For wrapping pastry used semi-automatic machines, in which the supply of products is carried out manually, and automatic; in which the products are fed to the wrapping automatically.
Machines and machines for wrapping candies, chocolates and toffee
In the confectionery industry, various semi-automatic and automatic machines for wrapping caramel, candy and toffee are most widely distributed
confectionery products. These machines usually consist of the following main components: a feeder for products, a feeder for wrapping material, a wrapper feed mechanism (tongs), a scissors mechanism for cutting the wrapper, a transporting device — a rotor or conveyor, wrapping mechanisms, a drive.
Machines for wrapping caramel and sweets are distinguished by the location of the working rotor (horizontal or vertical), by the methods and types of wrapping (with double-sided label twist, “in corner”, one-sided twist - “bow”, tight-fitting - when wrapped in foil and etc.) and on the methods of food products (manual or automatic) and wrapping materials (roll, flat or combined).
At present, semi-automatic machines with a horizontal rotor for wrapping products in a double twist, less often in a corner, with manual and automatic feeders for products, mainly with rolled feeders for wrapping materials, have spread.
This group includes wrapping machines such as ЕФ-1, ЕФ-2, ЕФ-3, ЕФ-4, ШАЗ, etc. These machines have a small capacity - up to 110 — 130 pcs. per minute.
Recently, automatic machines with a vertical rotor, automatic feeders for products and roll feeders for wrapping materials have become popular. Automatic machines for wrapping caramel, sweets and toffee with a vertically located rotor are more perfect and productive as compared to machines with a horizontal rotor, in which the transfer path of the product with a wrap from the feeder to the working rotor is shorter. The advantage of such machines is also the fact that in them the drive part is usually located in a more convenient for service location, away from the working part of the machine, and not under the working rotor, as in machines with horizontally placed rotors.
By wrapping machines with vertical rotor (or nodes, it is replaced), used in our factories, are machines: EY-3, EV-4, EV-5, EV-7, ZKTSA, 5IST, MOD-1, MOD-2 and al.
As a wrapping material, these machines use waxed paper with a density of 30 — 34 g / m2 for labels, waxed paper with a density of 25 — 30 g / m2 for padding, and aluminum foil with a thickness of 0,07 mm.
EF-type semi-automatic machines for wrapping caramel and sweets “in a corner” (“Nagema”, GDR). EF type machines are designed for wrapping caramel and candies of various shapes and sizes, for which the machines are equipped with interchangeable format parts. The semi-automatic machine ЕФ-1 wraps the products with sealing the ends of the label in opposite directions (see fig. 9.1, a), semi-automatic machines of the brands ЕФ-2 and ЕФ-3 wrap the products with sealing the ends of the label "in a corner" (see fig. 9. 1, ), the machine ЕФ-4 is intended for wrapping dome-shaped products with sealing the ends of packaging material in tight (see fig. 9. 1, b).
The wrapping of products “in the corner” is made in three wrappers: a roll-up and foil, supplied from the rolls, and a flat colorful label made of writing paper, fed from the cassette.
The machine (fig. 10.1) is mounted on a common plate mounted on racks. The main parts of the machine: deadplate 1 with the feed drive 2, cam shaft, the lower punch 3, the first forceps 4, second forceps 14, the upper punch 19, feeder wrapping materials podvertki and 6 foil cassette flatovyh labels 5, of the suction mechanism, 8 separator plate for flate labels, 7 scissors, antennae, 10 horizontal rotor with grippers, 17 movable bending tool, 15 rotor gripper opening, 9 bending device, 11 press for sealing the sealed ends of the label, 13 gripping device, 12 gripper, atel wrapped products 16, the control device (feeler) 18, 20 clutch, 21 motor, belt drive XNUMX.
All of the major mechanisms of the machines get traffic from fixed on the shafts of the cams through levers and rods.
Products from the receiving table are manually laid out in the cells of the periodically rotating 2 feed disk, which feeds them to the lower punch of the 3; at the same time wrapping material is supplied to the product. The 6 wrapper feed mechanism unwinds the punching and the foil, and the felted colorful labels laid in the 5 cassette are fed one at a time using a suction mechanism and an 8 separating plate.
The first forceps 4, moving, capture label, foil and podvertku. On the way of their movement are located mustache, lengthening the path of the label, so cut off shears 7 foil and podvertka are shorter flatovoy labels.
