For forming the caramel from the harness, the following main types of molding machines:
chain caramel-cutting machines for forming cushion shape "cushion";
chain caramel-stamping machines for forming caramel in the form of a “ball”, oval, elongated-oval, flat-oval - “brick” and other figured caramel;
chain carameleforming-rolling machines for forming curly caramel;
roll caramel forming machines for the same caramel; rotary caramel forming machines for forming various curly caramel and tablets;
monpanse machines (rollers) for shaping figured drops and other candy products (Orange Slices, Peas, Mindalek, stick figures, etc.);
forming-wrapping units IZM-2 and others for molding and wrapping candy caramel and toffee (see chapter VII for description).
In addition to these, there are a number of varieties of caramel forming machines that have a smaller distribution. Chain caramel-cutting and caramel-stamping machines, monopanse-type forming rollers, forming-wrapping units are most common in confectioneries.
Chain karamelerezhuschie machines
Machines are designed to form a caramel with a filling in the form of a small “pads” (open varieties) and an elongated “pads”, “vanes” (under wrapping) by cutting the caramel tow into individual products using interchangeable caramel chains.
The factories use the LRM machine (fig. 42), which has a set of caramel-growing chains (upper and lower) as working bodies.
Fig. 42. Chain karamelerezhuschaya machine LRM.
Two 11 sprockets are mounted on two 10 racks, and on the 4 rack, 6 guide rollers are mounted along which the 7 cutting chains move. The caramel harness, continuously fed by the harness, is tucked through the 5 sleeve into the gap between the blades of the knives of the upper and lower cutting chains. The chains gradually approach each other and cut the caramel harness into separate caramels in the shape of a convex “cushion” with blades of knives. When caramel is formed by caramel chains with pads between knives, which at the approach of chains simultaneously cut and squeeze the harness, it turns out caramel in the form of an elongated “cushion” and “scapula”. The size of the caramel is determined by the diameter of the harness and the distance between the knives (chain pitch).
The approach of the knives of the cutting chains is adjusted with 8 screws. They move the 9 polos, which serve as guides for the chains. Chains are tensioned by moving the 4 strut using the 2 knob and 3 screw after first loosening the 13 bolts and then securing them. Molded caramel flows through the 12 tray onto a narrow cooling pre-cooling conveyor. Typically, the formation of such caramel is made by leaving thin jumpers 1 — 2 mm thick, thanks to which the molded caramel moves along a narrow cooling conveyor chain.
The drive of the machine is carried out from the 1 electric motor with the help of gear and belt drives. The 14 pulley is designed to drive a cable harness.
The disadvantages of hard candy machines are the rapid wear of the working parts of the cutting chains at high speeds and the limited shape of the hard candy forms produced on them.
|Technical characteristics karamelerezhuschey machines|
|Capacity (depending on line capacity), kg / h||to 1500|
|Speed cutting chain, m / s|
|when forming small cushions||from 1,2 to 1,8|
|when forming a flat pads||from 0,3 to 0,37|
|Electric motor power, kW||1|
|motor speed, rev / min||1440|
The performance of chain caramel forming machines (in kg / h) is determined by the formula
where ʋ is the linear speed of the forming chains, m / min; & - the number of caramel pieces in 1 kg;
l - step of the forming chain, m;
C - the utilization of the machine.
Replaceable caramel chains are the main working bodies of chain caramel-growing machines and are used to form caramel with a pad.
Karamelerezhuschie chains vary in pitch size, defining for this type of product width molded candies; Chains are without grounds and playgrounds.
Caramel-growing RC chains without pads with 14 and 16 pitch mm (Fig. 43, a) are used to form a small cushion caramel. A set of such chains consists of upper and lower chains. Each chain consists of 1 external links (cheeks) and 2 cheeks for attaching knives, 3 knives and 4 connecting studs. In one of the chains, the cheeks for fastening the knives have slots in the upper part, which serve as a direction for the knives when both chains work.
