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Confectionery Industry Technology

Calculation of confectionery formulations. Determination of costs in kind to 1 t phase.

To determine the cost in kind on the 1 T phase, these 6 columns should be taken, using the percentage of solids in the above types of raw materials, to be translated into natural expression, namely

sugar 711,15 * 100 / 99,85 = 712,22 kg,

molasses 277,76 * 100/78 = 356,11 kg.

Consumption of essence in nature is calculated with the same ratio

1,12 * 1,78053 = 2 kg.

We put this figure in the gr. 5 for essences and calculate the total, which is equal to 1070,33 kg.

Since 1 g of finished caramel consumes not 1 t, but 0,663 t of caramel mass (see recipe for cutting and molding), the consumption of raw materials must be counted by this amount. For this figure in gr. The 5 and 6 flow rates for the 1 t phase, both in nature and in dry matter, are multiplied by 0,663.

For example, the sugar in a nature 712,22 * 0,663 = 472,2 kg. However, on a dry matter 711,15-0,663 = 471,49 kg

The same outcome can be obtained by multiplying the flow in nature to the percentage of solids 472,2 * 99,85 / 100 = 471,49

We proceed to the calculation of raw materials for the preparation of apple filling consumed on 1 g of finished caramel in the amount of 180 kg, for which we also compile a table (Table 201).

201 Table. The recipe apple filling

Name of raw materials and semi-finished products Sauder

content of

in St.%

Loading charge in kg Consumption

phase

1 on t

kg

Consumption for 1 tons of finished caramel in kg
actually in dry matter в

in kind

in dry matter actually in dry matter
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
stuffing recipe In 180 kg
a) cooking for chinks
Granulated sugar 99,85 120 119,82 565,10 564,24 161,72 101,57
flow   78 60 46,8 282,55 220,39 50,86 39,67
apple sauce 10 116,8 11,68 550 55 99 9,9
Lactic acid 40 4,25 1,7 20 8 3.6 1,44
b) Adding at cutting
Apple essence 0,85 4 0,72
Total 301,9 180 1421,65 847,63 255,90 152,58
Log out    84 212,36 178,38 1000 840,0 180 151,2

Since according to the consumption of mashed potatoes for loading, it has 9,5% solids instead of 10% taken in formulations, we first recalculate the natural expression to 10% standard mashed potatoes, which will be:

     123 * 9,5 / 10 = 116,8 kg.

This amount is entered in the table. 201 (c. 3). (Here and everywhere c. = Graph)

C. 2 and 3 filled on the basis of the available data.

C. 4 filled by multiplying the data c. 3 2 to c. Count the total of the costs in the dry matter, it is equal to 180 kg stuffing Output for loading in dry matter is determined by taking into account the losses on a given phase, taken equal to 0,9%:

(180 * 100-0,9) / 100 = 178,38 kg, and in kind, based on the content of dry substances in the finished filling: 178,38 * 100/84 = 212,36 kg.

To determine the consumption of raw materials on the 1 g phase of fruit filling, we find the conversion factor from the ratio of the solids content in the output of 1 t and in the load (gr. 6 and 4):

K = 840 / 178,38 = 4,70905.

Multiplying the data c. 4 for the coefficient found, we obtain the consumption of raw materials in dry matter for 1 tons of phase (gr. 6):

Sugar 119,82 * 4,70905 = 564,21 kg

Molasses 46,8 * 4,70905 = 220,39 kg, etc.

Consumption of raw materials to 1 t phase in kind (c. 5) is determined based on the percentage of solids in the applicable raw materials (c. 2) and is Sugar 564,24 * 100 / 99,85 = 565,10 kg,

Molasses 220,39 * 100/78 = 282,55 kg. etc.

Consumption of raw materials for fillings, part of the I m ready candy, t. E. At fillings 180 kg, find the serial multiplication of the data c. 5 0,18 on (the number of the finished caramel filling 180 0,18 kg = g), amounting to

sugar 565,10 * 0,18 = 101,72 kg

molasses 282,55 * 0,18 = 50,86 kg

puree 550 * 0,18 = 99,00 kg. etc.

C. 8 filled on the basis of the percentage of dry matter (c. 2).

The consumption of raw materials for the filling on 1 g of finished caramel, both in nature and in dry matter, can also be obtained by multiplying the gr. 5 and 6 on 0,18, and the discrepancies in the results obtained from multiplying the number of gr. 7 on the gr. 2 and from the multiplication of data c. 6 to 0,18, can only be in the second decimal place (as a result of rounding the decimal fraction).