The first 4 forceps transfer the wrapping material to the second 14 forceps, which carry it to the product. At this point, the lower punch of the 3 rises and pushes the product out of the cell of the supply disk 2. The upper punch is lowered and presses the wrapping material to the product. A wrapped product sandwiched between two punches is fed to the grippers of a periodically rotating 10 rotor.
When the product is received with a wrapper, the rotor grips are opened and then closed, the upper punch rises, the lower one goes down, and the movable 17 bend-over bends the inner shelf of the label. During the rotation of the rotor, the outer shelf of the label closes and a tube is formed from the wrapper around the product. Next, the product is fed
rotor to the 9 bending device, where the ends of the label are sealed in the form of a sock, after which it passes through the 11 press, is ironed, then the rotor grips are opened and the 12 ejector pushes the wrapped product out of the rotor grips onto the bypass tray.
In the absence of the product in the cell of the supply disk, the control device 16, dropping, sets in motion a deactivating lever that prevents the closing
Figure: 10.2. Combined Feeder for Roll Packaging Material and Cut Labels Tongs; in this case, the tongs do not grip the wrapper, and the mechanisms of the machine work idle.
In EF-type machines with a horizontal rotor, the feeders of the packaging material feed several blanks (label, foil, undercoat) from different tapes from rolls (ЕФ-1, ЕФ-3) or the label is fed from the cassette where the pre-cut blanks are placed (ЕФ-2 , FU-4). If the blanks are cut off with scissors from different tapes at the same time, then in this case a scrim or foil is always visible from under the outer label. This is because the outer label should cover a larger perimeter due to the thickness of the underlay and the foil. Consequently, the label must be on 0,5 — 1 mm longer than the trim. This condition can be fulfilled when applying flat labels from a previously prepared stack, as it happens in the combined feeder shown in fig. 10.2.
In the feeder, the roll packaging material, the 4 foil and the 5 undercoat are unrolled with the 6 roller, being pressed to its surface by the 7 pressure roller, which is removed by the 8 handle during refueling. The packing material wraps around the 2 compensating roller sliding along slot 3 and, when it is lowered, presses the 1 lever, which with the 9 bogie stops the 6 roller. Then the packing material, after rounding the 10 guide roller, rests on the surface of the 19 movable table with the 11 brake plate and the fixed table with 12 guides. They center the packaging material on the product. The 19 table is attached to the movable 20 lever, driven by a cam.
In the extreme right position of the 20 lever and 19 table, the leading edge of the roll packaging material is on the 2 mm to the left of the front edge of the 13 label in the 14 store. In this position, the bottom label and packing tape are picked up with 16 forceps and pulled to the right to the desired length. The 19 table also moves to the right. When the packing material is fed to the desired length, the upward 17 rail and the fixed 15 rail form a loop of packaging material. The left edge of the label extends past the 18 scissors. Closing shear blades cut off the rolled packaging material so that its left edge is on 1 — 3 mm to the right of the left edge of the upper label. It depends on the stroke of the 17 guide. Filed in this form, a set of packaging material allows for a more accurate wrapping.
Wrapping machines of the EU type. Automatic machines are intended for wrapping of caramel and candies. Caramel is wrapped around on EU-3, EU-4, candies on EU-5, EU-7; caramel "in the corner" is packed on the machines EL-8, candy - on the EL-5. In fig. 10.Z depicts a wrapping machine EU-4, designed to wrap the caramel twist.
The machine has a 7 hopper with a 8 vibrating clamp and an 10 feed disk with cells, from which the caramel, along with the cut label, is fed to the 4 clamps of the vertical rotor. The twisting of the ends of the wrapper is made with 5 tabs in the upper area of the rotor, rotating on cantilever shafts. The wrapped caramel is pushed out of the rotor grips onto the 9 receiving tray using the 6 swing arm. Rolled labels and tuck are fed from 3 reels.
The machine has locking devices for automatically stopping the machine in the absence of caramel or wrappers and the 1 control panel. The 2 steering wheel is designed for manual cranking. Let's consider in more detail feeders of the automatic machine for products and a packing material.
The product feeder has a conical orienting surface and profile sockets (fig. 10.4). It is used for packaging caramel.
