Formulations in the confectionery industry serve different purposes, the most important of which are the following:
- production of certain varieties of products in compliance with the established ratios of certain types of raw materials, aromatic and flavoring substances; these ratios of raw materials mainly create characteristic features of the variety;
- determination of the cost of consumed raw materials on 1 t of this grade when calculating the cost;
- to calculate the needs of different kinds of raw materials to produce a certain amount and for a definite period of time in accordance with the production program.
These goals do not exhaust all cases of the required use of formulations in the economic activity of a confectionery enterprise, such as, for example, in designing and calculating equipment, determining the need for semi-finished products produced by adjacent workshops, in determining the economy of raw materials for rationalization measures, etc.
Formulation confection - this is a quantitative consumption of certain types of raw materials and semi-finished products required for the manufacture of 1t finished products.
Depending on the manufacturing technology, recipes can be simple and complex. Simple, consisting of one or two phases of manufacture, and complex, consisting of several phases.
Confectionery recipes in 1952 were unified by the USSR WFP and published by the Pishepromizdat in separate collections of different types of confectionery. In the following, the authors use examples of formulations from these collections.
For simple recipes can be assigned:
recipe number 164 on nut candies Batons,
recipe number 4 mixture on a cookie number 12,
recipe number 7 caramel candy Theatre, designed in phases:
- cooking caramel mass;
- Food introduction caramel flavoring and aromatic substances.
It is more difficult to calculate the recipe number 169 for Turksib sweets, in which you must first calculate the recipes for semi-finished products for the following preparation phases:
- milk fondant
- fruit syrup weight
- sugar fondant
- candy - bonded layers.
Even more difficult to calculate the number 123 is a recipe of caramel with a double filling Ukrainka.
This recipe is also necessary to have raw material consumption calculation for the preparation phase:
- chocolate praline fillings;
- roasting hazelnut kernels;
- cherry syrup;
- Liquor filling;
- caramel - cutting and molding.
After that, the consumption of raw materials is calculated on 1 t of finished caramel.
To calculate any recipe, you must have the following data:
- technological phases in the manufacture of products and their sequence in the technological process;
- consumption of raw materials and semi-finished products in kilograms by the actual load on the manufacturing phases;
- the content of dry substances in certain types of raw materials and semi-finished products;
- solids content in the finished product;
- loss ratios in the dry matter of raw materials and semi-finished products for the production phase of the class;
- standards of losses in the dry matter of raw materials and semi-finished products for 1 t of the finished product;
- mixtures percentage of certain varieties included in the mixture.
When calculating the need to follow the following provisions.
- It should adhere to the nomenclature and moisture content of raw materials and semi-finished unified formulations. In case of deviation of dry substances of raw materials from those accepted in the formulations, it is necessary to make a quantitative recalculation (see the example of recalculation of pages 546).
- Not all phases of the technological process should be counted, but only those on which there is a change in the composition of the raw materials or a change in humidity.
- If there is a similar phase in the recipes, then you should not count on it, but you should take the raw material consumption for 1 g of semi-finished product for this phase from collections of recipes (for example, roasting kernels, making lipstick, caramel mass, creams, cake biscuit, etc.).
- Consumption of raw materials to finished products 1 g with roasted kernels should be calculated on the caramel in the raw kernels and candy, biscuits, toffees, chocolate roasted, as is customary in formulations.
- Number of dyes must be taken in accordance with the regulations of recipes for similar varieties.
- You must be guided by the standards of aromatic substances, acids, the percentage of glaze and fillings, the standards of protective coatings and shells adopted in the formulations for similar groups of products.
- The material must be placed on the model adopted in the standardized recipes. In this case, after the name of the variety in front of the digital material to give a brief description of the product.
- The standards for loss of dry matter on 1 t of finished products should be taken from the instructions in the introduction of collections of formulations for the group corresponding to the calculated grade.
- If the dry matter loss standards for the production phases are not specified in the introductions of the standardized compounding collections, they should be calculated from the similar phases of this type of product (see the example of the calculation on page 547).
In the case of a new phase or a modified phase of the process, the percentage of dry matter loss is determined on the basis of expert tests.
