In our confectionery factories, machines for wrapping chocolate bars of different weights (100, 50, 18 and 15 g and others) and chocolate bars with filling (50 g) are common; wrapping is made in an envelope or a parcel in two or three wrappers: an external colorful label from writing paper with a precisely oriented pattern, foil and a waxed wrapper.
These machines, depending on the size of the tiles and the type of wrapping, have some differences in the arrangement of the working bodies, however, the kinematics of all machines in this group are similar. As an example, the description and kinematic diagram of the machine for wrapping chocolate bars weighing 100 g brand LU-3.
The LU-3 machine (Fig. 10.13) has the following main components: belt conveyor-feeder for 1 products, cam shaft 6, end push rod, side pusher 2, lifting table 11, upper clamp 14, feed roll and 4 foil cassette, cassette for 3 labels with a cutter, separating the 5 plate, suction mechanism for flat labels, adhesive, scissors, 10 tongs, product date marking mechanism, side clamp, format parts, 9 tile ejector, 13 vacuum cylinder, smoothing 7 clamp, magazine in for 8 wrapped products, clutch, 12 belt motor.
The machine is driven by an electric motor through a belt drive, which informs the movement of the drive shaft with the clutch. From the drive shaft through a gear transmission, the movement is communicated to the main cam shaft 6, from which it is transmitted via bevel gears to other cam shafts. The main mechanisms of the machine are driven by cams mounted on shafts through levers and rods.
Chocolate bars are manually stacked on a periodically moving feed conveyor, which feeds them all the way. When the 1 conveyor stops periodically, the end pusher pushes the tiles forward and places them parallel to the 11 lift table. The 2 Side Pusher is pushing products onto this table. At the same time, wrapping material is supplied to the product.
Fig. 10.13. LU-3 machine for wrapping chocolate tablets weighing 100 g
The 4 feed mechanism uncoils the foil and wrapper from the rolls. Flat colorful labels stacked in a 3 cassette are fed through a suction mechanism; at the same time, the tip of the lower label from the cassette is unbent, the undercutter lifts the stack and the separating plate 5 enters the gap that separates the lower label from the common stack.
Tongs 10 capture label and foil and stretch forward, scissors cut the foil along the way. Upon further movement of the wrapping material of the adhesive causes the adhesive strip unit and marking mechanism puts date. Then curling a wrap on the product.
The top 14 clip lowers and pushes the wrapping material against the product. The product, sandwiched between the lift table and the clamp, is fed into the wrapping frame. The wrapped tile is pushed along the ironing table under the 7 clip, while the glue dries.
At the end of the wrapping operation, tiles on the table for wrapped products are fed from below to the 8 store, from which they are removed manually and placed in boxes.
Wrapping machines other types work similarly.
Recently, in some factories, more productive semi-automatic wrapping machines for chocolate bars with a productivity of up to 160 pcs have been used. per minute supplied from the GDR.
Technical characteristics of the machine for wrapping of chocolate bars
|Indicators||EE-W||In-460||The LT-W||G2160 / B|
|Productivity (tailor pass), pcs / min||80 – 120||Until 160||60-80||Until 130|
|Product Weight, g||100||50||100||10ч-125|
Макс. 175Х X 80X10
rev / min
|Overall dimensions, mm|
|The manufacturer||Nagema (GDR)||What (Italiya)|
for wrapping biscuits machine packs
For wrapping cookies and wafers, mainly machines of the LU-K and K-467 type (GDR, the Nagema association) and ZPB of the Kiev Mechanical Plant for rectangular and square shapes are used. Round cookie wrapping machines are of limited distribution.
In fig. 10.14 presents a semi-automatic K-467, designed for wrapping in packs of 100 and 200 g of rectangular and square cookies.
A pack usually consists of two or three stacks of cookies laid flat, according to 4 — 8 pcs. in each. Cookies are wrapped in a parchment or parchment wrapper and in an outer flat colorful label from writing paper or into cellulose
Fig. 10.14. Semiautomatic K-467 for wrapping biscuits into packs
fan. A thin cardboard lining is sometimes inserted between the inner and outer wrappers. On the end faces of the bundle, the envelope is wrapped in a fold with an envelope lock, and on the bottom of the bundle the edges of the label are glued.
The machine consists of the following main components: 2 bed, feeder for 1 packaging material, feeder for 8 products, 7 chain conveyor, 6 wrapping mechanisms, 4 forming system, 5 longitudinal and transverse bending system, 3 conveyor that retracts the packaged products.
The semiautomatic operation scheme is shown in Fig. 10.15. Products are laid manually in the loading shafts of the 8 product feeder. The bottom of each shaft is an 16 pusher plate that reciprocates in the horizontal plane. Moving to the center of the 9 chain conveyor (working stroke), during its stop the pusher plate pushes several products out of the shaft, placing them in the nests of the chain conveyor. Then the conveyor moves to the next position, where several more products are fed from another shaft and are located above those that are already in the conveyor slot. From the third shaft, several more products are fed in the same way.