During operation, the chain must be periodically washed in a solution of caustic soda and monitor the condition of the cutting edges of the knives; in case of dullness or breakdowns, they should be filed or replaced.
The RC caramel chains with pads with 16 and 18 pitch mm (Fig. 43, b) are used to form a caramel in the form of an elongated “cushion” of the “Cancer neck” type, designed for machine wrap “in toe”.
A feature of these chains is the presence of areas between the knives and thickened knives with a blade with sharply defined edges and a sharpening angle of about 40 °, which ensures clear caramel molding at relatively low speeds (18 — 20 m / min).
|No sites||c sites|
|Step circuit mm||14 16||16||18|
|the lower the chain length, mm||1120 1120||1120||1116|
|Top chain length, mm||1120 1120||1120||1116|
|chain set weight, kg||9 8||10,6||10,3|
Ris. 43. Karamelerežuŝie cleaves RC:
and - without platforms; b - with pads and thickened knives.
Chain Caramel stamping machines
These machines are used to form curly caramel of various shapes and sizes.
In the confectionery industry, a number of varieties of chain linear caramel-stamping machines are distributed, and the principle of design and operation of all machines of this type are similar. Their working bodies are interchangeable caramel stamping chains.
The advantages of machines of this type are their simplicity and the ability to quickly change the working bodies, the disadvantage is the relatively fast wear of the forming chains and, as a result, the distortion of the shape and size of the caramel.
Chain caramel stamping machine Bolshevo machine-building plant. The machine is designed for stamping curly caramel of various shapes and sizes with or without a filling with the help of interchangeable working bodies - caramel stamping chains. In fig. 44, and shows the kinematic diagram of a caramel stamping machine.
Movement from the 1 drive shaft using 5, 2, 7, 5 chain and gear transmissions and 4 shaft is transmitted to the upper punch chain through the 9 sprocket, and the lower chain through the 6 sprocket. Side chains are transmitted through 5 conical wheels and vertical shafts with 8 sprockets. From the drive shaft, the 1 receives movement through the gears 12 — 11
Fig. 44. Chain caramel stamping machine of the Bolshevsky Machine-Building Plant: a - kinematic diagram; b - links of the upper carameleforming chain.
narrow cooling conveyor 10, outlet chain candy molded to the cooling conveyor inertia.
The top punching chain (fig. 44, b) consists of 3 links pivotally connected by 6 studs and 2 bridges with 1 punches (dies) freely sliding in them with 4 shanks, 5 pins and springs mounted inside links. The lower chain consists of articulated bridges. The bridges have cutting edges for incising the caramel tow during molding.
Approximation punch each other in the process of forming the caramel is made synchronously moving side-chains, which links
Fig. 45. Chain Caramel stamping machine W-3.
side surface press on the shanks of the punches; Punches are bred with springs in the links of the upper chain or with special sliders on which the 5 pins slide.
Upper and lower chains set in motion with the help of 9 and 6 leading sprockets (see fig. 44, a) are supported by guide rollers. For tensioning the chains, tensioning devices are provided in the machine that are actuated using a handwheel. For pressing the punching chains to each other when they are installed on a particular range of caramel, tensioning poloks are provided. Adjustment of a clip of the top and lower polozkov is made by the special mechanism.
Caramel harness enters through a guide tube, is captured by the upper and lower forming chains, cut by the cutting edges of the bridges of the upper and lower chains and compressed by forming punches, giving the caramel a certain shape and pattern; at the same time, thin bridges of caramel mass of 1 — 2 mm thickness remain between the individual caramels, due to which the molded caramel moves in a chain.
When the caramel chain comes out of the forming chains, the springs mounted in the links of the upper chains or the spreading poloskas push the punches apart, freeing the caramel chain that goes further to the narrow belt cooling conveyor.
When changing punching chains, depending on the shape and size of the caramel, change the position of the side chains to change the degree of convergence of the punches.
