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Confectionery

Technical performance in the confectionery industry

During the years of confectionery enterprise transformed from small artisanal workshops to large, highly technically equipped enterprise.

The confectionery industry currently has many confectioneries. In addition, confectionery products are produced by specialized bakery workshops, vegetable canneries, and catering enterprises.

In the coming years, a significant increase in the production of confectionery products is envisaged, including a sharp increase in the output of products that are in great demand among the population: soft, glazed sweets, waffles, pastille marmelade products; the production of wrapped and pre-packaged confectionery will increase significantly.

In 2016, the assumed increase in the production of confectionery products will be achieved not only through the construction of new plants, but also by increasing the efficiency and productivity growth.

These tasks are solved in the confectionery industry mainly on the basis of the creation and introduction of new high-performance equipment, advanced technology and further transition to a more advanced form of production - mechanized and automated production lines. In accordance with this, the main direction of technical progress in the confectionery industry is the creation, introduction and further improvement of mechanized and automated production lines, units and machines for the production of various confectionery products.

As a result of work carried out by the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the confectionery industry, Ukrniiprodmash, VNIEKIprodmashem, the institute "Rospischepromavtomatika" in creative collaboration with leading confectionery companies, inventors, teams and food engineering plants in the confectionery industry are created and improved mechanized production lines for continuous production popular sorts of caramel , glazed sweets, chocolate masses, pastila-marmalade and flour con Detergents, various new mechanized units and automatic machines. In some of the main types of production, for example, caramel, cast varieties of sweets and sugar cookies, the production processes are mechanized from the receipt of raw materials to the packaging of finished products in commercial packaging.

The introduction of mechanized production lines and high-performance machines and machines in the confectionery industry can improve production efficiency: increase labor productivity, mechanize labor-intensive manual processes, reduce production space in 1,5 — 2, reduce loss of valuable raw materials, eliminate intermediate packaging, significantly improve product quality and sanitary - hygienic production conditions.

In the USSR, the technological equipment of the confectionery industry was manufactured by plants of the Ministry of Mechanical Engineering for the light and food industries and household appliances (Barsky Machine-Building Plant, Kievprodmash Plant, Yaroslavl Moscow Association Pishchemash Plant, etc.), plants of experimental designs of the VNII Confectionery Industry and UkrNIIprodmash, the Institute "Rospishepromavtomatika" and others.

Some types of special equipment are supplied to our factories by machine-building factories of socialist countries, such as the GDR, Poland, etc. In addition, individual copies of lines and units are purchased from companies in Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany and England.

However, engineers and technicians of the confectionery industry still have many tasks to solve: it is necessary to mechanize and automate a number of technological processes, create high-performance automatic machines, mechanize a number of loading and unloading operations, etc.

The need to solve these problems, as well as the complexity of modern equipment, require profound knowledge from engineering and technical personnel, and students need to study in depth the technology and equipment of the confectionery industry.

The concept of the machines, devices and production lines

All machines can be divided into three main classes: motor-engines, hoisting-and-transport machines and technological (or working) machines.

According to this textbook, students study the main technological equipment of confectionery factories, as well as some auxiliary equipment, which is part of the installations and units.

Technological equipment of pastry factories is very diverse. However, many groups of machines and devices have common features. The classification of equipment can be based on the following classification criteria: the nature of the impact on the product, the nature of the working cycle, the degree of mechanization and automation, the functional purpose of the equipment.

By the nature of the impact on the product, the equipment can be divided into machines and devices.

The machine is a mechanical effect on the product. At the same time, the properties of the product or material do not change. Only shape, size and other physical parameters change. A feature of the machine is the presence of moving working bodies, directly mechanically acting on the product.

Thermal, electrical, physicochemical, biochemical and other effects that cause changes in the physical or chemical properties or the state of aggregation of the processed product are carried out in the apparatus. A characteristic feature of the apparatus is the presence of a reactionary space or working chamber.

By the nature of the working cycle of the machine and apparatus are divided into machines and apparatus of periodic and continuous action.

In machines and apparatuses product is subjected to batch processing for a certain period of time (cycle) and then removed from the machine or apparatus. After this process, the cycle resumes. working bodies of the equipment operating mode during the cycle shedsstoyanen continuously changing.

