Confectionery Industry Technology


m-0Shelf life of marzipan and nut pastes during storage

About fermentation in marzipan, there are many materials and made many suggestions to prevent it, including the addition of glycerol, acetic acid and bitter almonds, but none of these supplements do not need while respecting the fundamental rules of confectionery technology.

The first rule applies to the destruction of microorganisms in raw materials, combined with the provision of adequate sanitary installations state, and the second - to ensure the right balance "sugar / glucose / invert sugar", which determine the concentration of the syrup phase in combination with moisture is not below the minimum in 75% after maturation.

Natural nuts contain microorganisms (including osmophilic yeasts) and active enzymes. If they do not kill, they cause a slow fermentation and the appearance of the product in other flavors. These microorganisms are resistant to heat in an environment with a high sugar content up to temperatures action 93-100 ° C for 10-20 minutes. These microorganisms are best destroyed during blanching, immersing them in boiling water for a time sufficient to ensure sterility (generally sufficient 3 min). Some manufacturers claim that because of blanching unlike instant immersion taste deteriorates, but it is very doubtful.

Sanitary processing equipment have repeatedly been considered above. In the production of marzipan accessories used for
with raw nuts should not be used for the finished product without thorough cleaning and sterilization. Especially dangerous is the dust that arises when cleaning the nuts, and the operation should be carried out outside of office, which made pasta. Waste marzipan with their "age" over 1 days should be sterilized by heating.

The practice of covering pastes and sweet with a damp cloth to prevent them from drying out completely acceptable, but, unfortunately, it is still recommended in some textbooks. The same applies to a damp cloth used for wiping hands - microbiological control indicates a huge number of microorganisms on them.

As for the content of soluble solids, it may not exceed 67% based almond marzipan or sugar, as is the maximum solubility of the sucrose and the proportion of the soluble part is very small nuts. In this connection, the foundation after manufacture store necessary minimum time. As the syrup ingredients based on the best of IPpolzovat mixture "sugar / glucose / sugar in- vertny" (minimum content of glucose syrup 20%). When the moisture content in marzipan 8% this gives a satisfactory concentration of the syrup. Verification can be done by removing part of the syrup phase of matured paste using the "press the syrup" (Fig. 19.34) and determining the concentration of a refractometer.

We have already talked about the inhibitory effects of certain chemicals, and here we shall mention only the required quantity.


Introduction of an organic acid is effective in the event that for any reason it is necessary to use dry substances of low solubility. It is best to use acetic acid, but the unpleasant taste / feel it at effective levels (0,1-0,2%) ofgroin. Even with its content in 0,05%, some may feel the taste of acid. Lactic acid is less effective, and with a higher content of its taste is more difficult to detect. Glycerin and sorbitol - syrup have an inhibitory effect, help to keep the paste soft and slow crystallization (usually 2-4% is used in the recipe). It has been shown that bitter almonds inhibit fermentation (possibly due to the presence of amygdalin glucoside), and therefore 2-3% of bitter almonds are often added to almond paste, which improves the taste and increases the safety of products.

Sorbic acid (if it is authorized to use) is an effective preservative used in an amount 0,1-0,2%.


"Persipan" - this is the "official" name of a paste made from the kernels of apricot or peach pits corrected for bitterness. With proper manufacturing it is very similar to the real almond paste.

There are two ways to remove bitterness. One is washing the cores with cold water to remove the bitter glucoside (amygdalin), but it is very impractical, as there is a loss of mineral solutes. The second way is to Using natural enzyme (emulsin) contained in the outer layers of the nuclei, which separates amygdalin on hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde and grape sugar. The kernels finely chop and add water until until you get a little wet mixture, which is maintained at 30 ° C during the day. It is necessary to provide ventilation and removal of air with the evolved hydrogen cyanide. If the kernel blanched scalding, for the reaction necessary to add emulsin. With this technique only lost cyanide and wet the nuts can be directly used for persipan.

Made persipan of nuclei with bitterness similarly eliminated marzipan.

Coconut paste, roasted nuts with coconuts

Coconut - a very popular ingredient in the confectionery business. One of the traditional home-made products in the West - with crushed roasted nuts coconut.

The main ingredient in most of the coconut product lines - a dried coconut, although some manufacturers claim that only fresh coconut gives an authentic taste of a juicy and soft texture. Coconut can be delivered in other ways - sweetened dried with a soft texture and canned in syrup.

Dried coconut, being made from a natural product may contain microorganisms. Because of unsanitary cooking methods in some regions in the past it was considered a cause of salmonellosis and typhoid. Poor Drying also resulted in the presence of coconut lipase causes rancidity finished products due to hydrolysis reactions.

Because of these risks were introduced methods of sterilization of all deliveries of coconut, and consumer countries representatives made recommendations to improve the treatment methods in the field of its cultivation. The quality of the supply is now greatly improved.

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