Chain caramel stamping machine W-3 of Barsky engineering plant. The machine has the same purpose as described above. In comparison with the caramel-stamping machine of the Bolshevsky plant, the W-3 machine (fig. 45) has several advantages.
The machine W-3 1 bed closed type; Inside the frame are mounted the drive from the individual 2 electric motor and the gearbox. The machine is equipped with an 3 safety fence for self-locking punching chains: when opening the fence, the machine shuts down.
The top punch chain is installed on the 4 drive sprockets, the 5 guide rollers and the 6 tension rollers, and the bottom chain on the 7 sprockets. The gap between the upper and lower punching chains is adjusted by means of polozov by eccentrics with a locking mechanism.
The upper and lower punch chains are tensioned simultaneously by moving the 8 racks of the guide rollers using the 9 adjustment handwheel.
The principle of operation of this machine is the same as described above.
Technical characteristics of chain Caramel stamping machines
|Productivity, kg / h||900||580-830|
|Stamping speed chains, m / s||1,3||0,7-1,1|
|Step side chains, mm||20||20|
|The number of speed stages||Adjustable cone pulleys of the variator||4|
|Electric motor power, kW||1,7||1,7|
Caramel-stamping chains are interchangeable working elements of chain caramel-stamping machines and serve for stamping caramel of various shapes and sizes with or without filling.
Carameleforming chains differ in the size of the pitch, which determines the length or diameter (diameter) of the formable caramel. The most common form of dies is caramel stamping chains with pitch 20, 30 and 38 mm.
The caramel stamping chains SHZ-20 with mm 20 pitch, used for making stamped caramel in the form of a ball with a diameter of 20 mm, are shown in fig. 46. Top and bottom chains are included in the chain kit. The upper chain consists of pivotally connected 4 links and 7 bridges with 5 punches (dies) with hemispheric forming part, 2 studs and 3 springs for wiring punches which are freely sliding in them.
The lower chain consists of 7 bridges, pivotally connected by studs. The bridges of both chains have cutting edges that cut the caramel harness during molding. In addition, they serve as guides for the punches of the upper chain. 1 and 6 rollers are mounted on the connecting axes of both chains to prevent the chain from abrasion.
Carameltelling chains SHZ-30 with 30 mm pitch and ShZ-38 with 38 mm pitch, designed for making stamped oval caramel with or without filling, are similar in structure to chains with 20 mm pitch, but the dies have a forming part in the shape of a semi with the appropriate pattern.
A similar chain with the same step for forming a flat-oval caramel with a rectangular cross-section of the “brick” type is shown in Fig. 44, b. The device of both chains with a pitch 38 mm as described above; Chain punches have a flat grooved surface.
Fig. 46. A set of caramel stamping chains with a mm 20 pitch (“ball”).
Table 13 Technical characteristics Caramel chains
|Brand chain||Step circuit mm||Length mm chain||Number of bridges||set weight, kg|
|top||lower||upper chain||lower circuit|
Rotary machines karameleformuyuschie
Due to low productivity, rotary caramel-forming machines are still limited in our confectioneries, although the molding quality is higher. Some factories have rotary caramel forming machines A2-ShFK with 700 kg / h capacity of the Barsky Machine-Building Plant, caramel-forming units “Migap 67CAA-6” (PNR), “Super-Royal” by the Italian company “Carle and Montanari”, etc.
For the formation of caramel type "cushion", "plate" and others used rotary cutting machines. The schematic diagram of such a machine is shown in Fig. 47. On the rotating 1 rotor, the 2 knives are fixed. In the tides of the 12 rotor on the 11 axes are fixed folding knives 5. From the 3 equal rollers, the caramel harness runs along the 4 guide tray and hits the rotor surface. As the rotor rotates, the 5 knives slide along the surface of the fixed 6 guide suspended on spring-loaded 7 holders. Under the influence of this guide knives are rotated and cut the harness. Then, under the action of the 9 guide, they are folded back to their original position, and the caramel chain formed is transferred to the 10 conveyor. The degree of clamping of the 6 guide is adjusted using the 8 screw. For caramel "plate" the surface of the knives is engraved.