- Rounding decimal places when calculating the consumption of raw materials to produce the second sign.
- When calculating the cost of raw materials 1 t mix of products and kits should:
a) calculate the compounding costs of raw materials on 1 tons each class;
b) determine the cost of raw materials for each class in proportion to the percentage of its content in the mixture. To do this, the consumption of raw materials for 1 t of each grade for all types of raw materials in nature and dry substances multiplied by the percentage of grade in the mixture.
c) the figures summarize.
- recipe calculation should begin with the last phase, namely:
Glazed sweets - from the glazing phase, candy - from the icing stage, caramel in wrapping - from the cutting stage, caramel glossy - from the glossing stage, etc.
The order and sequence of the stages should follow the order adopted in the standardized recipes.
- Counting recipes, physical and chemical parameters must be checked against the requirements of existing standards and the WTU.
Example calculation simple single-phase formulations ka candy
Nut sticks - recipe No. 164 For calculation, the following data is known.
I. Formulation to load in kg
|raw II.Vlazhnost||at %|
|Iii. Humidity ready candies||1,0%|
|Iv. Installed dry matter loss standard||2,6%|
The available data for the calculation of single-phase recipe is sufficient, proceed to the calculation.
For ease of calculation adopted following form table (Table. 198), in which the 2 and 3 graphs fill the available data to calculate (in bold).
Table 198 Calculation of single-phase formulations of chocolates
|name of raw materials||The solids content in%||Loading charge in kg||1 m consumption of finished products in kg|
|actually||in dry matter||actually||in dry matter|
Graphs 4, 5 and 6 calculated.
In further calculations, the word graph is written everywhere abbreviated gr.
In c. 4 affixed quantity of solids, obtained by multiplying the quantity of raw materials in kind (c. 3) em.terzhanie the percentage of dry matter (c. 2).
in 40 kg of powdered sugar 40 * 99,85 / 100 = 39,94 kg
20 kg in cocoa mass 20 * 97 / 100 = 19,40 kg
Other types of raw materials are also calculated and the total is calculated.
Thus, raw material costs are calculated and the kind of dry substances to the load.
To calculate the consumption of raw materials in the 1 tonnes of finished products should be:
- determine the cost of raw materials in dry substances per 1 g taking into account losses according to the approved standards (gr. 6), based on the content of dry substances in 1 tons of finished products;
- identify each raw material costs in the dry matter
- determine the cost of each type of raw material in nature (gr.5)
- calculate the consumption of raw materials both in kind and in dry substances on 1 tons of finished products (totals gr. 5 and 6).
(The method of calculating the dry substances to nature).
In the indicated order we carry out the calculation. Determine the total total raw material costs for dry matter
It is known that the moisture content in the finished candies equal 1%. Consequently, the content of solids in the finished articles 1 g equals 990 kg. We push the figure in the result c. 6.
Installed loss of the class make 2,6%.
From raw material costs for the dry matter in the 1 have to be more than 990 2,6% kg, t. E 990 kg corresponds to 97,4% (100-2,6).
We determine the consumption of raw materials in the dry matter at I t candy:
97,4% - 990 kg
100 - x
990,0 * 100 / 97,4 = 1016,43 kg
The resulting number is affixed to a total cost c. 6.
Check the correctness of the calculation:
We find the number of losses (2,6%) in kg from 1016,43
1016,43 * 2,6 / 100 = 26,427 kg,
rounded to the second digit 26,43 kg
990,0 + 26,43 = 1016,43 kg.
Then we determine the costs (consumption) of each type of raw material in solids. To do this, multiply the consumption of raw materials in dry substances for each type of raw material by a factor K, which shows how many times the data of the dry substances of the load must be increased in order to get an expense on 1 t.
To find the ratio of expenses found by dividing the total by dry substances (1016,43) in the total of the dry substances are loaded (100,39)
to = 1016,43 / 100,39 = 10,12481.
