Confectionery Industry Technology

MKI Additives - Waffles


Waffles - a confection made from the flour, egg yolks and soda, finely sheets sandwiched filled or unfilled. The filling is usually a fatty, fruity, fondant or praline. The form of wafers may be different. Waffles produce GOST 14031-68 «Waffles. Specifications "or TU enterprise.   vafli                 .

Formulation examples



Consumption of raw materials to finished products 1 t, kg


in dry matter

Wheat Flour




waffle recipe














Consumption of raw materials to finished products 1 t, kg


dry matter:

Soda drinking







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Formulation fat toppings


Powdered sugar




Confectionery fat




Fosfatidы (lecithin)




pineapple fragrance

According to the recommendations





citric acid




Little of the same wafers





OK. 1000


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 Technological process

Technology wafer manufacturing process consists of the following stages:

1) preparation of raw materials for production;

2) dough preparation;

3) forming wafer sheets;

4) baking wafer sheets;

5) preparation of fillings;

6) formation of the formation;

7) cooling;

8) cutting into separate products;

9) packaging, labeling, transportation and storage.

Features of use of food additives in the manufacture of wafers

In the manufacture of wafers using the following supplements: flavorants colorants, flavor enhancers and flavor, emulsifiers, preservatives, food acids, antioxidants, humectants, leavening agents, enzymes

Flavours. Waffles flavoring may be featureless smell and taste. In the production of wafer sheets most commonly used vanillin, ethyl vanillin or vanilla flavors. They bring in a waffle sweet and pleasant taste, as well as create a creamy flavor.

As vanilla flavors can be used vanillin itself, the vanilla and vanilla flavors. Although all kinds of vanilla can be used to flavor waffles, but its different brands do not give them a lot of different flavor and aroma profile. Vanillin concentration in wafers according to the differences in formulation, technology, the requirements of a particular manufacturer 75-500 g / ton of finished product, ethylvanillin 20-250 g / t, vanilla flavoring in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

When baking waffle sheets, the temperature inside the product can be so high that some of the aromatic substances volatilize. Therefore, when entering the dough, it is recommended to mix the flavor with the prescription fat, which acts as an "aroma fixer", or with a melange. When preparing a wafer dough in a continuous manner, the flavors are introduced into the concentrated emulsion together with the other components (previously mixed with fat or melange). When kneading a wafer dough in a periodic manner, the flavors are introduced into the kneading machine together with the fat or melange, without disturbing the sequence of application of the components.

The fondant, fruit praline fillings and fillings use the same flavors and in the same manner as described in section. The use of flavorings in the fat fillings a little different.

Flavorings are used to mask the flavor and fat make fat fillings flavor variety (lemon, orange, pineapple and the like fillings). Thus, generally, liquid-soluble flavors, but the use is not excluded and powders. To process the fat-filling flavor together with fruit flavors to improve the flavor can be used in small vanillin (100 g / ton) dosage.

Dosages of flavorings shall comply with the recommendations of the manufacturer. Flavors are added to the stuffing with the fat can be tentatively assigned its flavor in a small amount under mild heat (40-60 ° C).

Dyes. Usually, the wafer sheets are not stained. Sometimes, in the absence of cocoa powder or insufficient coloring ability to give brown wafers, caramel (sugar) color (E150) is used. Suit all varieties of this dye. The dosage depends on the variety, the form and the desired intensity of staining. Usually, the consumption of Е150d for giving the color "coffee with milk" is 1-10 kg per tonne, brown color - 50-90 kg per ton. Use synthetic dyes, both individual and mixed, to give brown waffle sheets very carefully: often they give the test and finished products unwanted reddish, greenish and gray shades. This is especially true at high dosages.

The use of dyes in fondant, fruit fillings and praline fillings is described in the section. Fat fillings are stained to give a color that corresponds to the used flavor, for example, strawberry flavoring requires tinting the filling in pink. It should be noted that the intensity of the color of fat fillings usually do not achieve. To tint fatty fillings use natural fat-soluble dyes, for example, beta-carotene in the form of 30% oily solution (yellow color), fat-soluble forms of other natural dyes and synthetic dyes. Dosages in accordance with the recommendations of manufacturers. Beta-carotene in the filling should be previously dissolved in 20-fold amount of vegetable oil, and then distributed in prescription fat.

Emulsifiers. As is known, in the continuous production of raw materials in the kneading machine loading is carried out in two streams: one meal dosing and emulsion from the rest of the raw material - the other. Use of the emulsion is not only necessary for continuous dough, but also to improve the quality of wafers. Emulsion helps to ensure a more dough, can be easily molded. Waffles cooked on the emulsion, have a clear picture surface, a thin and fragile structure.

For emulsion emulsifier is added to the feed. Most formulations wafer sheets comprises natural emulsifiers lecithin egg products, milk casein. But usually, natural emulsifiers to obtain high quality waffles insufficient necessary to use emulsifiers. Emulsifiers are important to the batter by the fact that the lower the viscosity. Batter viscosity significantly affects its molding and dosing. The lower the viscosity, the easier are the process steps.