In machines and apparatuses of continuous action, the process proceeds continuously, at steady state, with simultaneous continuous production of a narrow feedstock and yield of the finished product. The working bodies of the tax equipment work in established, stable conditions.

According to the degree of mechanization and automation, machines and apparatuses are divided into machines and apparatuses of non-automatic action, semi-automatic and automatic.

In the equipment of non-automatic operation, loading, unloading, arrangement, control, as well as individual technological operations are performed by the worker with a direct impact on the processed an object.

In the semi-main technological equipment of all operations performed by the machine. Manual vspomgatelnye remain some operations (eg, transportation, loading and unloading), as well as operations control, adjustment and monitoring.

In the automatic equipment all technological, auxiliary and control operations are performed automatically according to a predetermined program. Manual operations remain adjustment and monitoring the operation of the machine.

According to the functional purpose, the technological equipment of the confectionery factories can be divided into the following main groups:

  1.  Machines and units for the preparation of raw materials and the preparation of semi-finished products. This group includes machines and units for cleaning and sifting raw materials, machines for crushing them, dosing devices, machines for mixing raw materials and producing semi-finished products.
  2.  Apparatus and machines for the heat treatment of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. This group of technological equipment includes various heat exchangers for heating, boiling or cooling raw materials and semi-finished products, chambers for cooling semi-finished products or molded products, as well as ovens for baking flour confectionery products.
  3.  Machines and units for molding products or their blanks. This group of equipment includes machines and units for stamping products, cutting machines and machines for casting blanks of products.
  4.  Machines and units for wrapping, packaging and packaging of finished products.

In the process of integrated mechanization and automation of production, individual machines and devices are combined into aggregates and production lines, which allows to obtain a significant technical and economic effect. Due to the continuity of the process in production lines, it is possible to maintain a constant technological regime and, therefore, to obtain products with constant quality indicators and reduce the number of returnable waste and scrap.

Comprehensive mechanization of processes in production lines allows you to eliminate heavy and time-consuming manual operations, facilitate the work of the worker and increase its productivity. The duties of the worker increasingly become the observation of the operation of machines.

The introduction of production lines allows to reduce the area occupied by the equipment, and reduce or eliminate the use of such intrashop equipment, such as trays, boxes, carts, racks, etc.

According to the degree of mechanization and automation, the production lines of the confectionery industry can be divided into the following types.

Polumehanizirovannye Potočný lines. In these lines, individual technological operations were mechanized. The transfer of raw materials or semi-finished products in certain areas is carried out manually. Manual dosing of raw materials and semifinished products, their loading into machines or unloading of finished products can also be carried out manually. The equipment of such lines can be located and not according to the flow principle.

Mechanized production lines. In these lines, the equipment is installed and connected by transporting devices according to the flow principle. The layout of the line can be different: in a straight, L or U-shaped line or with the placement of individual sections vertically in different floors.

All the processes in these lines integrated mechanized. Typically, manual labor is still only in the control of processes and monitoring the operation of the line and sometimes when loading the feedstock.

All machines and devices of mechanized production lines operate continuously. However, devices of periodic action are also used. In these cases, two alternating machines are installed, or one apparatus with an intermediate storage tank, from which the semi-finished product is consumed continuously.

Automated production lines. By automated line is meant a mechanized production line, in which the parameters of some technological processes are controlled and regulated by automatic instruments without the intervention of service personnel. These parameters include temperature, pressure, speed, consumption of the product, etc.

In the confectionery industry, fully automated lines have not yet been created; there are only partially automated lines.

Basic requirements for the design of machines and devices confectionery manufacture, and the basic rules of operation

Machines and devices must have high technical and economic indicators, by which we mean certain parameters related to the performance of machines and devices. Such parameters include, for example, the mass of the machine or apparatus, the size of the occupied area, the consumption of electricity, steam and water, etc., the cost of maintenance and other costs associated with the operation of the equipment, as well as its current and major repairs.

The design of machines and devices must meet the requirements of modern progressive technology. It is necessary that the shape, dimensions, speeds and trajectories of movement of the working bodies, as well as parameters such as coolant temperature, etc., correspond to the physicomechanical and chemical properties of the product and the selected process conditions.