The next step is to calculate prescription on chocolate-praline filling and determination of consumption of raw materials to the filling of this 160 kg, t. E. On 1 t ready caramel (Table. 202).

The procedure for calculating and filling table. 202 is the same as in the previous phases: gr. 1, 2 and 3 are filled out based on the available data, and gr. 4 data multiplication c. 3 on the gr. 2. Output by loading is determined by taking into account the losses found earlier in this phase, which are 1,4%. Consequently, the loading yield in dry matter will be 234,93 kg [238,27 (100 — 1,4)], and in real terms, taking into account the moisture content of the filling 238,6 kg

(* 234,93 100 / 98,46)

202 Table. Recipe chocolate-praline filling

Name of raw materials and semi-finished products Sauder

Contents SV%

Loading charge in kg phase flow in the 1 tons per kg Consumption on I t of finished caramel in kg
actually in dry matter actually in dry matter actually in dry matter
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Recipe chocolate praline filling In 160 kg
a) Preparing the filling
Powdered sugar 99,85 106 105,83 444,2 443,53 71,07 70,96
grated cocoa 97 33,4 32,40 140,0 135,80 22,40 21,73
Kernel hazelnut roasted or apricot kernels roasted     97,5 102,6 100,04 430,0 419,25 68,80 67,08
b) Adding at cutting
Vanilla essence 0,48 2 0,32
Total      242,48 238,27 1016,2 998,58 162,59 159,77
Log out 98,46 238,6 234,93 1000 984,6 160 157,54

68,8 kg of roasted kernels corresponds 72,45 kg wet core.

The calculation of the flow rate on the 1 t phase should be carried out, starting with the determination of the total flow rate in the dry matter, taking into account the percentage of losses. cooking:

984,6 * 100 / (100-1,4) = 998,58 kg dry matter.

Next, we find the conversion factor from the load to the T phase accompanying 1 on dry substance:

K = 998,58 / 238,27 = 4,19096
Multiplying each raw material in the form of dry solids loading on the conversion factor, determines the flow rate at 1 t phase in the dry matter:

Powdered sugar 105,83 * 4,19096 = 443,53 kg.

The cocoa mass * 32,4 4,19096 135,79 = kg (rounded 135,8 kg) and so on. D.

The data shall be entered in grams. 6, and then translate them into nature (as well as for the apple filling).

Calculation of consumption in kind of raw materials for 1 t of the finished caramel is found by multiplying the gr. 5 on 0,16 (160 kg = 0,16 t) and put them in gr. 7, after which we determine the solids content in them (multiply the data of the group 7 with the data of group 2) and fill in the group. 8.

Results should be counted.

Having all the calculations of the costs of raw materials and semi-finished products for individual phases, we determine the total consumption of finished caramel for 1 t.

For clarity, we compile the table. 203, in which we record the consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products from the calculated single-phase formulations.

In tab. 203 gr. 1 — 8 is filled with data from the calculated phase-by-phase formulations (from gr. 7 and 8), and gr. 9 and 10 — by summing the digits horizontally.

Since the consumption of raw materials according to the sum of the phases does not take into account losses during transportation, wrapping, packaging and other operations, it is necessary to adjust it taking into account the total losses (in%) taken for this type of caramel in recipes (see Recipes for caramel, p. .3, where the total loss percentage for caramel with double fillings is given by 1,93%).

To determine the total consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products per 1 g of finished products, we first find its total dry matter, taking into account the total losses (in%) that make up 1,93. 1 tons of finished products contain 955,6 kg of solids. The total consumption of the total is:

955,6*100/(100—1,93)= 974,4 кг.

After that, we calculate the conversion factor, i.e., the ratio of the total raw material consumption for dry matter to the total phase consumption:

K = 974,4 / 969,02 = 1,005553.

Multiplying each type of raw materials and semi-finished products by the coefficient found, by the sum of the phases (in dry matter), we determine their total consumption for 1 tons of finished products.

Thus, the total consumption of sugar (in dry matter) will be

573,06 * 1,005553 = 576,24 (rounded 576,2 kg), molasses - 223,83 * 1,005553 = 225,07 (rounded 225,1 kg), etc. We find the quantities found in c. 12.

The total consumption of raw materials in natural terms (gr. 11) for certain types is determined by the percentage of dry substances in them (gr. 2).

