a water jacket. The mass temperature is monitored by an 4 thermometer.
At the bottom of the bunker, a dosing-jigging mechanism (Fig. 7, b) is attached to the bolts, which has a spool box 1 and a spool 2, which is a hollow cylinder divided by partitions into six chambers with equally spaced cuts. The spool performs a variable rotational motion at an angle 90 ° under the influence of the slot cam 8 through a leverage system.
The six 11 plungers are attached to a common traverse, which is reciprocated by a slotted 9 cam through a lever system. Using the 10 linkage mechanism, you can smoothly adjust the stroke of the 11 plungers and thereby ensure a predetermined dosage of the mass portion deposited on the tray. When the plungers come out of the spool box, their surface is moistened with vegetable oil to prevent sticking of the marshmallow mass.
Six flexible 3 corrugated hoses connect the outlets of the slide valve box to the 5 notched tips. The movable carriage 4, carrying on itself a frame with serrated lugs fixed on it, makes a reciprocating motion along the conveyor and across it under the influence of the end 6 and the cylindrical 7 cams through a lever system with a spring.
The zephyr mass poured into the bunker at the position of the spools when the windows of the spool box communicate with the bunker is sucked in as the plungers move into the metering cylinders. After the plungers move to the rearmost position, the spool rotates by 90 ° and thus communicates the metering cylinders with the outlet windows of the spool box. Then, the plungers, moving forward, squeeze the marshmallow mass out of the metering cylinders through the outlet windows of the slide valve box and further through the flexible hoses and jagged tips onto a tray moving along the conveyor. At the same time, the movable carriage with toothed tips attached to it makes a complex longitudinal-transverse translational motion, due to which each piece of marshmallow mass deposited acquires a round shape of a marshmallow with a corrugated surface ("shell").
At the end of the jigging process for detaching the precipitated zephyr mass from the tips, the direction of the speed of the carriage movement changes abruptly, which is achieved by compressing the spiral springs attached to the moving carriage.
Machine productivity (in kg / h) is determined by the formula
P = 60mnqC, (VII.5)
where m is the number of metering plungers (t = 6); n is the number of sediments per minute; q is the calculated mass of half marshmallow, kg; C - coefficient taking into account breaks in jigging.
Technical characteristics zefirootsadochnoy machine K-33
Zefir Zefir
"shell" "pie"
Productivity, kg / h 312,5 145,6
Number otsadok per minute 65,4 29,5
Mass halves marshmallow, kg 0,015 0,016
The coefficient of a break in deposition with 0,9 0,857
Number marshmallow rows along the length of the tray 18 12
The distance between the rows, mm 70 100
Tray Dimensions in mm 1400X400X60
Capacity hopper, m3 0, ,195
Electric motor power, kW 1
speed, rev / min 930
Overall dimensions, mm 5760X1100X1930
Weight, kg 1038
UkrNIIprodmash developed the A2-ShAZ unit for making marshmallow with or without filling. Products are molded directly into boxes with glued parchment paper outlets. The capacity of the 1450 unit of boxes per hour, the number of items in the box — 10, the mass of items in the box — up to 200.
 Dryers for fruit jellies and pastes
The most common way to remove moisture from materials is drying. In the process of drying, heat is supplied to the material being dried, under the influence of which moisture evaporates from the surface of the material. Various drying agents are used to supply heat and remove evaporated moisture: air, superheated steam. The drying agent, giving off heat to the evaporation of moisture, is cooled. In addition, it absorbs moisture evaporating from the surface of the material, is moistened and carries moisture away from the dryer.
As a result of moisture evaporation, the surface of the material dries up, the moisture concentration in the surface layer drops and a difference in moisture concentration (moisture gradient) is created in the material at different points of the material. Under the influence of this concentration difference, moisture moves (migrates) from the center of the material to its peripheral layers washed by a drying agent.7.12
However, apart from this process of hydraulic conductivity of the material is observed and the phenomenon of heat and moisture, which is to move
moisture under the influence of a temperature gradient in the direction of heat flow. Since the heat flux is directed from the periphery to the center, and the movement of water under the influence of a temperature gradient occurs as the center. Consequently, the total amount of moisture in the presence of both the displaced gradients from the center to the periphery, is the difference between the amount of moisture displaced by the action of moisture gradient from the center, and the amount of moisture moved to the center under the influence of the temperature gradient.
Thus, the drying of the material consists of three processes: the movement of moisture within the material to be dried from its center to its surface; and moving the pair of vaporization from the surface of the material to a drying agent. As a drying agent for food products is usually applied heated air.
At small enterprises, drying of material and marshmallow is carried out in chamber dryers of a dead end type, and at large enterprises - in tunnel conveyor dryers.
Tunnel conveyor dryer for marshmallow consists of a chamber in which a traction chain conveyor with pusher stops is located at the floor level, and a heating and air circulation system. The dryer tunnel is divided into two sections: drying and cooling. The drying section consists of nine chambers, the cooling section consists of two sections. The first zone of the drying section is occupied by two sections, the second zone - four sections and the third zone - three sections.
Each drying section has independent calorific-ventilation installations mounted on their upper floor (Fig. 7.12). They consist of two 2 plate heaters and one 1 axial fan (MC type No. 7) creating transverse hot air streams with alternating directions in the chamber. To achieve uniform drying of products, 4 diffusers are equipped with 3 air guides for uniform flow.
The 8 trolleys with products installed in the dryer chamber are affected by the transverse streams of hot air coming in from the air heaters through the 4 diffusers. Passing through the gaps between the grilles, the hot air takes away moisture from the products and the same fan is discharged through the opposite 7 diffuser for reuse with partial addition of fresh air to it. As the trolleys move along the tunnel, the direction of air flow changes, which ensures a more uniform drying of the products.
Moving trolleys along the tunnel is made by a chain conveyor 5, having a periodic movement. On the chain of fixed pusher stops trolleys that move along the track 6. To return the released cars to the place of loading products, another rail track with a traction chain is laid outside the camera.
Rotation of trolleys in the areas of their loading and unloading is done with the help of turntables mounted in the floor.
The productivity of the dryer (in kg / h) is determined by the formula:
P = qLzCt (rl)
where q is the mass of finished products on one trolley, kg; L is the length of the drying chamber, mm; z - is the number of drying chambers; C - coefficient taking into account recyclable waste; t is the duration of drying the pastilles, h; t - trolley installation step, mm. (7.6)
Technical characteristics of the dryer for pastes
Rated capacity, kg / h 560
Length, mm
drying tunnel area 22,700
cooling zone 5 880
chain conveyor 32 500
Step installation trolleys, mm 1625,6
The drying time, h 3,5
Number of sieves on a trolley 32
marshmallow on a trolley Weight, kg 70
The average speed of the chain conveyor, m / s 0,03
The number of air heater and ventilation units 9
Number of TsAGI axial fans No. 5 for cooling 2
zhdayuschey camera

UkrNYprodmash developed the A2-SHLZH / 4 shaft dryer for drying apple and jelly marmalade packed in trays. The schematic diagram of the dryer is shown in Fig. 7.1 (pos. 25 — 31).

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