Consequently, the consumption of raw materials in the 1 g dry matter will be equal to:
39,91 icing sugar * kg of dry matter by loading x 10,12481 = 404,38 ** kg
cocoa liquor 19,40 * kg dry matter load x 10,12481 = 196 42 ** kg
cocoa butter 4,0 * kg dry matter load X 10,12481 = 40,50 ** kg
roasted almonds 37,05 * kg of dry matter by loading x 10,12481 = 375,13 ** kg
Vanilla essence - no solids
* Figures are from c. 4. Table. 198.
** Data refer to c. 6. Table. 198,
Next, you need to determine the consumption of each type of raw materials in kind at 1 tons of products. To do this, the data obtained (gr. 6) is converted to nature in accordance with the content of dry substances in each type of raw material.
99,85% -404,38 kg
100,0% —- x
X = 404,38 * 100 / 99,85 = 404,99 kg (gr. 5)
X = 196,42 * 100 / 97 = 202,49 kg (gr. 5)
X = 40,50 * 100 / 100 = 40,50 kg (gr. 5)
X = 375,13 * 100 / 97,5 = 384,75 kg (gr. 5)
Vanilla essence does not contain dry substances and is calculated with the same coefficient by nature 0,3 • 10,12481 = 3,04 (gr. 5).
Summarize consumption for certain types of raw materials in nature, it is equal to 1035,77 (a total of c. 5)
The calculation is finished formulation.
Consumption of fried almonds converted raw kernel using standard raw core flow on 1 t roast, t. E. 1053 kg
384,75 * 1053 / 1000,0 = 405,1 kg.
Example of calculating a complex recipe of caramel with a double filling on 1 g (nezavernutoy)
Caramel Dolly (formulation number 124)
To calculate the following data are known.
1. The phases of manufacturing caramel
- Cooking caramel mass.
- Preparation of chocolate-praline filling. Preparation (roasting) hazelnut kernels.
- Cooking apple filling.
- Cutting and forming caramel.
2. Formulation according to actual production phases downloading
The recipe of caramel mass (to the load) in kg
Vanilla essence (added when cutting) 1,12
Recipe chocolate praline filling (per load) in kg
Powdered sugar 106
Cocoa liquor 33,4
Roasted hazel kernels 102,6
Essence of vanilla 0,48
Roasting hazelnut kernels
There is a similar phase in standardized formulations.
The recipe apple filling (to load) in kg
Granulated sugar 120
Apple sauce 123
Lactic acid 4,25
Apple essence 0,85
(Added when cutting)
Caramel recipe for cutting (for loading) in kg
Caramel mass 20,0
Chocolate-praline filling 4,83
Apple filling 5,43
3. The solids content in the feed in%
Sugar and powdered sugar 99,85
The cocoa mass 97,0
Raw hazelnut kernel 94,0
Roasted hazelnut kernel 97,5
Apple sauce 9,50
Lactic acid 40,0
Vanilla essence 0
Apple essence 0
In cases where the dry matter content of the raw materials used deviates from those established in the unified compilation, it is necessary to recalculate and bring them to the data of the unified compilation. (In this case, apple puree).
4. The solids content in the semi-finished and finished caramel%
Apple filling 84
Chocolate-praline filling - 98,46
Caramel mass 93
The standard of caramel physico-chemical parameters checked
a) the content of the filling (GOST 6477-53 on the wrapped candy at least 33%)
the amount of the filling is multiplied by 100 and divided by the number of the filling plus the caramel mass
=(4,83+5,43)*100/(10,26+20,00)=33,9% = 33%
Consequently, caramel stuffing on standard
b) we compare the moisture indicators of the filling and the caramel mass with the requirement of GOST, as well as other physico-chemical parameters.
5. Per phase loss on dry substance of the recipes
a) when cooking caramel mass:
(988,91 -980) 100 / 988.91 0,9% =.
b) the preparation of chocolate-praline filling:
(998,58 - 984,6) * 100 / 998,58 = 1,4%;
c) on the bulkhead and roasted hazelnut kernels:
(989,82-975)*100/989,82 = 1,5%;
g) to prepare the apple filling:
(847,63-840)*100/847,63 = 0,9%;
d) for cutting and forming of caramel:
(958,48 - 955,6) * 100 / 958,48 = 0,2,%.
