Confectionery Industry Technology

Features of use of food additives in the production of semi-finished biscuit

56692470Baked semi-finished products - Biscuit semi-finished product

Lush finely porous semifinished product with a soft elastic crumb obtained by striking a melange of sugar, followed by stirring knocked weight of flour and baking the resulting dough. Sponge cake mix can be produced with cocoa powder, with nuts, raisins, with nuts and raisins, with butter, round - "Bush"


formulation example




Consumption of raw materials to finished product 1 t, kg


in dry matter





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According to recommendations



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Technological process

Technology sponge semi-finished product manufacturing process consists of the following stages:

1) preparation of raw materials for production;

2) churning egg products with granulated sugar;

3) preparation of biscuit dough;

4) molding;

5) baking;

6) cooling and standing;

7) slicing.

Features of use of food additives

in the production of semi-finished biscuit

In the production of biscuits, the following semi-finished food additives: coloring agents, flavoring agents, flavor enhancers and flavor, emulsifiers, preservatives, humectants, enzyme preparations.

Flavors. In the production of biscuit semi-finished products, vanillin, ethyl vanillin, vanilla flavors, cream, flavor of melted milk, honey, fruit, coffee, etc. are used. The dosage of flavors is determined by the results of the test batch, the approximate dosages according to the recommendations of the manufacturer. The dosage of vanillin from 75 to 500 g / t, ethylvaniline - in 2-4 times less. Flavors are recommended to be added to a mixture of egg products with sugar-sand, directed to knocking. Some authors recommend to make them together with flour, which is quite risky. In the standard technology for making a sponge cake (without the use of pasta for churning), stirring with flour takes only 15 seconds, given the low dosage of the flavor, especially vanillin and ethyl vanillin, you can hardly be sure that during this time the flavor will spread evenly throughout the test.

Dyes. The dyes in the production of semi-finished biscuit rarely used.

Enzyme preparations. To prepare the sponge semi-finished product is to be used wheat flour containing 28-34% gluten. Gluten must be poor or average quality, or sponge cake mix will kroshlivym. To loosen the gluten used enzyme preparations with proteolytic activity at the recommended dosage by the manufacturer. Typically, dosage is 0,01-0,03%. It depends on the strength of the gluten.

Emulsifiers. Fat gives the test "slippery", necessary to facilitate the technological process. Due to the reduced amount of prescription fat, the products are not amenable to machine treatment, the dough is not plastic enough, more viscous, the finished products have a limited shelf life. Biscuit dough is low in fat, which often causes the product to stick to the technological surfaces. The consequence is a decrease in product yield, a non-standard form and an unattractive appearance of the product. The situation is exacerbated by a decrease in the amount of egg powder or eggs, that is, natural emulsifiers.

Improve the properties of low-fat dough and finished products from it allows the use of lecithin. Typically, a combination of several emulsifiers is required, most often mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E471), polyglycerol and fatty acid esters (E475) and lecithin (E322). Combination of emulsifiers increases the efficiency of each individual emulsifier and guarantees high uniformity of the test. The total dosage of emulsifiers to the weight of flour can reach 4%. Mono- and diglycerides slow the hardening caused by aging of wheat and corn starches. Lecithins improve the rheological properties of the dough, without compromising the quality of the finished biscuit.

In the production of biscuit lecithin is added to the whipping test stage the result is a soft, homogeneous, stable whipped phase, and then you stove - fine pore sponge cake with a perfect structure.

When used in a recipe lecithin obtained biscuit, less prone to fracture, which is especially important in the production of sponge rolls. Lecithin increases the elasticity of the biscuit surface, adjusting the moisture content in the surface layer. As a result, it can resist stresses arising in the process of baking, cooling and twisting, and will not crack.

The combination of lecithin with other emulsifiers in the production of biscuits easier mixing, emulsifying, increases the volume and improves the surface appearance, crumb structure, provides a softer, tender crumb, reducing kroshlivosti, regulates moisture, prolongs shelf life prevents moisture loss during storage.

Preparation of a biscuit test is carried out by introducing air and dispersing it in a biscuit mass. This is exerted by the resistance of the surface tension of the liquid, which must be weakened to form a pin structure. The problem is solved by introducing emulsifiers into the biscuit dough, eg: "Pastes for knocking down". It allows to speed up the technological process (to lead it in one stage, mixing flour together with other ingredients) and to reduce the consumption of egg products. With a significant decrease in egg products, it is necessary to increase the dosage of the paste, which leads to a lush but viscous test. This makes it difficult to dose and uniformity of distribution in the form. The addition of lecithin reduces the viscosity of the dough and increases its fluidity. In addition, lecithin improves the uniformity of the dough, prevents the caking of flour during batching, promotes a more even distribution of the formulation components in the dough. The recommended dosage of lecithin in the biscuit semi-finished product for cakes and pastry 1,5% -2,0% to the weight of flour, in the biscuit semi-finished product for rolls - 2,0-2,5% to the mass of flour. Lecithin should be injected into the egg-sugar mixture formed.

Additives that increase the shelf life. Biscuits are characterized by a water activityю > 0,6. They belong to products with intermediate humidity, some types - to products with high humidity. Microbiological spoilage for these types of semi-finished products is quite likely. Moreover, in biscuits with a water activity of more than 0,9 there are conditions for the development of not only yeast and molds, but also bacteria. However, the most serious problem when storing biscuits is staleness.

Processes staling biscuits slow emulsifiers and humectants (glycerol, propylene glycol, pectin, carrageenan, fiber, and so on. P.), Although we can not say that today the problem of staling biscuits solved.

Emulsifiers which can be used to retard staling sponge intermediates, the same as those for butter biscuit. Glycerin and propylene glycol are used in dosage 30 kg per ton of product. Dietary fiber in dosage 2-4% not only slow down the staling, but also improves the texture of the sponge semi-finished products, give them a more delicate texture.

To prevent the development of undesirable microorganisms in the biscuits, their water activity is reduced. But if one cannot do without preservatives, sorbic acid (E200) in the form of an acid or its salts, primarily potassium sorbate (E202), is quite effective. The acid is added in the form of a powder at an approximate dosage of 1 kg per ton of finished product. Potassium sorbate in the form of a concentrated aqueous solution in an amount of about 1300 g of sorbate per 1 ton (calculated as dry sorbate).

The probability of oxidative damage is insignificant, because this process is much slower biscuits above two. However, if the biscuit is stored for a long time, oxidation can substantially slow down via butylhydroxyanisole (E320) and butioksitoluola (E321) used in a ratio 1: 1 100 dosage in g per ton of finished product. Antioxidants are used in a solution in vegetable oil.

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