Fig. 10.15. Process automaton circuit K-467
So in the nest of the conveyor a stack of products is formed.
Three other shafts located on the other side of the conveyor similarly fill the second row of conveyor slots.
The thickness of each 16 pusher plate is equal to the height of the stack of products fed into the conveyor slot. So, if a stack consists of five products, then the first plate with a thickness equal to the height of two cookies feeds two products into the conveyor slot. The second plate similarly delivers two more products, and the plate is positioned in height so that the products supplied by it are located above the products filed by the first plate. The third plate feeds another product, placing it over four already laid in the conveyor slot. The stacked stack of products located in two adjacent slots of the conveyor is fed to the wrapper.
First, the packaging material blank is superimposed on the products. Labels are stacked in the 14 store. The vacuum suction bends the edge of the lower label, and the cutter separates it from the foot. The latter at the same time is held in weight by the teeth of the cutter. Then the 12 forceps grab the end of the 13 tape of the undercoat and the label separated from the foot and transfer them to the products.
An adhesive roller is located in the path of the label, which applies a strip of glue to the edge of the label. When the 12 tongs travel a distance equal to the length of the napkin, they stop and the 15 shears cut the napkin blank from the 13 tape. At the same moment, the stamp mechanism punctures the date of the wrap on the label. Continuing the movement, the 12 forceps lay the wrapper blank on the products, onto which the upper 6 clip then lowers. Sandwiched between the 7 lifting table and the 6 top press, the wrapped products are lifted through the 5 fixed mold. In this case, the free fields of the wrapper from four sides of the product are bent down by the 5 matrix plates, and then the valves formed from the wrapper from the wrapper by the curly 11 guides of the 5 matrix are pressed to the ends of the product. A box with an open bottom is formed around the product.
When the product stops in the upper position, the 10 side curlers, working in sequence, lay the wrapper on both sides under the base of the product. Further, the 4 rear curler performs a similar operation from the rear along the side of the product.
Technical characteristics of the machine for wrapping biscuits into packs
|Performance packs per minute||45-50||60||60||65-70|
Dimensions pastry mm
|Dimensions Oreos, mm|
|square||119X60X42||118X60X37 176X60X37 59X59X37|
|The number of stacks in a stack,||2||2||3||1|
Number of products in the stack, pieces.
|5||5||5 and 6||5|
|Electric motor power, kW||1,1||1,6||1,7||0,4|
|speed, rev / min||915||915||930||915|
|Overall dimensions, mm|
Following this, the 3 pusher moves a packet of cookies into the output channel of the machine. In this case, the 2 fixed guide bends under the base of the product, the front lower flap of the wrapper. At the same time, the bottom valve is glued to the base of the pack. The product moves along the output channel of the machine as a result of backwatering of the subsequent cookie packet fed to the channel. She pushes a number of packs located in the channel, at a distance equal to the width of one pack.
1 spring-loaded guides located in the outlet channel contribute to better label gluing and give a more accurate look to the wrapped pack.
The machine is equipped with a locking device that stops the supply of wrappers if the product has not arrived.
For wrapping cookies in packs according to 50, the U-5 (GDR) machine is used. Kyivprodmash factory manufactured a series of ZPB machines with a belt feeder.
The equipment for packaging of confectionery products and sealing of containers
At the confectionery industry enterprises, equipment is increasingly being used on which unpacked or individually wrapped products are packed in plastic bags, automatic machines for packing cocoa powder in boxes, and automatic machines for packing sweets in boxes.
All confectionery portions of a certain mass packed in cardboard boxes, for pasting valves which special machines are used.
Automatic machines for packing confectionery
In the confectionery industry, filling machines with weight and volume dispensers are used. In particular, AP1B submachine guns with weight batchers were previously produced for filling caramel and dragees. Recently, more compact AP1B-M automatic machines with a volume dispenser have been produced, the dispensing accuracy of which is almost the same as the weight dispenser.
Automatic machine AP1B-M. The machine is used for filling and packaging caramel and dragees. The machine produces single carton packs and prepares products in them.
The machine (Fig. 11. 1) has three horizontal periodically rotating operating rotors mounted on one common plate. At the first batch 1 rotor, packs are formed from cardboard colorful blanks supplied from the 8 cassette, passed through the 9 glue apparatus; on the second filling 2 rotor, the packs are filled with the product using the 6 volume dispenser \ on the third, 5 packaging rotor, the packs are sealed.
6 volumetric feeder consists of a reinforced shaft with two discs beaker. drive shaft rotates synchronously
Fig. 11.1. Scheme M AP1B machine for filling and packaging of candy and jelly beans in cardboard boxes
with machine shafts. The lower disk can be moved up and down, thus achieving a change in the volume beakers. Above the upper drive assembly is uniform filling of caramel in the glasses. The dispenser is mounted on racks that attach to the frame of the machine. If desired the dispenser may be disconnected from the machine.