The choice of materials for the manufacture of working bodies is of particular importance. Many types of raw materials and semi-finished products of the confectionery industry contain acids, therefore, some working bodies of machines and apparatus must be made of corrosion-resistant

materials. The working bodies of machines and apparatuses must have a high wear resistance, since the ingress of particles of materials from the working bodies into a food product may make it unsuitable for consumption.

The design of parts, working bodies and other components of the machine must be technological. By adaptability to understand the design compliance with the requirements of the optimal technological processes of manufacturing machines with maximum savings of materials and reducing the complexity of their manufacture.

Modern food machines are quite fast. Even insignificant unbalance of rotating parts can lead to harmful dynamic loads, causing vibration of machines and floors of buildings, excessive wear of bearings, excessive energy consumption, etc., therefore fast rotating parts must be statically or dynamically balanced.

The great advantage of any machine or device is the simplicity of the design, which facilitates both maintenance and repair.

Machines, vehicles and transporting devices should not have stagnant zones where product could accumulate. Beds should be streamlined, closed. It is necessary to separate the technological part from the mechanical partitions with partitions or other devices and provide special hatches and doors for the convenience of cleaning and washing equipment.

machines and apparatus design must meet the requirements of occupational health and safety.

When designing and operating heat exchangers, it is necessary to be guided by the approved basic rules: "Rules for the Design and Safe Operation of Steam Boilers", "Rules for the Design and Safety of Operation of Pressure Vessels", "Rules for the Design and Safe Operation of Steam and Hot Water Pipelines", as well as calculation standards, instructions and guidelines for the technical examination of installations.

Cooking equipment should be equipped with instruments for measuring heating steam pressure, vacuum, as well as safety valves. Hot surfaces of the devices are covered with thermal insulation and protected with protective covers.

All mechanical gears, moving parts of machines, as well as their movable working parts (blades of kneading machines, rolls of rolling machines, knives of cutting machines, etc.) must be protected by fences and covers. These devices are supplied with automatic blocking: when the barrier is removed or the lid is opened, the machine or its working parts stop. Electric motors and electrical equipment must be grounded on all machines.

A large number of air-cooled units are used in the confectionery industry. Devices should be provided to protect workers from the flow of cold air. At workplaces at ovens of frying, cooking, drying and other heating equipment it is necessary to install ventilation or to create a curtain from air of normal temperature.

The durability of the work of machines and apparatus depends largely on the correctness of their operation. The main operating conditions of the equipment are compliance with the schedule of scheduled maintenance, systematic lubrication of rubbing parts, regular inspections and inspection of equipment, as well as creating a stock of wear parts.

Great attention should be paid to the proper adjustment and commissioning of machines and apparatus. Before starting the machine, check the installation of all barriers and make sure that the machine does not have tools or inventory, foreign objects or residues of hardened product. Cookers should be heated before start-up, and steam should be purged with steam to remove condensate and air from it. At the same time, the condition and density of the fittings and measuring instruments are checked.

Equipment for raw materials and semi-finished heat treatment and process pumps

In the confectionery industry, along with other processes, heat treatment of raw materials and semi-finished products is widely used - heating, cooling, boiling, during which part of the moisture evaporates, and tempering, which consists in bringing the temperature of the semifinished product to a predetermined and constant maintenance.

During the heat treatment of the product, heat exchange occurs between the product and the medium, which gives or receives heat energy - a heat carrier or a coolant.

The main coolant in thermal processes of heating, dissolving and boiling in the confectionery industry is saturated steam with an excess pressure, usually up to 0,6 MPa.

The following product heating methods with steam most common:

a) heating by open steam - by bubbling steam into the heated liquid or by letting it into the apparatus using injectors;

b) heating by deaf steam - supplying heating steam to the steam chamber of the heat exchanger, where it condenses on the heat exchange surface, giving it the latent heat of vaporization.

The heating of a liquid with open steam is most often carried out with the help of bubblers - a pipe or a coil with small holes through which the steam enters the heated liquid; the bubbler is usually installed at the bottom of the tank. Steam, coming out of the bubbler holes, rises upwards in the form of bubbles and condenses along the way, giving up its heat of the heated liquid; when this occurs, the mixing of the liquid. A non-return valve must be included in the steam line scheme to prevent liquid from entering the steam line if the vapor pressure is accidentally dropped.

