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Confectionery Industry Technology

Gingerbread dough

Gingerbread. The preparation of the gingerbread dough consists in obtaining a homogeneous mass from a uniformly distributed raw material, a viscous consistency.
Depending on the technological mode prepared two main types of tests: raw and brewing.
The raw gingerbread dough contains sugar to 57% (flour weight), which greatly limits the swelling of gluten.

Raw gingerbread dough, cooked on a normal technological regime, should be loose, viscous and slightly blurred when baking. A typical formulation is given in Table gingerbread. 24.
Raw provided formulation was charged into a kneader in the following: sugar, water, zhzhenka, honey, glucose syrup, invert syrup, egg products, essence, perfumes dry, baking soda, ammonium carbonate, flour.
All raw materials without chemical flour and baking powder mixed in the course of one to two minutes in a kneader at a speed 12-14 per minute, and then add the baking powder ,.
dissolved in water, and the last thing - the flour. Mixing time is reduced to a minimum, sufficient to form a homogeneous composition by weight (8-12 minutes).
Studies conducted by the Laboratory of biscuit VKNII together with a factory "Bolshevik", showed that the humidity and temperature of the test have an impact on the test structure and the quality of gingerbread. At low moisture dough cakes obtained peobtekaemoy form, and at high humidity and blur have low lift.
Optimum dough humidity must be within 23,5- 25,5%, the optimum temperature of the dough kneading - about 20 °; however feedstock temperature, including water, must be no greater than 20 °.
Semi-finished products obtained by heating (zhzhenka, invert sugar and syrups) should be pre-cooled before 20 °.
Using the machine for mixing raw dough should not be carried away by their capacity; dough harvested for future use at elevated room temperature, may be delayed, that is. e. become stringy, rezinoobraznym and raw carrots lose the looseness and the ability to quickly get wet. Best masticator for raw dough - universal capacity to 150 kg flour.
The quality of raw carrots positively affects the use of partial welding flour. Studies have shown that in applying the welding flour in an amount 25% in sugar-molasses or sugar-honey syrup can obtain products with a large volume and a smaller bulk density, ie. E. A higher porosity, compared with products prepared without welding flour.
The use of invert sugar syrup instead of kneading raw dough due invert hygroscopicity affects the preservation of freshness, and hence commodity stick qualities over a long time.
Gingerbread dough brewing.
Preparation for the test gingerbreads consists of three phases: the brewing of flour, kneading and cooling welding welding with all the other raw materials.
Depending on the variety brewing flour cakes produced in sugar and honey, sugar, honey and molasses or sugar-treacle syrup (Table. 24).
a) Welding. The outdoor cooking steam boiler charged sugar, honey and water and heated with stirring to 107 ° C. Bring to a higher temperature should not be so as honey will burn and be colored in an ugly brown color.
In the same way prepare the sugar-honey-molasses or sugar-treacle syrup.
Melting syrups ends upon reaching said temperature, which corresponds 38-40 ° C density; syrup is poured through the sieve into a kneader and cooled to 65-85 ° C and gradually added to the flour work feed kneader.
Choux pastry is mixed during 10-15 in minutes
drum kneader with the number 12-14 rpm. You can use this for a universal kneader with Z-shaped blades. Dough, a stirred uniformly and without lumps and other trace nepromesa must have a temperature 53-57 ° and humidity within 19-20%.
VKPII Studies have shown that the conditions for preparing the welding - syrup temperature, humidity and welding mixing time - no impact on the quality cakes in if welding is conducted at a temperature not lower syrup 65 °, and the kneading time is sufficient to obtain a stirred uniformly test.
Table 24

name of raw materials Unit Raw mint cake Raw Moscow gingerbread Custard "Honey"
Wheat flour I grade. kg 100 100 100
Flour for signature kg 7,8 7,8 7,8
Honey.  kg 20 50
Granulated sugar  kg 62 46 . 30,0
flow kg 5,5
Melange. л 6,5
Margarine kg 5 12
Soda  kg 0,3 0,3
ammonium  kg 0,9 0,9 0,8
sachet  kg 0,4 0,6
peppermint oil kg 0,05
Zhzhenka kg 2
Sugar to glaze  kg 17 18
Vegetable oil . kg 0,5