The filled and taped bundle with the product discharged by the conveyor 7 drying glue and placed in commercial packaging.
For the proper operation of the machine, a mechanical and electrical lock is provided, which allows in case of malfunctions to suspend the operation and, if necessary, turn off the machine (purple alarm notifies
the inclusion of electromagnets, heating elements and a drying plate.
The drive of the machine is from the 4 motor through a V-belt drive and a friction clutch. The drive shaft has an 3 handwheel for turning the machine manually during commissioning.
For filling and packing cocoa powder in cardboard bundles with an inner parchment bag, the AP2B-M assault rifle is used. According to the device, the machine is similar to the AP1B-M machine, but this machine is equipped with a screw batcher. Association "Nagema" (GDR) produces a machine type AX2-DS1 with one rotor. In this machine, the forming of the inner bag and the packing box is carried out on one rotor. Waxed paper for the bag is fed from a roll, and cardboard die cuts for the box from a pre-stacked stack.
Hesser (Germany) also produces more productive PDX1-2 machines that pack 75 — 85 boxes per minute. They are equipped with a Hessotron automatic weighing device for controlling and regulating the mass of the molded product with an accuracy of ± 1,0 g.
Technical characteristics of packing machines in the box
|Indicators||AP1B M||AP1B||AP2B M||AKh2 DS1|
|Performance packs||Until 65||50-60||50-60||Until 70|
|in a minute|
|Number of operating bars||3||3||3||1|
dosing accuracy (from
nominal mass of products
the one in the pack),%
|Product weight per bundle, g||200||-300||100||100|
|Volume packs, sm3||293||293||224||258|
|The size of the pack, mm||75X45,5X86||34X60X110 68X38X100|
|Density of cardboard for packs, g / m2||280-320||280-320||240-260||240-260|
|Electric motor power||2,8||2,8||2,8||3,4|
|Electric shaft speed||930||930||930||930|
|motors, and r / min|
|Overall dimensions, mm|
|automaton Weight kg||4500||5000||5600||4500|
Voronezh Food Plant
Automatic YES-2RS. The machine is used for packing small caramel, monpansier, dragees and other products in plastic bags with the preliminary manufacture of these bags from heat-sealing roll cellophane.
On the 1 bed (Fig. XI.2) there is a feeder for cellophane roll, 7 guide and 6 forming hollow cylinders for forming a cellophane tube, 5 mechanism for welding a longitudinal seam, 12 receiving hopper for products, 11 volumetric dispenser, 4 welding mechanism transverse seam and cutting the package, the drive mechanism with an electric motor and an electrical cabinet.
Fig. 11.2. Automatic YES-2RS for packaging confectionery products in bags of heat-seal cellophane
The feeder is attached to the bed with two brackets and has an 10 roll holder, 9 brake devices and an 8 guide roller system. The 5 mechanism for welding a longitudinal seam consists of a welding head, a holder for the forming pipe and levers for turning on the heating elements of the welding head. The drive of all these nodes is made from a single cam mechanism.
To supply products for packaging, the machine is equipped with a 13 bucket conveyor with an 14 funnel “loading the product into the 12 receiving hopper. At the bottom of it is mounted an electromagnetic vibrator, thanks to which the product does not linger in the hopper. The 11 dispenser has two discs and eight measuring telescopic glasses. By changing the volume of glasses, you can adjust the measured portion of the product.
The mechanism for welding the transverse seam includes dual welding heads with heating elements, two support rods and a knife for cutting the package. The machine is equipped with a handwheel for smoothly changing the angular velocity of the cam shaft and an 2 handwheel for turning manually during commissioning.
The electrical control circuit has buttons for starting and stopping, turning on and off the heating elements of the welding heads, as well as a light alarm. The control circuit includes systems for automatically maintaining the temperature of the heating elements and fixing the position of the figure on the package. In addition, an electric lock is provided, which allows in case of malfunctions to suspend the execution of certain operations or completely stop the machine.
In order to safely service the machine, the mechanism for welding the transverse seam and cutting the package is closed with a transparent 3 guard, and if removed, the electric lock disables the machine's drive.
A flow chart showing a sequence of manufacturing processes, filling and sealing the package in the machine, is shown in Fig. 9.8.
Technical characteristics of the machine for packaging products in plastic bags
|Productivity, packages per minute||Until 60|
|Product weight per bundle, g||From 50 100 up|
|Packet Size, mm||150X81; 125X81|
|The accuracy of the dosage,% of nominal weight||±3|
|Dimensions cellophane roll, mm|
|Cellophane thermal bonding temperature, ° С||120-130|
|Power machine motor, kW||0,6|
The motor shaft rotation speed,
pb / min
ii / XVI h1 p
Power of electric motor of the elevator, kW
The motor shaft rotation speed,
pb / Luz and
AI / we n
Overall dimensions of the machine with an elevator, mm
|Mass elevator with machine kg||1362|
Similar machines for filling both caramel and dragees, and powdered products in plastic bags and plastic films are produced by foreign companies.