Significant disadvantages of bubblers are the noise that occurs when steam escapes from the holes, direct contact of the steam with the heated product, as well as a decrease in the concentration of the product due to condensation of the heating steam in it.

When heating the same product with deaf steam through the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger, the heating steam fills the steam chamber of the heat exchanger and, giving up its heat to the heat exchange surface of the apparatus, condenses. The condensate is discharged from the bottom of the steam chamber by an automatic condensate trap (condensation pot). The heat exchange surface may have a different design (steam jackets, coils, straight tubes, etc.).

The main types of heat exchangers confectionery manufacture

For the main processes of heat treatment of raw materials and semi-finished products - heating, evaporation (boiling) of solutions, as well as for dissolving raw materials - various batch and continuous apparatuses are used in the confectionery industry.

For batch devices include:

  1.  open cooking kettles, including dissators — single-walled cooking kettles for dissolving sugar with a bubbler and coil heating;
  2.  spherical vacuum filling machines for boiling;
  3.  Universal vacuum cookers.

For devices of continuous action are:

  1.  Solvents for preparing the syrup, including sectional, screw-type, etc .;
  2.  coil apparatus working under vacuum — with a vacuum chamber (mainly for boiling caramel mass) or without vacuum — with a steam trap (for boiling fruit and berry fillings, various candy, toffee, pastila-marmelade and other confectionery masses);
  3.  coiled pomadovarochnye column for boiling fondant syrup, operating without vacuum, with steam traps.

Tempering various confectionery mass applied so-called tempering machines, including:

  1.  cylindrical tempering collection machines of periodic action with a steam-water jacket and stirrer for tempering fillings, grated cocoa, candy, chocolate and other masses;
  2.  automatic continuous screw machines for tempering chocolate masses.

To create and maintain vacuum in vacuum apparatus installed condensers of mixing with wet air piston or rotary ring water vacuum pumps. For submission to the apparatus for heat treatment of mixtures and for removal of ready-made masses, plunger, gear (rotary) or rotary-gear pumps are used.

Batch Washer

Open digesters. These boilers are used for the dissolution, heating or boiling various confectionery mass.

In the confectionery industry, double-wall open cooking pots are used, predominantly of the plant’s manufacture. Yaroslavl Moscow association "Pishchemash" of various capacities: 150, 60 and 12 l, tilting (with a swivel bowl) and non-tilting (stationary), without stirrers and with mechanical stirrers, the latter being sometimes used as recipe tempering collections in candy and other industries.

Cooking kettle K-1A with a capacity of 150 liters, tilting, without stirrer. Boiler (fig. 1)

consists of a copper hemispherical bowl with a flanged flange and a 3 cylindrical shell with a spout for draining the finished mass. The bowl of the boiler is placed in a welded 9 steel steam jacket. With the help of a steel ring, gaskets and bolts, the flanges of the copper bowl and the steel shirt are interconnected. The cavity between the bowl and the steel jacket forms a vapor space.

The boiler is mounted using hollow pins 2 and 6 and bearings on cast-iron posts 1. Heating steam is supplied through the pivot 6> and condensate is drained through the outlet pipe 12 through the pivot 2; the condensate is drained through the valve 11. One end of the branch tube 12 is located in the lower part of the steam jacket to eliminate the possibility of filling the steam space with condensate. A condensate drain is installed on the boiler.

Air from the vapor space is purged via the 13 drain valve. On the inlet pipe for steam installed safetyTipping digester K-1A without agitator.

Fig. 1. Tipping digester K-1A without agitator.

5 valve, which is triggered in case of overpressure versus set pressure, and 4 pressure gauge for monitoring vapor pressure.

The finished mass is unloaded by tilting the bowl with the help of a 7 worm pair and a handwheel with a handle mounted on an 6 trunnion and an 1 strut. Unloading the mass and draining the wash water can also be done through the bottom drain fitting by opening the 10 valve or tap.

