National Russian flour confectionery with a pronounced sweet taste, the smell of spices and soft consistency. Gingerbreads are sandwiched, most often fruit filling or jam, baked semi-finished product from gingerbread dough, having a rectangular flat shape. Gingerbread and gingerbread produced according to GOST 15810-96 “Gingerbread confectionery products. General technical conditions "or according to the technical specifications of the enterprise.
Raw carrots and gingerbread
Raw carrots and gingerbread are made without welding flour.
|Raw||Solids,%||Consumption of raw materials to finished products 1 t, kg|
|actually||in dry matter|
Technological raw gingerbread production process consists of the following stages:
1) preparation of raw materials for production;
2) preparation of syrup;
3) dough preparation;
7) glazing (for glazed gingerbread);
8) packaging, labeling, transportation and storage.
Features of use of food additives
In the production of raw carrots and gingerbread, the following food additives: coloring agents, flavoring agents, flavor enhancers and flavor, emulsifiers, preservatives, antioxidants, humectants, leavening agents, enzymes.
Flavors. Raw cakes are usually flavored and tasted mint or vanilla. In recent years, there have also appeared raw gingerbread with fruit, coffee, etc. aroma and taste. As a rule, liquid flavors are used for this, but powdery ones can also be used. To give a mint flavor and taste, use mint flavors, mint essential oil or, more rarely, menthol. Vanillin is added to raw gingerbread to give them a pronounced vanilla flavor or a pleasant sweet taste or to enhance other flavors. The achievable goal depends on the concentration of vanillin used. The aroma of vanillin is perfectly combined with fruit flavors, especially with strawberry. The concentration of vanillin in gingerbread, depending on the differences in formulations, technology, the requirements of a particular manufacturer, is 75-500 g / t of the finished product, ethyl vanillin 20-250 g / t. Dosages of other flavors are similar to those in other confectionery products.
Flavors make the dough together with other components in a batch kneading. In the continuous production of a flavoring emulsion making. In the production of gingerbread, particularly of small size, the temperature can be so high that some of the flavoring substances are volatilized.
Therefore it is recommended to mix the flavoring prescription fat or melange protecting fragrances by volatilization.
Dyes. Traditional recipes of raw gingerbread do not provide for the use of colorants, but when using flavorings of certain directions, manufacturers introduce dyes into the dough, although they are often limited to tinting the sugar (syrup). Dyes can be used both natural and synthetic. They are introduced into the dough at the kneading stage: synthetic dyes in the form of aqueous solutions (see Appendix 16), natural undiluted or also in the form of solutions. The dosage of synthetic dyes is 20-100 g per ton of finished products, dosage of natural in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Finally, the dosage is determined by the results of the experimental development.
Emulsifiers. Dough for gingerbread is characterized by a relatively high sugar content and a small amount of water. To limit the swelling of flour proteins, kneading time and temperature of the dough are limited. The introduction of emulsifiers into the formulation reduces the kneading time, improves the ductility of the dough, and improves its ability to machine and mold. Products with emulsifiers have a more uniform porosity, increased specific volume, reduced density, improved structure. In addition, emulsifiers help prolong freshness, helping to preserve moisture during storage. As emulsifiers it is recommended to use lecithins (Е322), distilled monoglycerides (Е471), monoglycerides lemon-acid (Е 472с). The recommended dosage of lecithin 0,5-1,0% to the mass of flour, other emulsifiers is 0,2-0,4% to the weight of flour. Powdered emulsifiers are recommended to be mixed with flour, liquid lecithin - when preparing the emulsion. When using emulsifiers it is recommended to increase the humidity of the test for 1-1,5%.
The use of sodium lactylate (E481) also improves the structural and mechanical properties of the test; Receive products with a smooth surface, without cracks; Prevent the formation of crust on the surface of the workpieces immediately after they leave the furnace; Slow down the process of hardening; Reduce crumb density; Receive products of standard quality from flour with reduced baking properties and extend the shelf life. The sodium lactylate is mixed with a small amount of flour, which is used to mix the dough, then add it to the remaining flour and mix thoroughly. To avoid tightening the test, it is recommended to observe the batching and molding time. Recommended dosage: 0,2-0,3% to the weight of flour, depending on its quality.
Additives that increase shelf life. In accordance with GOST 15810-96, the shelf life at temperature (18 ± 5) “С and relative humidity of air no more than 75% is:
1) for raw unglazed (except for mint) gingerbread and gingerbread - no more than 20 days;
2) for raw gingerbread like mint in summer - no more than 10 days;
3) for raw gingerbread like mint in winter - no more than 15 days;
4) for raw glazed gingerbread and gingerbread - no more than 20 days.
Gingerbread, especially raw, stale very quickly. It is believed that due to staling gingerbread moisture loss during storage by starch retrogradation process. The test workpieces starch granules swell and partially gelatinized with absorption of moisture, wherein the proportion of the amorphous phase are significantly increased. When storing the gingerbread products there is the reverse process. Released when the moisture is not bound and is rapidly lost. Thus, to extend the freshness gingerbread products must associate moisture.
use a variety of techniques, including glazing, sealed packaging, it is to replace the traditional half prescription quantity of wheat flour to rye, sugar and part of gingerbread To prolong the shelf - to invert syrup and honey. In addition, efficient use to slow the staling of gingerbread emulsifiers sodium lactylate, monoglycerides lemon acid, mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (see. Above).
Dietary fiber in dosage 2-4%, water binding, not only increase the shelf life of carrots, but also improve the consistency and texture of finished dough products.
If the problem of staling of gingerbread is solved with the help of packaging or food additives, other kinds of spoilage of gingerbread products become actual. The measured activity of water in gingerbread was 0,84. That is, they belong to products with intermediate moisture, for which the processes of microbiological damage are not excluded. Slow down these processes can be using preservatives. For flour confectionery products, the Ministry of Health permits sorbic acid (E200) and its salts, of which potassium sorbate (E202) is actually used. These are the only preservatives that are effective in neutral confectionery products that are prone to microbiological damage by mold fungi and yeast. The recommended dosage of sorbic acid is 50-100X100kg of flour; Potassium sorbate - 70-135 g per 100 kg of flour. The acid is used in the form of a powder, mixing with sugar, potassium sorbate - in the form of a concentrated solution.