203 Table. Consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products in phases of production and consumption for the determination of total 1 tonnes of finished products (including losses during transport, wrapping, packaging, other than discounted in the calculation of phases)

Name

raw

The solids content in% Consumption of raw materials in phases in kg Consumption of raw materials for the amount of phases in kg Total consumption of raw materials in the 1 t nezavernutoy caramel kg
cooking caramel mass cooking apple stuffing preparation

shokoladio-

praline

filling

actually in dry vesche

SHALL

actually in dry vesche

SHALL

actually in dry vesche

SHALL

actually in dry vesche

SHALL

actually in dry vesche

SHALL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Granulated sugar    99,85 472,2 471,49 101,72 101,57 573,92 573,06 577,1 576,2
Powdered sugar 99,85 71,07 70,96 71,07 70,96 71,4 71,3
flow   78,0 236,1 184,16 50,86 39,67 286,96 223,83 288.6 225,1
grated cocoa 97,0 22,4 21,73 22,4 21,73 22,5 21,8
Core raw hazelnut 94,0 72,45 68,10 72,45 68,1 72,9 68,5
apple sauce 10,0 99,0 9,9 99,0 9,9 100,0 10,0
lactic acid 40,0 3,6 1,44 3,6 1,44 3,8 1,5
vanilla essence 1,33 0,32 1,65      1,7
Essence apple 0,72 0,72 0,7
Total    709,63 655,65 255,90 152,58 166,24 160,79 1131,77 969,02 1138,7 974,4
Log out 95,56 1000 955,6 1000 955,6


So, sugar consumption in kind will be 576,2 * 100 / 99,85 = 577,07 kg (rounded 577,1)

Sugar, powdered 71,3-100 / 99,85 = 71,4 kg

Flow 225,1 * 100 / 78 = 288,6 kg

As defined and other raw materials that are part of this candy.

Since the essence, not having dry substances (as is customary in the calculations of recipes), does not appear in c. 10, it can not be determined by recalculation of dry substances and its consumption in physical terms (with allowable rounding) on ​​the sum of the phases is transferred to gr. 11.

Summing up gr. 11 and 12, we get the final result of the consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products for 1 tons of finished products (caramel).

The total gr. 12 may differ slightly from the total we found earlier, which is a consequence of rounding the decimal places when multiplied by the conversion factor of individual terms (gr. 10). This discrepancy shall not exceed one tenth of a kilogram.

Practical guidance for the use in the production of formulations

Conversion of raw materials in the case of a deviation of dry matter content in the formulations taken against

Table. 204 provides data for the preparation of fruit hulls candy to boot.

Table 204

Raw The solids content according to the laboratory in% Expenditure in kind in kg
Granulated sugar       99,85 224,14
Tangerine jelly 71,5 216,38
apple sauce 10,0 224,14
flow   77,0 30,27


The solids content in the liquor and in the molasses deviates from those accepted in the formulations, namely: the mandarin liquor instead of 69% contains 71,5%, and the molasses instead of 78 — 77%. We make recalculation of raw materials.

Determine the solids content of the jelly:

A) 216,38 * 71,5 / 100 = 154-62 kg

on the basis of the found amount of dry substances, we determine the amount of boiling with the accepted solids content (in%) according to the recipes.

b) 154,62 * 100 / 69 = 224,09 kg.

Against the same molasses:

A) 30,27 * 77 / 100 = 23,31 kg of dry matter; 

b) 23,31 * 100 / 78 = 29,88 kg.

The obtained amount podvarki and molasses should be taken in the calculation of a given formulation.

To reduce the calculation, you can apply the following formula:

P = АБ / В

where: P - the determined quantity of raw materials with the content of dry substances accepted for the calculation according to recipes in kg;

And - the amount of raw materials consumed in kg

B - the actual dry matter content in%;

In - the content of dry substances in this raw material (semi-finished product), adopted in recipes, in%.

Calculation per phase norm loss of dry matter of the same data phase recipes

Example I. Calculate the formulation of a new sort of caramel type Michurinskaya; It is necessary to determine the losses at the cooking stage. To do this, from the recipe number 29 unified collection (p. 84) is taken the consumption of raw materials in dry substances for 1 tons of filling; he is 847,63 kg. Then, the solids content in 1 t of the filling yield (840 kg) and the difference (7,63), which is the loss of solids in this phase, is subtracted to the raw material cost of dry matter:

(847,63 - 840) * 100 / 847,63 = 0,9%.

The losses found (0,9%) are used in the calculation of the recipe of the new variety.

Example II A new variety of horse race type fruit candy is calculated (formula No. 20); it is required to determine the losses in the preparation of the fruit body.