When the boiler is started up, before loading it with components to be dissolved or boiling down, open the 13 valve for purging and air release and the 11 valve for draining the condensate, open the valve for supplying heating steam and purge the vapor space, then close the blow-off valves, turn on the steam trap and gradually

Table 1

Technical characteristics of open digesters without agitators

Indicators Type of boiler
6-A tilting 5-A neoprokidy- coun- K-1A tipping
Useful boiler capacity, l 12 60 150
Heating surface, m2 pressure heating steam, MPa 0,23 0,55 0,65
Until 0,3 Until 0,6 Until 0,6
Hydraulic test pressure, MPa 0,45 0,9 0,9
The volume of the vapor space, L 10 15 75
Heating steam consumption, kg / h 25 55 100
The inner diameter of the boiler bowl mm 500 590 785
bowl tilting angle, degrees Dimensions mm 90 100
length 1400 1100 1800
width 730 758 1000
height 1112 1125 1120
Weight, kg 200 300 480

(To avoid water hammer) increase the supply of heating steam, to achieve a normal pressure.

During operation of the boiler is controlled by the pressure of the heating steam pressure gauge, preventing its increase beyond normal, and periodically release the air through the air valve 13. After unloading the boiler at the end of the work, stop the steam, condensate is drained, cat, washed and dried.

In irreversible boilers unloaded weight of the finished produce; through the drain fitting to the gate or valve.

To intensify the process of dissolution, heating or boiling in open digesters installed mechanical agitator mechanical plant manufactured boilers with a capacity of 60 and 150 l with a mechanical stirrer.

The digester 28-150 A capacity l irreversible, with mechanical prevented Coy. The boiler thanks to the mixer can be used for boiling thick mass such toffee or tempering as a prescription for the collection and other candy mass.Irreversible digester 28-A with a mechanical stirrer.

Fig. 2. Irreversible digester 28-A with a mechanical stirrer.

The boiler (fig. 2) consists of a copper bowl with a hemispherical 11 7 copper shell. The cup is placed in a steel steam jacket 10 and connected thereto on a strip by means of flanges and bolts. The boiler is installed on two iron pillars 1.

Steam for heating is supplied through the valve 9. The condensate is discharged through the 14 valve in the lower part of the steam jacket, the condensate is discharged through the 13 valve. A steam trap is connected to the boiler.

The boiler has an 18 cover with a manhole for loading and inspection and an 19 fitting for venting secondary steam. During cooking, the mass in the bowl is mixed with an anchor stirrer 15, driven by an 5 electric motor through a worm gearbox 4. The boiler in the lower part has a fitting 12 for lowering the finished mass; choke closes during cooking with 16. When unloading the boiler, the nozzle opening is opened by raising the 16 valve upwards using the vertical screw 17 with the handwheel 3.

The boiler is equipped with a 6 pressure gauge, a 8 safety valve, a 2 pressure gauge thermometer and an air release valve.

Table 2

Technical characteristics of open digesters with a mechanical stirrer

Indicators Type of boiler Indicators Type of boiler
27-A 28-A 27-A 28-A
Net capacity, L 60 150 Frequency mixer rotation / min 65 48
Heating surface, m2 0,55 0,65 Electric drive motor agitator kW 1 1
Working steam pressure, MPa

Before

0,6

Before

0,6

speed, rev / min 930 1410
Pressure during hydraulic testing, MPa 0,9 0,9 Dimensions, mm
length 1275 1120
Volume of steam space, l 15 70 width 830 955
height 1485 1610
Heating steam consumption, kg / h 55 100 Weight, kg 400 450

Performance digester (kg / h) as the unit batch is determined by the formulaimage001

where G is the amount of product loaded into the boiler, kg;

τ3—Time of product loading into the boiler, min;

τ0 —The processing time (heating, dissolving, boiling) of the product, min;

τр - unloading time, min.

The amount of product loaded into the boiler (in kg) is determined by the working capacity of the spherical part of the boiler:image003

where p is the density of the product, kg / m X NUMX;

V - boiler capacity, m3.

In the design of the apparatus required for a given volume of the radius of the sphere (m) is found from the formula hemisphere volumeimage005

The heating surface area of ​​a double-sided spherical digester is determined by the formula (1-28).

The radius of the hemisphere is determined based on the known surface area of ​​the heating F (In m):image007

After that it takes the greatest radius of the sphere, in which specifies the working capacity of the boiler.

The heating steam consumption for the digester for one cycle without heating the boiler when it is started up can be determined by the formula (1-23), steam consumption per hour - by the formula (1-24).

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