An effective emulsifier is lecithin in wafers (E322). Lecithin in dosage 0,4-0,8% by weight of flour primarily significantly reduces the viscosity of the test; In addition, it stabilizes the emulsion provides a lubricating effect and helps to reduce the consumption of egg products. The particulate lecithin is mixed with flour, liquid is introduced into the emulsion.

Reduced batter viscosity caused by the addition of lecithin binding molecules lecithin hydrophilic groups and water molecules that are on the surface of the particle mixture prescription. As a result, the binding force of friction between particles decreases, the mobility increases and decreases the viscosity of the dough, and it spreads better on the forms.

The surface of the wafer sheets has hydrophilic properties to a greater extent than lipophilic. When the batter hits the repulsive fat contained in the dough, the dough is concentrated in the middle layer and acts as a lubricant. The lipophilic part of the molecule is added to the batter lecithin provides a stable distribution of fat on the surface of the dough, including at the surface in contact with the baking. As a result, the fat with lecithin act as an effective lubricant, wafer sheets are best separated from the baking.

The use of lecithin in the production of wafer sheet can improve the fluidity of the test according to the forms to make waffles uniform color with a fine and delicate structure and a clear surface pattern, reduce scrap, edema and return of waste, to improve the separation of the sheet from the baking trays.

As an effective emulsifier in wafer test shows a mixture of lecithin with monoglycerides (E471) and polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (E47E These emulsifiers are not only improve the structure and crunchy properties of products, improve their strength significantly reduce the viscosity increase homogeneous dough, improves the separation of wafers from forms, but also can significantly clever stitching contents egg products as compared with the standard formulation hell even eliminate them altogether.

Fat filling must contain a sufficient amount of air, have legkotayaschuyu, oily, soft, fluffy texture and plastic properties.
Lecithin enhances the plasticity of the filling. It is used in a dosage 0,2-0,4%. Whipping toppings improve other emulsifiers: mono- and diglycerides (E471), polysorbates (E432-E436).

Enzymes. As mentioned above, the viscosity of the wafer test is its most important characteristic, which determines the uniformity of the distribution of the dough on the surface of the molds, the cost-effectiveness of its consumption, the number of edemas and the quality of the finished wafer sheet. The viscosity of the test depends, first of all, on wheat flour. It should contain 25-32% poor quality gluten. To weaken gluten used enzymes with proteolytic activity [47,160]. They cleave the protein molecules gluten framework and reduce the viscosity of the dough. To the enzyme has its effect, it takes time, usually several hours.

Additives that increase the shelf life. In accordance with GOST 14031-68 shelf life at a temperature (18 ± 3) ° C and relative humidity 65-70% of:

1) waffles with fat filling, praline and praline-type fillings - 2 months;

2) waffles with fruit fillings - 1 month;

3) waffles with fondant fillings - 25 days;

4) wafers with fat fillings entirely in butter — 15 days;

5) waffles without filling - 3 months

The main limitations on the shelf life of wafers are toppings. Moisture of waffle sheets is at the level of 2-4%, water activity is less than 0,6. This means that the development of even yeast and molds in wafer sheets is unlikely. Mass fraction of fat in terms of dry matter in wafers without fillings 6,9-10,9%. Therefore, the oxidation processes in wafer sheets are rather slow. To stabilize the quality of waffle sheets for the entire shelf life, it is recommended to use dietary fiber, including the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (E466). When using dietary fiber of various brands at a dosage of approximately 2% the dough becomes more uniform, stable, the wafer sheets are heavier, less brittle, but more tender, less saturated with moisture from the filling (boiled condensed milk, fruit filling).

The introduction of special brands of sodium salt CMC in the recipe of wafers allows you to improve the structural and mechanical properties of the dough, to facilitate its mechanical processing, to regulate the process of moisture loss (fogging in summer and stale in winter). The recommended dosage is 20-100 g / 100 kg of dough, depending on the quality of the flour. When using CMC is required to increase the amount of water going to the dough. An additional amount of water is calculated based on the fact that the 1 part of the CMC requires an additional 50-80 of water. For example, if 0,2 kg ЕNNUMX is used for dough kneading, then 466 kg x 0,2-50 = 80 - 10 l of water is additionally added. Thus, the use of CMC also allows you to increase the yield of finished products (due to the additionally introduced water).

Dietary fiber and CMC were mixed with a small amount of flour that goes to kneading, then mixed into the remaining flour. Further process is carried out in accordance with process instructions for this type of product.

Using fillings quite noticeable effect on the moisture content, fat content and timing of wafer shelf. The introduction of fruit fillings to add humidity to 9,0-15,3%, humidity waffles with other fillings not exceed 7-8%. Fat content on dry substance in wafers for guests with fondant filling and praline filling up from the 14,4 31,0%.

Mass fraction of fat in terms of dry matter in wafers according to GOST with fat filling 21,8-41,8%. Increase the shelf life of fatty fillings and, accordingly, wafers with fat fillings can be used with antioxidants. The most effective in slowing down the oxidation of fat fillings, especially butter, are propyl gallate (E310) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (E319). In the absence of these substances, you can use butyloxyanisole, (E320) or tocopherols (E306, E309). The introduction of these antioxidants into fat fillings in an amount of 200 g per ton of fat is sufficient to extend the shelf life of wafers with fat filling in 3-4 times. Antioxidants are added in the form of solutions with vegetable oil.

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