The costs for 1 t hulls in dry matter are 852,79 kg; yield in dry matter — 840 kg.

Consequently, the losses are:

(852.79 - 840) * 100 / 852,79 = 1,5% '

Determination of raw materials to the needs of the load at the rate of compounding on 1 t phase

Calculate the feed rate at a certain load (kg) associated with the container or equipment availability of raw materials.

In this case, the raw conversion is performed with total raw material costs.

Calculate the consumption of raw materials at a certain yield of semi-finished product (in kg).

In this case, the conversion of raw materials to the load produced from the output of total semi-finished (1 t).

Here are two examples of formulations based on load.

Example I. It is required to calculate the raw materials for the preparation of candy mass of Ryabinova pastes in phase before sprinkling with powder to load raw materials 28,5 kg according to the recipe (see Recipe for marmalade-pastilles No. 10 Pastila Rowanberry).

The recipe pastes without powder. Consumption of raw materials in the 1 t phase in kg

Granulated sugar      483,2
Applesauce 444,1
Ryabinovoe puree     47
Syrup agar     391,9
Egg whites 20
lactic acid   6,2
Rowan essence  1,1
Painting amaranth (divorced) 1,5
Yellow paint (diluted) 0,8

Total 1395,8

Output 1000,0

Getting recalculation recipe to boot 28,5 kg.

If the total (І395,8 kg) consumption of raw materials for the 1 t sugar phase contains 483,2 kg, then the 28,5 load should contain x kg.

Find the required quantity of sugar to the load in kg;

x = 28,5 * 483,2 / 1395,8 = 9,86 kg.

for simplicity we find the coefficient K:

28,5 / 1395,8 = 0,020418.

On the resulting coefficient K (0,020418) multiply the amount of raw material consumption of all components that were included in this phase (table. 205).

Table 205

Name

raw

Consumption of raw materials for 1 tons phase in kg Recipe for loading in kg Rounded in kg
Granulated sugar 483,2 9,86 9,9
Applesauce 444,1 9,07 9,1
Ryabinovoe puree     47 0,96 1
Syrup agar     391,9 8 8
Egg whites 20 0,41 0.4
lactic acid 6,2 0,13 0,13
Rowan essence      1.1 0,02 0,02
Painting amaranth (divorced) 1,5 0,03 0,03
Yellow paint (diluted) 0,8 0,02 0,02
Total 1395,8 28,5 28,6

The formulations of workers in the areas of production flavorings should be given in grams or volume measurements (sm3) translated at the specific weight.

Example II It is required to calculate the consumption of raw materials for loading for the preparation of candies “Record” in the amount of 185 kg (Recipe for candies No. 158 Record is given in Table 206).

It is necessary to calculate the load on the output of raw materials 185 kg.

In 1 tons of sugar candy required 605,34 kg, while the output 185 kg x kg.

X = 185 * 605,34 / 1000 = 111,99 KG (rounded 112 kg).

For simplicity, we find the ratio by dividing the 185 1000 kg per kg (yield)

To obtain = 0,185.

We multiply the consumption of raw materials (for each component) required for 1 tons of finished products by the obtained coefficient. In this way, we obtain the recipe for loading for 185 kg (table. 207.
206 Table. candy recipe

name of raw materials Consumption of raw materials in the 1 t

nezavernutyh sweets n kg

Granulated sugar     605,34
flow   178,61
Condensed milk 132,69
Butter    37,68
Vyshnevaya podvarki 66,33
Vyshnevaya эssentsyya 0,66
Painting amaranth (divorced) 0,93
Total    1022,24
Log out    1000,0

Table 207

Consumption The recipe to have on zagruz- kg
raw raw materials on 1 t by calculation the same with rounding
Granulated sugar     605,34 111,99 112
flow   178,61 33,04 33
Condensed milk   132,69 24,55 24,6
Butter    37,68 6,97 7
Vyshnevaya podvarki  66,33 12,27 12,3
Vyshnevaya эssentsyya  0,66 0,122 0,122
Painting amaranth (divorced) 0,93 0,172 0,172
Total 1022,24 189,114 189,194
Log out 1000,0 185 185

Calculation of replacing one other kind of raw material

In the practice of confectionery production, one type of raw material is sometimes replaced by another type, and this replacement is based on the amount of the original product contained in both the replaced raw material and the replacement one. For example, when replacing one type of milk with another, the basis of an approved replacement is based on the content of the dry milk residue, and on replacing the fruit purees with mash, the content of purees.