For the molding of stamped caramel rotary punching machines are used, manufactured both in the USSR and abroad. In fig. 48 shows a schematic section of the rotor of the SKS machine developed by VNIIKP.
Fig. 47. Driving karamelerezhuschey rotary machines.
Figure: 48. Rotary caramel stamping machine ShKR (schematic section of the rotor).
The main 2 rotor disk is fixed to the 1 shaft. The disk is equipped with an 14 crown with fixed knives, and with the help of 3 bolts are attached to the left of 12 and the right 126 rings in which 11 stamps of 13 dies are mounted around the circumference. The 9 ring is put on the stem, through the hole of which the 5 finger is passed, screwed into the stem. As the rotor rotates, the 6 stock roller slides along the stationary 4 guide, and the 7 stock heel moves along the 8 guide. Under the influence of the 8 guide, the 13 dies converge and stamp the caramel / C, and under the influence of the 10 springs and the 4 guides, they move apart. In the tides of the right 126 ring on the 13 axes, folding 16 swivel levers are mounted, to which 15 knives are attached. The levers have 14 shanks, at the end of which are mounted freely rotating 15 rollers, rolling along fixed 17 guides. When turning, the 16 levers take up the 16 position ′. During the rotation of the rotor, the 15 folding knives converge with the 14 rotor knives, cut the harness K into separate caramels, and the 13 dies converge and press the side surfaces of the caramels together, giving them the necessary shape and relief.
Foreign firms supplying rotary machines complete with nachinkonapolnitelyami, karameleobkatochnymi cooling machines and conveyors.
The performance of a rotary caramel-forming machine (in kg / h) is determined by the formula
where z is the number of folding knives on the rotor;
n - rotor speed, rpm;
k is the number of pieces of items in 1 kg.
The performance of these machines is low - 125 - 300 kg / h. This is because the harness does not completely cover the rotor and the path traveled by the harness during molding is small. Therefore, the rotor rotates at low speed. With the rapid rotation of the rotor, the speed of forming the caramel will be undesirably high, at which it is difficult to obtain products of the required quality. In addition, with a high rotor speed, the centrifugal forces of the folding knives and the load on their hinges sharply increase.
Valkovaya monpanseynaya formuyuschaya machine MIA
The machine is designed for forming candy caramel type drops from a layer of caramel mass. Replaceable forming rolls can be installed on this machine for various types of candy products, including "Mixture", "Almond", "Peas", "Lemon and orange peels", "Orange slices", etc.
The MVS machine (fig. 49) consists of a 1 steel body and 2 and 3 forming rolls, on the surface of which molds with various patterns are engraved. At the ends of the necks of the rolls mounted gears 4 and 5. The 6 drive shaft with gears is mounted in the middle of the case. At the bottom of the machine body is the 7 electric motor, on the shaft of which the gear is attached.
Movement from the electric motor is transmitted through a pair of gears to the drive shaft, and then with the help of a system of gears - to the forming rolls. The gap between the forming rollers is adjusted using clamps and 8 screws with 9 grips.
During operation of the machine provides the rolls with air cooling of the air supplied through the pipe 12.
A layer of caramel mass is fed to the 10 guide tray and fed under the rolls. The molded formation, coming out from under the rolls to the receiving tray 11, enters the cooling conveyor, where it is cooled and
beats on individual candies (montance). Then mix the cooled fruit drops of different colors and pack them in tin jars or trade containers (in the latter case, with a pre-sprinkling of sugar).
Fig. 49. Roller monpanseynaya machine MVS.
Tehnycheskaya characteristic monpanseynoy formuyuschey mashiny MIA
|Productivity, kg / h||to 650|
|roll speed, rev / min||50|
|Electric motor power, kW||1,0|
Calculation of the productivity of the machine is carried out according to the formula (П-12), in which g - will be the number of cells on the surface of the forming roll.