b) Cooling of welding. Choux dough transported in special pohmeschenie where supported 10-20 temperature ° and folded in GEL with collapsible walls or metal trays. The individual layers of dough pour the flour, so they are not merged into a monolithic mass. Instead, you can use flour milled crumb or vegetable oil. Choux pastry is kept in a room as long as it is completely cooled before 25-27 °, which takes 10-15 days.
Choux dough can be cooled in a kneader with double jacket through which passes tap water. In this case, the kneading machine used for welding flour and subsequent cooling of choux pastry. This method has significant advantages due to the fact that it is possible to create a precise process of preparation of choux pastry and eliminates the need to have specially adapted premises and equipment for the cooling test.
In the practice of factories shelf life custard gingerbread dough, until recently, it was calculated for months and even years. It was believed that when left for mature palatability choux dough improved.
The processes taking place in the test during the maturing this mass, and the impact of these processes on the quality of products, until recently, been poorly understood.
According A. I. Smirnovoy, the amount of crude and dry gluten is increased by the second day of maturing, and then gradually decreases; invert sugar, water-soluble substances and the acidity increases as maturing this mass test.
test quality while maturing this mass changed: gluten from supple and light turned into a less cohesive and darker, the dough became loosened, with regular and large pores.
In this work we were not paying attention to protein-proteinase complex, with the exception of individual observations of the quality of gluten. In addition, the observation of changes in the test were carried out during the maturing this mass in a very short period of time (two months), it is not possible to make a sufficiently strong conclusions.
Processes occurring in maturing this mass choux pastry gingerbread detail have been studied in recent years VKNII workers and factory "Bolshevik".
Choux dough was kept at different temperatures to 16 months; during this period were studied changes and protein-proteinase complex carbohydrate-amylase and the impact of these changes on product quality.
It was found that during the test maturing occurring biochemical processes related to the activity of enzymes to be made mostly of flour.
Thus, the observed, though not in all test samples, increasing the amount of water-soluble nitrogen and total nitrogen are not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid in the first storage test days, indicating that it is happening in the enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins.
However, if further storage test in all the samples indicated a slight decrease in the amount of nitrogen that may be due to protein synthesis reversible proteolytic enzymes and redox conditions of the environment change towards oxidation.
Annunciation and Yurgenson exploring the mechanism of the reaction correcting defective gluten by the action of oxidizing agents, have also observed that the use of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase is synthetic reaction lead to reducing the amount of free amino nitrogen and increasing the amount of nitrogen substances precipitated by trichloroacetic acid.
During the baking process, a small increase in the amount of invert sugar (up to 3%) is observed. An explanation for this is to be found in the fact that a brewed gingerbread with a high sugar content and low humidity is a little available substrate for the action of amylolytic enzymes.
The lack of optimal conditions for the vital activity of enzymes causes a slight change in proteins during the doughing process, and therefore the addition of reducing agents (yeast water) and oxidants (potassium bromate) to the dough did not affect the character and intensity of protein changes.
In addition, it was observed that the brewed gingerbread cookies possess a strong honey aroma, if buckwheat honey is used, and very weak, if the lime is used. During the baking of the dough, the honey aroma in it is greatly enhanced in the first case and varies very little in the second case.
The main conclusion to which the authors come from, based on their experimental data, is that the quality of the brewed gingerbread (volume, bulk weight, porosity, shape) does not vary appreciably depending on the doughing. Biochemical processes that take place, to an insignificant degree, however, do not influence the quality of products in the custard during the vyle.
These findings are confirmed by a "blind" tasting, in which gingerbread cooked from a fresh custard, received the same evaluation as gingerbread cooked from a dough stored 16 months.
Vlezhka dough was used for the first time because of the need to procure it for future use to meet consumer demand, especially on the eve of holidays.
This conclusion is of great practical importance for the solution of the problem of creating a continuous process of cooking custard cakes.
C) Kneading the dough. In the drum or universal kneading machine, refrigerated brewing and all other raw materials provided by the recipe are loaded, and lastly - chemical disintegrants dissolved in water, and let the machine run. If the brewing is cooled directly in the kneading machine, the kneading test is carried out as follows: when the test temperature 25-27 ° C is reached add all the remaining raw materials to the machine in the sequence indicated above and continue kneading.
Duration of kneading test from the moment of loading of all raw materials 30 minutes at the speed of the blade blades 18-20 per minute and 60 minutes - with the number of rotations of the blades 12-14 per minute.
The finished dough should have a temperature within 29-30 ° C
And humidity 20-22%. Gingerbreads from dough with lower humidity have an unformulated shape and a slight rise, and with a higher humidity - a vague shape.

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