The permitted substitution and proportion of the raw materials are given in the recipe instructions.

In the accepted replacements for milk in the formulations were taken into account losses in the processing of raw materials, going to replace. Thus, in the replacement of condensed milk with whole milk instead of 2500 kg of whole milk, 2512,5 kg and sugar instead of 440,66 kg are given 442,9 kg.

When comparing the amount of solids contained in 1 tons of condensed milk and adopted to replace the fresh whole milk and sugar, there is a difference in the 0,5% loss in the condensed milk.

Example I. When making caramel apple (wrapped) is required to replace the mashed apple jelly.

In preparation 1 t stuffing recipe relies on 550 kg of apple puree (recipe number 30).

By replacing the table (see. Indication to the compounding of caramel) 790 kg puree with the addition of 612 1000 kg sugar corresponds podvarki kg.

Consequently, the amount podvarki (x) for the replacement of 550 kg mash is determined by the proportion

790 - 1000

550 - x

x = 1000 * 550 / 790 = 696,2 kg.

Since jelly, mashed addition, contains sugar, it is necessary to determine the amount 696,2 kg, which is:

696,2 * 612 / 1000 = 426,07 kg.

The found amount of podvarki (696,2 kg) is added to the recipe on 1 g filling phase instead of puree in the amount of 550 kg, and the sugar contained in it - 426,07 kg is excluded from the consumption of sugar on 1 t filling (as it is introduced with boiling).

Thus, the prescription consumption of raw materials for 1 t phase of preparation of the filling (in natural terms) after making adjustments for the replacement will be (in kg)

Sugar 565,1 kg - 426,07 = 139,03

Molasses 282,55

Apple brew 696,2

Lactic acid 20,0

Essentsiya 4,0

Total 1141,78

This recipe should be used both for the practical calculation of the consumption of raw materials for loading, and for determining the total consumption of raw materials for 1 t of finished caramel.

In the case of the use of codification with moisture deviating from the moisture used for calculating the formulations, in the working recipes, an appropriate correction should be made for the actual dry matter content (see page 547)

Example II When making caramel Popular, there was a need for condensed milk to be replaced with condensed milk. According to the recipe on 1 t filling for caramel "Popular" 220 kg of condensed milk is consumed (see. Recipe for caramel Popular).

1 tons of condensed milk meets 831 kg of skimmed milk with 101,7 kg of butter and 76,27 kg of sugar.

Therefore, to replace 220 kg of condensed milk you need (in kg)

Skim milk 831 * 0,22 = 182,82

Butter 101,7 * 0,22 = 22,37

Granulated sugar 76,27 * 0,22 = 16,78

The amount of raw material found must be entered into the recipe on the 1 g preparation phase of the filling instead of 220 kg of condensed milk and taken into account when calculating the formulation for the loading phase.

Calculation of raw materials needs to 1 g of finished product by weight in the wrapping

Consumption of raw materials in the formulations is given in all grades at 1 g nezavernutoy products.

To identify the needs of raw materials for 1 tons of finished weight wrapped products, the consumption of raw materials should be reduced by the amount of wrapping materials (included in net weight) in proportion to all types of raw materials.

The desired amount of a certain kind of raw material can be expressed in general terms as follows:

A = CA

where: a is the consumption of this type of raw material in kg per 1 tons of unwrapped products from the recipe;   

K - conversion factor K = (1000-B) / 1000 -, where B - the amount of wrapping materials

Example. It is required to determine the consumption of raw materials in kind on 1 t wrapped milk cow candies "Cow" (recipe number 156).

It is known that the consumption of labels and rolls on 1 tons of finished products is 56,67 kg (44,28 + 12,39). We find the conversion factor for K by subtracting from 1000 kg the weight of wrapping materials and dividing the resulting figure by 1000:

K = (1000 -56,67) / 1000 = 943
We multiply all types of raw materials indicated in the formula “Total consumption of raw materials for 1 tons of unwrapped sweets” by this coefficient and get (in kg)

Sugar 475,89 * 0,943 = 448,9

Molasses 191,08 * 0,942 = 183,1

Condensed milk 388,16 * 0,943 = 366,2

Butter 12,17 * 0,943 = 11,5

Vanillin 0,32 * 0,943 = 0,3

Total. ... ... 1070,62 1010

Exit . ... ... 1000 943,3

By adding the found amounts of individual types of raw materials, we find the amount of raw materials consumption (in kg) per 1 t wrapped weight cow chocolates.


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