Ris. 10.Z. Karamelezavertočnyj EU-maker 4
Caramel enters the 1 bunker, the vibrating 2 agitator prevents the product from forming in the bunker. From the bunker, caramel is fed through the 6 vibrating trough mounted on elastic 7 plate hangers attached to the 5 plate. The 3 electromagnet is attached to the same plate on the bracket. The electromagnet winding is powered by alternating current frequency 50 Hz. An 4 anchor is attached to the tray, which is attracted to the electromagnet when it is magnetized. In the electrical circuit of this feeder there is no rheostat, therefore the amplitude of the oscillations of the tray and the speed of movement of the caramel along the tray are constant. The agitator is rigidly connected to the vibratory flow and oscillates with the same frequency.
The amount of caramel coming from the bunker is controlled by the 19 damper. The crumbled baby wakes up through the 18 slot holes in the bottom of the 6 vibrating channel. Vibrotrack caramel is sent to the rotating disk, which receives rotation from the spatial cam 11 through the sprocket wheel 10.
The central part of the disk 9 is made in the form of a cone, so the incoming caramel rolls to the board 17, on the way falling into the profile nests 16. The brush 14 installed above the disk corrects the products that have sunk in the nest. Products that have taken the wrong position are thrown out for reorientation.
Fig. 10.4. Feeder for EY-4 machine products
Brush is driven by the main shaft through the 12 and 13 transmission. Partition 15 obstructs the caramel does not lie in the nests to feed on site wrapping. As caramel clusters on the disk, it raises the presser foot 8, which opens the contacts in the network of the electromagnet power.
When wrapping sweets, they are fed to the pads of the surgical drum using a belt feeder. The delivery of candies to the feeder of the EU-5 can be carried out either from a group feeder, or from an individual - manual or mechanical.
The automatic individual feeder MG produced by the association “Nagema” (GDR) can join the automaton EU-5 (Fig. 10.5). The feeder consists of three longitudinal horizontal conveyors 5, 5 and 6, over which three vertical conveyors 7, 8 and 9 are mounted, so that their direction of movement makes an acute angle with the direction of movement of the longitudinal conveyors. Conveyor speeds increase from the candy delivery area to the exit area. Candies are fed to the feeder with a wide 4 belt conveyor, and are diverted by a rotating 12 disk directly to the 11 conveyor of the machine feeder, over which an 10 brush rotating around a horizontal axis is installed, discarding undirected candies. Above the longitudinal conveyors there are spring-loaded guides 1 and 2 and a number of fixed guides that additionally orient the candy.
Orientation of candies with a long side but the direction of movement occurs as a result of their contact when moving along longitudinal conveyors with vertical conveyors and guides.
When installed with the machine ЕУ-5, the drive of the MG feeder is controlled by the photo sensor of the feeder of the automatic machine: when the conveyor of the automatic machine overflows, the MG feeder stops feeding candies. Dimensions of the feeder (in mm) 2300X800X900.
The packaging material feeder feeds the label and roll from the roll and is equipped with rotating rollers and a brake on the roll holder. In the feeder (fig. 10.6), the labels are fed from the 5 roll, and the roll from the 22 roll. Each tape of packaging material alternately bends around a group of guide and tension rollers (for 1, 2, 4, 5 labels and for scrolling 23, 24, 25 and 26, respectively), thus forming a multi-loop tape stock system, which ensures a greater uniformity of its tension.
Then the tape, superimposed one on the other, come to the pad 6 under the brake friction plate 7. The ribbons extending from under the plate move under the double-armed 9 lever. On one shoulder of the lever is the 8 clamp, and on the other is one of the continuously rotating 11 feed rollers. The 9 lever rotates around the 10 axis, which receives motion from the 12 cam mechanism. The feed ribbon extends between the fixed 13 and the movable 14 scissors blades. At the time of cutting the packaging material of a certain length from the strips, the 11 roller rises, the 8 pressure is lowered, and the flow of packaging material stops.
Braking of the roll is carried out by a tape brake. It consists of a brake disc that bends around a 21 metal belt. It is pressed against the disc by the 19 spring. When paper rolls off a roll, the 20 lever rotates clockwise, stretching the 19 spring and easing the braking of the 21 metal tape. The roll is fixed when turning the clamping disk 15, which has a screw section at the end of the hub. When clamping the roll, the screw cut rests on the 16 pin attached to the 18 disc hub mounted on the 17 shaft. When putting the clamping disk on, the pin passes through the groove in the disk hub.