6. Total loss of dry matter
The loss of dry matter in the total consumption of raw materials to finished products 1 t be taken from the recipe for this group of caramel, which make up for the calculated grade 1,93%.
Getting to the calculation of recipes on 1 t ready caramel, starting with the last phase, t. E, with cutting and forming.
For convenience of calculation, the available data on the recipe on the cutting placed in the table. 199. Gr. 2 and 3 are filled from the available data to the calculation, and gr. 4 by multiplying the consumption in kind for certain types of raw materials (gr. 3) by the corresponding percentage of solids (gr. 2).
Determine the yield of the product at this phase in dry matter, taking into account the established losses on the cutting (0,3%), that is, 28,92 (100 — 0,3) = 28,83 kg, which will correspond to the output in kind 30,17 kg = (28.83-100 / 95,55. The consumption for 1 t of finished caramel (gr. 5) is found by multiplying the data of gr. 3 by the conversion factor, which is defined as the ratio of 1 t of the finished, caramel output to the load output.
K = 1000 / 30,17 = 33,14551
(Method of calculating from nature dry substance).
199 Table. The calculation of multiphase formulations caramel
|Name of raw materials and semi-finished products||The solids content in%||Loading charge in kg||Consumption per hectare of finished caramel 1 kg|
|in dry matter||в
|in dry matter|
|Chocolate praline filling||98,46||4,83||4,76||160||157,54|
Consumption in the caramel mass 1 t caramel be 20-33,14551 = 662,91 kg (rounded 663 kg);
fillings: chocolate-praline 4,83 * 33,14551 = 160,09 kg (rounded 160 kg);
malic 5.43 * 33,14551 = 180,09 (rounded 180 kg).
In formulations on separate phases, the consumption for 1 t for ease of use in practical calculations is rounded off without significant influence on the total.
C. 6 filled by multiplying the data c. 5 a percentage of dry matter (c. 2).
The correctness of the calculation is verified as follows.
The total obtained by summing the individual terms gr. 6 (958,48), should be compared with the digit obtained by multiplying 1003 by 0,9556, equal to 958,47. You should take 958,48, since the excess on 0,01 is the result of rounding when multiplying individual terms.
We produce validation counting raw material costs in the dry matter at 1 t caramel with losses amounting to 0,3%:
955,6 * 100 / (100 -0,3) = 958,48 kg.
Therefore, the calculation is done correctly.
We turn to the calculation of raw materials for the preparation of caramel mass consumed on 1 tons of finished caramel in the amount of 663 kg.
In the same way as in the previous calculation, we compile a table for the convenience of placing digital material (Table 200), '.
200 Table. Calculation of recipes in the caramel mass
|Name of raw materials and semi-finished products||ST in%||Loading charge in kg||Consumption 1 t phase||Consumption per ton of finished caramel 1|
|actually||in dry matter||actually||in dry matter||actually||in dry matter|
|Caramel recipe||In 663 kg|
|a) Cooking caramel mass|
|b) Adding at cutting|
Gr. 2 and 3 are filled with available data, and gr. 4 data multiplication c. 3 on the percentage of dry matter (gr. 2).
Count the total of solids, it is equal to 555,4 kg.
Determine the yield in dry substances, knowing that the loss of this phase are 0,9%:
555,4 * 99,1 / 100 = 550,4 kg.
Determine the output in kind when the content of dry matter in the caramel mass 98%:
550,4 * 100 / 98 = 561,68 kg.
We proceed to the calculation of costs for raw materials 1 t phase, which we find the scaling factor, which is the ratio of total solids content at t 1 phase (980 kg) to a dry matter content output for downloading (550,4 kg):
980,0 / 550,4 = 1,78053.
(The conversion factor can also be found by the previously specified method).
Next, we multiply the figures by a factor of c. 4 and stores them in the c. 6.
Sugar 399,4 * 1,78053 = 711.15 kg
Molasses 156,0 * 1,78053 = 277,76 kg
Total 988,91 kg
We check the correctness of the obtained dry matter losses (in%) in our calculation
988,91 — 980,0 = 8,91
8,91 100 * / = 985,91 0,9%.
Therefore, the calculation is done correctly.